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Overview of Travel Demand Management Measures: Final Report

Click HERE for graphic.


"Overview of Travel Demand Management Measures" is one of several
planned reports on Travel Demand Management (TDM provided by the Federal
Highway Administration and the Federal Transit Administration.  Other
reports include "Implementing Effective Travel Demand Management
Measures: Inventory of Measures and Synthesis of Experience," and "A
Guidance Manual for Implementing Effective Employer-based Travel Demand
Management Programs." These reports are intended to provide technical
assistance to individuals in the public and private sectors who are
responsible for planning, implementing, operating, and/or monitoring TDM
activities.  The reports serve to help educate on the state-of-the-
practice and guide in the development of TDM programs.

Additional information on TDM may be obtained from:

             The Office of Traffic Management/IVHS (HTV-31)
                     Federal Highway Administration
                         400 Seventh Street, SW
                         Washington, D.C. 20590



               The Office of Mobility Enhancement (TTS-10)
                     Federal Transit Administration
                         400 Seventh Street, SW
                         Washington, D.C. 20590



                         Overview of Travel
                         Demand Management

                         Final Report
                         January 1994

                         Prepared by
                         Comsis Corporation
                         8737 Colesvile Road
                         Silver Spring, Maryland 20910
                         The Institute of Transportation Engineers
                         525 School Street, Suite 410

                         In association with
                         Georgia Institute of Technology
                         K.T. Analytics, Inc.
                         R.H. Pratt, Consultant, Inc.
                         Washington, D.C. 20024-2797

                         Prepared for
                         Federal Highway Administration &
                         Federal Transit Administration
                         U.S. Department of Transportation
                         400 Seventh Street SW
                         Washington, D.C. 20590

                         Distributed in Cooperation with
                         Technology Sharing Program
                         U.S. Department of Transportation
                         Washington, D.C. 20590




                            TABLE OF CONTENTS

   Section                                                        Page  

   Preface    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

   Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

   Overview of Travel Demand Management Measures. . . . . . . . . .1

   Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
   What is Travel Demand Management (TDM)?. . . . . . . . . . . . .1
   TDM Alternatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
   TDM Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
   TDM in Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
   What tan We Expect from a TDM Program? . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
   What Makes a TDM Program Work? Myths and Realities . . . . . . .7
   Other Realities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   How Do We Successfully Implement a TDM Program?. . . . . . . . 10
   Is TDM Worth the Effort? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

   List of Figures                                                Page  

   Figure 1-1 Characteristics of Employer TDM Programs. . . . . . .6

                            Table of Contents



Overview of Travel Demand Management Measures                    Preface

                         PURPOSE OF THIS REPORT

Traffic congestion and the cost of providing mobility are compelling
issues to planners, decision makers and members of both the business
community and the general public. Transportation, and the degree of
efficiency with which it is accomplished, affects us all.  Therefore we
are constantly in search of solutions to our transportation problems
that will give us not only increased mobility, but also greater economic
productivity and a cleaner environment.

In light of these concerns, recent years have shown increased interest
in measures which affect the demand side of the transportation equation. 
Because the resources to continue to meet transportation needs through
infrastructure expansion are strained, and because travel trends suggest
a worsening in the supply/demand balance, it has become necessary to see
if increasing the efficiency of the travel demand itself can contribute
to our efforts to improve mobility.

Travel Demand Management -- or TDM, as it is popularly known --
describes a wide range of actions that are geared toward improving the
efficiency of travel demand. Much has been said, studied, and written
about this subject.  There is much controversy and speculation as to the
strength, role, and validity of TDM solutions. This uncertainty has
probably led to misunderstandings of the role and potential of TDM, and
therefore, a lower yield from TDM approaches than appears to be

This report is the main product of a study that was sponsored by the
Federal Highway Administration, with support from the Federal Transit
Administration and the Institute of Transportation Engineers, to try to
set the facts straight and provide the most comprehensive, accurate and
useable guidance on TDM.  The user will find in this report, and
associated products available through this effort, a set of materials,
statistics, guides and tools that should be of significant value in not
only increasing the basic understanding of what TDM is, but on how to
design and evaluate programs which will deliver the optimal potential
that these strategies can offer.

