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Aeronautical Decision Making

                              ADVISORY CIRCULAR

        AC No:  60-22

         Date:  December 13, 1991

           by:  AFS-820


      1.  PURPOSE.  This Advisory Circular (AC) provides introductory
      material, background information, and reference material on
      Aeronautical Decision Making (ADM).  The material in this AC
      provides a systematic approach to risk assessment and stress
      management in aviation, illustrates how personal attitudes can
      influence decision making and how those attitudes can be modified
      to enhance safety in the cockpit.  This AC also provides
      instructors with methods for teaching ADM techniques and skills
      in conjunction with conventional flight instruction.  However,
      this AC is not intended to replace the complete body of knowledge
      contained in the ADM related reference materials listed in
      paragraph 4, but rather to support them and to serve as a
      catalyst for further study.

      2.  APPLICATION.  The material contained in this AC is applicable
      to pilots who operate airplanes or helicopters under Federal
      Aviation Regulations (FAR) Parts 61, 91, 121, 125, 133, 135, and

      3.  FOCUS.  This AC is designed to explain the risks associated
      with aviation activities to pilots.  Underlying behavioral causes
      of typical accidents and the effects of stress on ADM are
      emphasized.  These materials provide a means for an individual to
      develop an "Attitude Profile" through a self-assessment inventory
      and provide detailed explanations of preflight and in-flight
      stress management techniques.  The assumption is that persons
      exposed to these behavioral techniques will develop a positive
      attitude toward safety and learn ways to manage stress while
      recognizing and avoiding unnecessary risk.  This AC is a learning
      tool that will help enable a person to make an intelligent
      determination as to the risk involved before beginning a flight.
      It is intended that the reader recognize risk factors such as
      weather, weight and balance, recency of experience, environment,
      and cockpit stress management so as to deal effectively with

      4.  RELATED REFERENCE MATERIAL.  Twelve years of ADM research,


      development, and testing culminated in 1987 with the publication
      of six manuals oriented to the decision making needs of variously
      rated pilots. These manuals provide multifaceted materials
      designed to reduce the number of decision related accidents (the
      type of accidents which account for 52 percent of fatal general
      aviation pilot error accidents).  The effectiveness of these
      materials has been validated in six independent studies where
      student pilots received such training in conjunction with the
      standard flying curriculum.  When tested, the pilots who had
      received ADM training made fewer in-flight errors than those who
      had not received ADM training.  The differences were
      statistically significant and ranged from about 10 to 50 percent
      fewer judgment errors.  In the operational environment, an
      operator flying about 400,000 hours annually demonstrated a 54
      percent reduction in accident rate after using these materials
      for recurrency training.  For detailed information regarding
      exposure to risk assessment, stress management, interpersonal
      crew coordination and communication, and other ADM techniques,
      the reader is directed to one or more of the manuals which may be
      obtained from National Technical Information Service.

           a.  Published Documents.  (Price of individual documents is
      subject to change without notice.)

      Report Number            Title

      DOT/FAA/PM-86/41         Aeronautical Decision
                               Making for Student and
                               Private Pilots.  NTIS
                               identification number
                               ADA182549, price

      DOT/FAA/PM-86/42         Aeronautical Decision
                               Making for Commercial
                               Pilots.  NTIS
                               identification number
                               ADA198772, price

      DOT/FAA/PM-86/43         Aeronautical Decision
                               Making for Instrument
                               Pilots.  NTIS
                               identification number
                               N8724880, price $17.00.

      DOT/FAA/PM-86/44         Aeronautical Decision
                               Making for Instructor


                               Pilots (how to teach
                               ADM).  NTIS
                               identification number
                               ADA182611, price

      DOT/FAA/PM-86/45         Aeronautical Decision
                               Making for Helicopter
                               Pilots.  NTIS
                               identification number
                               ADA180325, price

      Report Number            Title

      DOT/FAA/PM-86/46         Aeronautical Decision
                               Making  -  Cockpit
                               Resource Management.
                               NTIS Identification
                               number ADA205115,
                               price $23.00.

           b.  Any of the series of ADM training manuals may be
      obtained by writing or calling:

      Mailing Address:  National Technical
                        Information Service
                        5285 Port Royal Road
                        Springfield, Virginia 22161

      Telephone:     (703)487-4650 (orders)
                     (800)336-4700 (rush orders only)
                     (703)478-4780 (title identification

      5.  DEFINITIONS.

           a.  ADM is a systematic approach to the mental process used
      by aircraft pilots to consistently determine the best course of
      action in response to a given set of circumstances.

           b.  Attitude is a personal motivational predisposition to
      respond to persons, situations, or events in a given manner that
      can, nevertheless, be changed or modified through training.  A
      sort of mental shortcut to decision making.