                                 Preface                        Page - i


Overview of Travel Demand Management Measures                    Preface


This work was sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration and the
Federal Transit Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. 
The principal authors of the report are Richard Kuzmyak, Eric Schreffler
and Lori Diggins of COMSIS Corporation; Michael Meyer of the Georgia
Institute of Technology; Richard H. Pratt, Consultant, and Kiran Bhatt
and Thomas Higgins of K.T. Analytics, Inc.  The authors acknowledge the
support and direction provided by the project sponsors, in particular
Wayne Berman of the Federal Highway Administration, and Joseph Goodman
of the Federal Transit Administration.  The team also acknowledges the
support and participation of the Institute of Transportation Engineers,
and in particular Mark Norman, for their assistance in providing
direction and review for the study products.  The team extends thanks to
members of the ITE Expert Review Panel which performed a comprehensive
review of the report: Brian Bochner; Tad Widby; Peter Fausch; Robert
Dunphey; and Mary MacInnes.  The authors also thank the various
employers and public officials, too numerous to name, who provided
valuable time and information to the findings reported in this report. 
And finally, the team offers thanks to the team of technical and support
specialists who transformed the draft material into a final report.

                                 Preface                       Page - ii


Overview of Travel Demand Management Measures



Transportation systems provide an important service to our community. 
They allow people to move from one location to another.  They provide
the means by which goods can be delivered to almost any location in an
urban area.  And in an increasingly changing world, they connect us as a
city, a region and a nation.

Increasingly, however, the normal day-to-day operation of the
transportation system is becoming a concern to elected officials,
planners, the business community, and residents.  These concerns relate
to many different issues: traffic cutting through neighborhood roads,
congestion on local roads seemingly at all hours of the day, and poor
air quality because of vehicle exhausts.  The underlying phenomenon, of
course, is that many of our communities have experienced tremendous
growth over the past several decades.  And given that much of this
growth has occurred in suburban areas where alternatives to the
automobile are not well established, this growth has caused a
corresponding increase in the number of vehicles using the road network.

For years, the solution to the rising levels of congestion was to build
new and bigger roads.  This encouraged still more growth to occur in
these areas of now higher and better accessibility, which once again
resulted in increased congestion.  Although road improvements will
continue to be an important strategy for providing mobility, many
communities no longer have the financial resources to build many new
roads, would likely face serious environmental problems, and/or
encounter strong public opposition.  In addition, for those urban areas
not in attainment with the federal clean air standards, federal law
places substantial constraints on the type and magnitude of road
expansion that can be undertaken.

In many of these areas, local officials and employers are turning to a
new approach for providing transportation mobility that does not suffer
from these problems-- Travel Demand Management (TOM).


Quite simply, TDM programs are designed to maximize the people-moving
capability of the transportation system by increasing the number of
persons in a vehicle, or by influencing the time of, or need to, travel. 
To accomplish these types of changes, TDM programs must rely on
incentives or disincentives to make these shifts in behavior attractive.

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Overview of Travel Demand Management Measures

The term TDM encompasses both alternatives to driving alone and the
techniques or supporting strategies that encourage the use of these
modes.  The application of such TDM alternatives and the implementation
of supporting strategies can occur at different levels under the
direction of a variety of groups.  Certainly, one level of application
found in many parts of the country is at individual employer sites, or
at locations where there are many employers grouped together.  In this
situation, the employers become the important implementers of the TDM
actions, even though they may be responding to a government mandate to
do so.

      The primary purpose of TDM is to reduce the number of vehicles
      using the road system while providing a wide variety of mobility
      options to those who wish to travel.

Another level of application is on an area-wide basis where government
agencies often direct the initiative.  In this type of application, the
primary focus of the TDM program is to affect as many travelers as
possible within an area-wide travel system.  However, experience has
shown that the effectiveness of area-wide TDM programs depends greatly
on the type and level of participation of employers.  The development of
effective TDM programs therefore should be approached from the
perspective of how public officials and local employers can work
together to meet the goals of providing mobility.


At the level of the employment site, typical TDM alternatives to single
occupant vehicles include:

   -  carpools and vanpools;

   -  public and private transit, including buspools and shuttles;

   -  non-motorized travel, including bicycling and walking.

TDM programs can also include alternatives to influence when travel
occurs during a day, or if it occurs at all on some days.  These
efforts, which are usually classified as "alternative work hours",

   -  compressed work weeks, in which employees work a full 40-hour work
      week in fewer than the typical 5 days; and

   -  flexible work schedules, which allow employees to shift their work

                                                                Page - 2


Overview of Travel Demand Management Measures

      and end times (and thus travel times) to less congested times of
      the day.

A special kind of alternative which influences where work occurs and how
often a trip is made is telecommuting.  Telecommuting programs allow
employees to work one or more days at home or at a "satellite work
center", which is often closer to their homes and thus does not require
a longer trip into the primary work location.

At the area-wide level, most of these same types of TDM alternatives are
applicable.  In addition, public agencies on area-wide concerns can

   -  Service improvements to transit service that provide savings in
      costs and travel time;

   -  Provision of preferential lanes on (or access major roads to those
      roads) serving the area which provide time savings to those using


TDM strategies include improvements in alternative modes of
transportation; financial or time incentives for the use of these
alternative modes; information dissemination and marketing activities to
promote these modes; and supporting services that make the use of
alternatives more convenient or that remove psychological impediments to
their use.  Examples of TDM strategies include:

   -  financial/time incentives, for example preferential parking for
      ridesharers, subsidies for transit riders, and transportation

   -  parking management programs;

   -  priority treatment for ridesharers, for example, provision of
      preferential access and egress to parking lots; and

   -  information and marketing, such as on-site availability of transit
      schedules, periodic prize drawings for ridesharers; and guaranteed
      ride home programs.

   -  Application of site or area-wide cost surcharges or subsidy
      measures designed to make the relative cost of single occupant
      vehicle use higher than that for high occupancy vehicles.

A typical example of area-wide cost surcharges would be parking
surcharges placed on employer and public parking lots that would provide
a differential cost structure for single occupant vehicles versus

                                                                Page - 3


Overview of Travel Demand Management Measures

         TDM programs should be developed within the framework of
         overall planning for an area.


An important consideration for the development of a TDM program is the
relationship between the TDM alternatives under consideration and the
proposed transportation improvements and land use plans for the area. 
In the public eye, traffic congestion is often considered an immediate
problem.  Quite simply, there are too many cars on the road.  The
solutions to this problem include all of the short-term (in relative
terms) actions that were listed above.  These short-term actions are
really aimed at solving the more immediate issue of too many cars in one
place at one time.

Of greater complexity, and perhaps of greater importance to a community,
is the development of longer term congestion avoidance strategies.  Such
strategies necessarily focus on the root of the congestion problem and
try to put in place a program that will preserve the capability of the
transportation system to handle future travel demands.  Congestion
avoidance strategies fall mainly in two major categories-building
significant additional capacity in the transportation system (such as
new freeways or transit lines), and implementing land use/growth
management policies that tie land use densities/designs to
transportation system demand capability.  Tripmaking patterns, volumes,
and modal distributions are largely a function of development patterns. 
Thus, exercising control over the trip generating characteristics of the
land use (e.g., development density) can be used to make the resultant
demand consistent with the existing transportation infrastructure and
the level of service desired.

TDM programs should thus be developed within the framework of overall
planning for an area.  This planning should provide for the most cost
effective transportation system improvements that reduce or alleviate
traffic congestion.  These improvements can include physical expansion
of the highway system or additional transit services, and operational
changes to improve the performance of the existing transportation
system.  It is no surprise that many transportation management
associations (TMAs) have played a critical role in advocating
improvements to the transportation system in their locale.  TMA
officials realize that such improvements, in concert with TDM actions,
are necessary to truly enhance area-wide mobility.

The planning should also explicitly consider long-run congestion-
avoidance strategies.  This means that there needs to be some concern
for future land use/development patterns and their impact on travel.