           c.  Attitude Management is the ability to recognize
      hazardous attitudes in oneself and the willingness to modify them


      as necessary through the application of an appropriate antidote

           d.  Cockpit Resource Management, (CRM), in multiperson crew
      configurations, is the effect use of all personnel and material
      assets available to a flight crew.  CRM emphasizes good
      communication and other interpersonal relationship skills.

           e.  Headwork is required to accomplish a conscious, rational
      thought process when making decisions.  Good decision making
      involves risk identification and assessment, information
      processing, and problem solving.

           f.  Judgment is the mental process of recognizing and
      analyzing all pertinent information in a particular situation, a
      rational evaluation of alternative actions in response to it, and
      a timely decision on which action to take.

           g.  Personality is the embodiment of personal traits and
      characteristics of an individual that are set at a very early age
      and extremely resistant to change.

           h.  Poor Judgment (PJ) Chain is a series of mistakes that
      may lead to an accident or incident.  Two basic principles
      generally associated with the creation of a PJ chain are: (1) one
      bad decision often leads to another; and (2) as a string of bad
      decision grows, it reduces the number of subsequent alternatives
      for continued safe flight.  ADM is intended to break the PJ chain
      before it can cause an accident or incident.

           i.  Risk Management is the part of the decision making
      process which relies on situational awareness, problem
      recognition, and good judgment to reduce risks associated with
      each flight.

           j.  Risk Elements in ADM take into consideration the four
      fundamental risk elements:  the pilot, the aircraft, the
      environment, and the type of operation that comprise any given
      aviation situation.

           k.  Situational Awareness is the accurate perception and
      understanding of all the factors and conditions within the four
      fundamental risk elements that affect safety before, during, and
      after the flight.

           l.  Skills and Procedures are the procedural, psychomotor,
      and perceptual skills used to control a specific aircraft or its
      systems.  They are the stick and rudder or airmanship abilities


      that are gained through conventional training, are perfected, and
      become almost automatic through experience.

           m.  Stress Management is the personal analysis of the kinds
      of stress experienced while flying, the application of
      appropriate stress assessment tools, and other coping mechanisms.

           n.  VOR is a very high frequency omnidirectional range

      6.  COMMENTS INVITED.  Comments regarding this publication should
      be directed to:

                Federal Aviation Administration
                Flight Standards National Field Office,
                AFS-500 (Advisory Circular Staff)
                P.O. Box 20034, Gateway Building
                Dulles International Airport
                Washington, DC 20041-2034

      Every comment will not necessarily generate a direct
      acknowledgement to the commenter.  Comments received will be
      considered in the development of upcoming revisions to AC's or
      other related technical material.

      /s/ Thomas C. Accardi
          Director, Flight Standards Service


                                                             Page No.
      CHAPTER 1.  INTRODUCTION                                    1

           1.  General                                            1
           2.  ADM Process                                        1
           3.  Conventional Decision Making                       2
           4.  Operational Pitfalls                               3

      CHAPTER 2.  HAZARDOUS ATTITUDE INVENTORY                    5

           5.  Attitude Assessment Test                           5
           6.  Self-Assessment Hazardous Attitude Inventory Test  5
           7.  Instructions for Taking the Self-Assessment
               Hazardous Attitude Inventory Test                  5
           8.  Scoring Instructions                               7
           9.  Attitude Profile                                   7
          10.  Sample Situations for Advanced Rated Pilots        7


          11.  Profile Explanation                                8
          12.  Summary                                            9


          13.  Hazardous Attitudes                               11
          14.  Antidotes for Hazardous Attitudes                 11
          15.  Antidote Recall Exercise                          11
          16.  The Importance of Reinforcement Exercises         12
          17.  Instructions for Using Reinforcement Exercises    12

      CHAPTER 4.  STRESS AND FLYING                              17

          18.  What Is Stress                                    17
          19.  How Much Stress Is in Your Life?                  17
          20.  Is Stress Bad                                     17
          21.  Handling Stress In Flying                         17

      CHAPTER 5.  RISK MANAGEMENT                                21

          22.  Assessing Risk                                    21
          23.  The Decide Model                                  21

      CHAPTER 6.  IDENTIFYING THE ENEMY                          23

          24.  General                                           23
          25.  Personal Checklist                                23
          26.  How To Be A Safe Pilot                            24
          27.  Development of Good Decision Making Skills        24
          28.  Successful Decision Making                        25