                                                                Page - 4


Overview of Travel Demand Management Measures

Taken from this broad perspective, the development of the TDM program
should be viewed as consisting of complementary actions.  For example, a
ridesharing program (an effort to influence demand) can become more
effective if some form of preferential treatment is provided enroute
(e.g., a high occupancy vehicle lane) or at the destination (e.g.,
preferential parking), both changes to the transportation system.  The
effectiveness of the ridesharing program could be enhanced even further
if developments were required to incorporate enhanced ridesharing
activities into their design and use (a land use/development decision). 
A truly effective TDM program must consider how each TDM alternative and
strategy complements one another.

Providing mobility in such a context thus may require, 1) innovation, 2)
coordination including the participation of numerous groups, and 3) a
short- and long-term perspective.


With the right mix of TDM alternatives and strategies, a TDM program at
individual employment sites can be very effective, reducing vehicle
trips by as much as 30 to 40 percent in relation to background
conditions.  TDM programs for individual sites can be tailored to
worksite characteristics, market demographics, and tripmaking patterns. 
Information dissemination can be targeted to a well-defined set of
employees, and a corporate "culture" can be created that reinforces the
TDM message.  However, experience has shown that effective TDM employer
programs usually employ a wide variety of TDM alternatives and
strategies, each mutually supporting the overall objective of trip
reduction.  Figure 1 -1 shows the trip reduction results from several
TDM applications around the country.  As can be seen in this Figure, the
results vary from one location to another.  However, in each case
employers implemented at least one strategy that reinforced the TDM
alternatives that were available to employees.

         Effective TDM employer programs usually employ a wide variety
         of TDM alternatives and strategies, each mutually supporting
         the overall objective of trip reduction.

Area-wide TDM programs are not likely to produce the levels of vehicle
trip reduction shown in Figure 1-1 simply because there are a variety of
travel segments using the transportation system, not all of which will
be affected by the TDM initiatives.  The target of TDM programs are
generally work trips made by employees travelling to employment sites
within the subject area.  In area-wide TDM applicants, however, a more
diverse group of travelers is traveling to a wide variety of locations
at many different times.  Not only are the travelers targeted by the TDM
program using the roads, but so too are travelers passing through the
area and also non-work travelers plus goods/freight movements.  Traffic
volumes related to these other travelers could increase while the
volumes associated with the TDM markets decrease, which at the

                                                                Page - 5


Overview of Travel Demand Management Measures

Click HERE for graphic.

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Overview of Travel Demand Management Measures

area-wide scale could mean very little impact on congested
transportation facilities.  It is clear though that area-wide mandates
for trip reduction are important for stimulating employer trip reduction
programs.  At this level of application, and with realistic levels of
effort, one could expect between a 4 percent to 8 percent net reduction
in vehicle trips.

Another perspective on the potential impact of TDM is the level of cost
effectiveness associated with a TDM program.  Accommodating travel
demand through means other than single occupant vehicles can result in
cost savings to three major TDM stakeholders--society at large,
employers, and individual travelers.

The cost to society is in essence the cost of accommodating an
additional single occupant vehicle commute trip on a crowded highway
network.  This cost is estimated to be $6.75 per daily one-way 10.5 mile
trip ($13.50 per day).  If this trip is instead handled by transit, the
cost to society would be $4.10 for a trip of the same length.  For a
carpool, the public cost would fall to $2.70 per trip; and for a vanpool
the cost would be $0.56 per trip.  Clearly, the savings to society of
high occupancy vehicle use can be substantial.

To the employer, the costs of a TDM program can be quite favorable.  The
average direct cost to the 22 employers studied in this project to
reduce a one-way vehicle trip was $1.33. The net cost for the employer
sample, considering parking spaces foregone and other savings to the
employer, was a savings of $0.43 per one-way trip for every vehicle trip
reduced.  To the individual traveler, the cost savings can also be
dramatic.  Ignoring the value of time that might be saved through
preferential treatment of ridesharers, the costs of using high occupancy
vehicles are shared across more individuals using that form of
transportation.  Thus, for example, the cost of a van pool with 12
occupants, which includes gas, parking, and wear/tear on the vehicle, is
shared by the 12 occupants, so the direct cost of travel is less than
that associated with the use of a single occupant vehicle.

The implication of these cost figures is that society, employers, and
individuals are all paying much more than they need to have a good level
of mobility.


Evaluation of TDM programs around the country provide a wide range of
trip reduction results.  Some employers are achieving a trip reduction
of over 40 percent, while other efforts with similar levels of
management commitment have produced trip reductions less than 1 0
percent.  Why is there a difference?  Importantly, is there evidence to
suggest that some factors are more important than others in producing
worthwhile trip reductions?  The following are the myths and realities
associated with

                                                                Page - 7


Overview of Travel Demand Management Measures

TDM programs.

MYTH 1:  " Large firms have an easier time implementing successful TDM

Reality: Although larger firms do often have significant resources that
         can be assigned to make a TDM program a success, there is no
         clear evidence that smaller companies have any greater
         difficulty.  In the cases reviewed for this project, some of
         the smaller firms had more successful TDM programs than the
         larger firms.

MYTH 2:  "Employer support measures such as rideshare matching,
         guaranteed ride home, transportation coordinators, are all I
         have to do to produce trip reductions."

Reality: Although employer support measures are very important in
         supporting TDM alternatives, they are not instruments that, in
         themselves, actually change behavior.  A truly effective TDM
         program is one that provides alternatives to the traveler and
         then reinforces the TDM travel decision by implementing
         incentives and disincentives that are clearly perceived by the
         individual making the decision to travel.

MYTH 3:  "TDM success is directly related to the type of land use
         conditions and transit services available to an employer at the
         employment site."

Reality: Having good transit service that already serves a site that
         experiences severe parking shortages could very well make it
         easier to reduce single occupant vehicle use.       However,
         the measure of TDM program effectiveness is the level of trip
         reduction in relation to what is normal for that site.  Thus,
         for example, a site could have the worst situation for trip
         reduction -- a heavily suburban area, no transit, and unlimited
         parking -- and still have a successful TDM program relative to
         its peers.  In this case, the percent reduction in vehicle
         tripmaking would be more important than its modal split.

MYTH 4:  "Let's put a transit line to our site, and our problems will be

Reality: Where current, good transit service exists to a site, and the
         TDM program capitalizes on that opportunity by providing
         transit incentives to potential users, experience indicates
         that the transit service plays a key role in meeting TDM
         objectives.  However, in those locations where transit
         currently is not a viable option (e.g., in many suburban
         locations), providing such service and developing support
         strategies has not been effective in

                                                                Page - 8


Overview of Travel Demand Management Measures

         attracting large numbers of drivers.

MYTH 5: "Vanpool programs are the bread and butter of our TDM program."

Reality: For many years, the premier TDM alternative offered by' many
         employers was a subsidized vanpool program.  And the experience
         with these programs has been positive.  Those firms developing
         serious programs have been able to place a substantial number
         of their employees in vanpools.  However, a vanpool program by
         itself often does not provide substantial overall trip
         reduction.  Some of the best examples of effective vanpool
         programs in the country also have the lowest overall trip
         reduction performance and the highest unit costs, simply
         because employers placed so much emphasis on this one

MYTH 6:  "We can flex or telecommute our way out of the problem."

Reality: It all depends.  Flexible work hour programs can be a benefit
         or liability to a TDM program.  If the TDM target is to reduce
         peak hour congestion, removing vehicles from this peak hour
         through alternative work hour programs will be successful.  If,
         however, the intent is to reduce total trips or vehicle miles
         (such as might be the case with air quality requirements), then
         alternative work hour programs might be counterproductive.  In
         addition, flexible work hours have been found to make
         ridesharing arrangements more difficult.  The same can be said
         about telecommuting.  Certainly, telecommuting will reduce peak
         hour trip making.  But there is some evidence to suggest that
         more trips are made during the day when the employee is at

MYTH 7:  "Carpooling is insignificant when compared to vanpools or

Reality: Carpooling tends to offer modest gains in terms of vehicle
         occupancy relative to vanpooling or transit.  In essence, it
         takes more carpools to reach the same level of trip reduction
         that can be achieved through higher occupancy means.  However,
         the results of this study indicate that a carpooling program is
         a common element of successful TDM programs.  The employers who
         thoughtfully incorporated and meaningfully encouraged
         carpooling, among their more 'colorful" options, consistently
         ranked highest in overall trip reduction.  The reason for this
         is that carpooling appeals to market segments that rely most
         heavily on vehicle, characteristics of the single occupant
         vehicle, e.g., door-to-door convenience, relaxing environment,
         and commitment to schedule.

                                                                Page - 9


Overview of Travel Demand Management Measures


The myths presented above are often heard in discussions that precede
the creation of a TDM program.  They are often founded on what is
considered common sense or relate to information that is dated.  There
are other, perhaps more important, realities that have surfaced from
this study that have not been subject to such myths.  As such, they
represent characteristics of TDM programs that are essential for
achieving significant trip reductions.

Parking Management: Parking price and availability is a critical
consideration in a traveler's decision on how to make la trip.  In those
situations where parking is unrestricted, efforts to coax travelers out
of single occupant cars are difficult.  Those sites with the best TDM
program results are those where parking is restricted or managed in some
way.  Applying a surcharge for parking on top of restricting parking
availability is a sure means of influencing the choice of travel mode. 
And revenues derived from these fees can be used to support the TDM

Subsidies:  The vast majority of effective TDM programs in this study
provided some sort of subsidy to those who did not drive alone.  The
most common measures included discounted or free parking for ridesharers
and providing subsidies for transit passes.  In one of the best examples
of the impact of subsidies, one of the study sites which was located in
a heavily suburban area, with no transit service, and abundant parking
achieved a 30 percent trip reduction through progressive daily subsidies
to ridesharers.

Legal Requirement In many cases, the best examples of effective TDM
programs are found in those jurisdictions that require trip reduction
programs to be in place.  The use of such a requirement is a good
example of the interaction of the public sector responsibility for
transportation system performance and the employer-based role in working
with the public sector to further system performance objectives. 
However, the most effective legal requirement is one that is fairly
specific on what targets are to be reached, probably provides guidance
on measures to reach the target, and has some form of
monitoring/enforcement mechanism built into it.



The traditional way of beginning a TDM program is to examine the many
different forms of organization that can be used to formalize or
consolidate a TDM initiative.  The TDM program for an area thus is the
product of whatever organizational structure is put in place.  What
happens in such situations is that TDM program development

                                                               Page - 10


Overview of Travel Demand Management Measures

becomes subject to a wide variety of concerns and pressures that tend to
limit the actual program options to those not having much of an impact. 
This is an unfortunate circumstance for TDM proponents because when a
TDM program that is designed not to do much does not have great success
in trip reduction, the logical conclusion is that TDM does not work.

         When a TDM program is designed to provide time or financial
         advantages to the commuter, fewer people will drive alone
         during the peak.  When such advantages are not provided, the
         program will not accomplish much.

A better approach to implementation is to drive the process by
information.  There needs to be a good understanding of what the problem
is and what travel markets can be targeted for "solving" this problem. 
Decisions can then be made on what TDM alternatives and strategies need
to be put in place, and importantly what mechanisms are required for
their implementation.

This process can be best described in the following steps.

(1)   Determine the true nature and severity of your problem.

(2)   Assess where current transportation program plans are likely to
      lead you in resolving these problems and identify shortfalls where
      TDM strategies could be appropriate.

(3)   Using information, explore a range of TDM options available to you
      and assess the impact they will have on your transportation
      problem, with little concern at this point whether they are

(4)   Study the tradeoffs among the different alternative approaches
      regarding cost, timing, impact and other criteria important to
      local decision makers.  Decide which TDM measures would be most
      effective to implement.

(5)   Decide what mechanisms you will need to implement your chosen

It seems clear that areas interested in TDM could be approaching the
task of TDM program development from different starting points.  Some
areas have a good understanding of the nature and severity of the
problem.  Others do not.  Some planning agencies already know what
portion of the problem will be handled by proposed projects.  Others do
not.  The proposed process suggested above therefore should be
considered a general guide, with the specific steps that need to be

                                                               Page - 11


Overview of Travel Demand Management Measures

determined very early in the process.


Because by their very nature of trying to change human behavior, many
travel demand management strategies are very often difficult to
implement.  Successful designs of TDM programs call for combinations
of actions and action strategies.  In addition, employer, employee and
public agency participation is deemed critical to overall success.  In
most cases, the success of these actions relate to the fine level of
attention paid to the details of implementation.  Who were the
constituencies most likely to support the strategy?  What advantages
will private employers see to their participation?  How do we obtain
top management commitment to demand management?  How do we put
together the private sector and public official coalition that is
necessary for progress?  These and many more issues often need to be
addressed before TDM strategies and programs are implemented.

The key to a successful TDM program is therefore an effective
implementation strategy.  The best TDM plan will go nowhere unless
great thought has been given to what steps need to be taken by whom. 
Success in putting together effective TDM programs lies in developing
four basic ingredients--commitment, constituency, coordination and
constituency.  The development of the implementation strategy could
very well lead to serious considerations of new institutional
arrangements (e.g., management associations) and new financial
mechanisms (impact fees) designed to fund TDM.  Importantly, unless
the area-wide or employment site TDM officials continue to monitor,
assess, and adjust the program, it is likely that program
effectiveness will decline.

      Success in putting together effective TDM programs lies in
      developing four basic ingredients--commitment, constituency
      coordination, and continuity.

Experience with TDM programs throughout the U.S. has indicated that
there are three major areas where obstacles to implementation seem to
arise: motivation, empowerment, and perceptions.  Each of these is
discussed below.

Motivation: TDM actions often represent substantial change from
existing norms of behavior.  This change could occur in organizational
philosophy, approaches to finance, the process of decision-making on
land use, infrastructure or transportation

                                                             Page - 12

Overview of Travel Demand Management Measures

service provision, and, most fundamentally, in individuals' travel
behavior.  Change is often difficult to achieve.  And thus, some form
of motivation is necessary to achieve or implement change.  With
relation to TDM this change might focus on the developer to design a
project that is conducive to TDM; the employer to find alternative
ways for employees to travel to work or to locate in an area where
employees will have the best travel and housing options; the
individual traveler to consider using an alternative to driving alone;
and the household to take advantage of residential locations that
minimize commute distances and maximize availability of alternatives.

At its most basic level, the motivation for TDM participation is
primarily one of self benefit.  By implementing a TDM program, will
the participants meet the requirements of a state or local statute and
thus avoid the sanctions and/or embarrassment of noncompliance?  Or,
will the TDM program greatly ease the congestion problem in an area
and thus make the commute easier?  Or, by encouraging multi-occupant
vehicle commutes, can the capital or leasing expense of future parking
expansion be avoided?

No matter what the reason(s), the participants in a TDM program must
be motivated to participate.  The key challenge to those who are the
initiators of the TDM program must be to motivate other participants
to join the program.  To do this, one must ask what is likely to
motivate participation?  What services are to be provided to
participants that they might feel are beneficial?  Or, what negative
implications of nonaction need to be emphasized to convince possible

Private employers and corporate managers are key participants of TDM
programs.  Because the organizational culture of these participants is
based on responding to top management direction, the successful
inclusion of these participants in a TDM program requires that top
management be committed to the program.  Often, meetings are held
early in the formulation stage to simply enlist top corporate support
for TDM programs.  The importance of these meetings thus rests in
convincing corporate leaders of the importance of their participation
and in sending this message to those subsequently responsible for
implementing individual corporate elements of the program.  The
corporate leaders must be able to determine clearly what benefits will
accrue to their company by participating in the program.  In other
words, they must be motivated.  And, as the TDM program evolves over
time, this motivation might change.  For example, corporate leaders
located in a high growth, congested area might enthusiastically
endorse a transportation management association that is primarily
involved in ridesharing activities.  However, as congestion lessens or

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