      CHAPTER 7.  TEACHING ADM                                   27

          29.  Purpose                                           27
          30.  Background                                        27
          31.  The Flight Instructor's Role in ADM Training      27
          32.  Principles of ADM Training                        27
          33.  Teaching the Behavioral Aspects of ADM            28
          34.  Teaching the Application Exercises                28
          35.  In-Flight Instruction:  The Lesson Plans          29
          36.  In-Flight Instruction:  The Training Scenario     29
          37.  Typical Training Scenarios                        29
          38.  Management of ADM Training                        29


      APPENDIX 2.  SCORING FORM                              (1 Page)


      APPENDIX 3.  ATTITUDE PROFILE                          (1 Page)

      APPENDIX 4.  ANTIDOTE RECALL EXERCISE                  (1 Page)

      APPENDIX 5.  LIFE EVENTS STRESS TEST                   (1 Page)

                          CHAPTER 1.  INTRODUCTION

      1.  GENERAL.  Contrary to popular opinion, good judgment can be
      taught.  Heretofore it was supposed to be gained only as a
      natural by-product of experience.  As pilots continued to log
      accident-free flight hours, a corresponding increase of good
      judgment was also assumed.

      2.  ADM PROCESS.

           a.  ADM builds upon the foundation of conventional decision
      making (figure 1), but enhances the process to decrease the
      probability of pilot error.  ADM provides a structured,
      systematic approach to analyzing changes that occur during a
      flight and how these changes might affect a flight's safe
      outcome.  The ADM process addresses all aspects of decision
      making in the cockpit and identifies the steps involved in good
      decision making.

      Steps for good decision making are:

           (1)  Identifying personal attitudes hazardous to safe

           (2)  Learning behavior modification techn@ues.

           (3)  Learning how to recognize and cope with stress.

           (4)  Developing risk assessment skills.

           (5)  Using all resources in a multicrew situation.

           (6)  Evaluating the effectiveness of one's ADM skills.

                 |                |     |  _______________|
                 |              __v_____v__v_
                 |------------->| SITUATION |<-----------------------
      ------------------------->|___________|                       |
      |                              |                              |


      |                              v                              |
      |                         CHANGE/EVENT                        |
      |                            OCCURS                           |
      |                              |                              |
      |                              v                              |
      |                           RECOGNIZE                         |
      |                             CHANGE                          |
      |                              |                              |
      |                              v                              |
      |_SKILLS & <---------------- SELECT ------------> HEADWORK ___|
      PROCEDURES                  RESPONSE              REQUIRED
          |                        TYPE                    |
          |                                                |
      INADEQUATE                                        INADEQUATE
          |                                                |
          |---------------------> MISHAPS! <---------------|



           a.  In conventional decision making, the need for a decision
      is triggered by recognition that something has changed or an
      expected change did not occur.  Recognition of the change, or
      nonchange, in the situation is a vital step in any decision
      making process.  Not noticing the change in the situation can
      lead directly to a mishap (figure 1).  The change indicates that
      an appropriate response or action is necessary in order to modify
      the situation (or, at least, one of the elements that comprise
      it) and bring about a desired new situation.  Therefore,
      situational awareness is the key to successful and safe decision
      making.  At this point in the process, the pilot is faced with a
      need to evaluate the entire range of possible responses to the
      detected change and to determine the best course of action.

           b.  Figure 2 illustrates the ADM process, how this process
      expands conventional decision making, and shows the interactions
      of the ADM steps and how these steps can produce a safe outcome.
      Starting with the recognition of change, and following with an
      assessment of alternatives, a decision to act or not act is made,
      and the results are monitored.  ADM enhances the conventional
      decision making process with an awareness of the importance of
      attitudes in decision making, a learned ability to search for and
      establish the relevance of all information, and the motivation to
      choose and execute the actions which assure safety in a timeframe
      permitted by the situation.


        |               |                |                 |         |
        v               v                v                 v         |
      PILOT          AIRCRAFT       ENVIRONMENT_        MISSION      |
        |                  |                    |        |           |
        |                  |--->_____________<--|        |           |
        |---------------------->| SITUATION |            |           |
         ---------------------->|___________|<-----------|           |
         |                            |                              |
         |                          EVENT                            |
         |                         CHANGE                            |
         |                            |                              |
      ___|________                    v                              |
      | SHILLS & |                  SELECT              HEADWORK     |
      |PROCEDURES| <------------- RESPONSE ____________ REQUIRED     |
      |__________|                  TYPE              |              |
                                                      |              |
                                                     _v__________    |
                                                     |  ATTITUDE|    |
                                                     |MANAGEMENT|    |
                                                     |__________|    |
                                                           |         |
      __________              ___________________    ______v_____    |
      |HEADWORK|------------->|CREW (if present)|    |  STRESS  |    |
      |RESPONSE|<-------------| MANAGEMENT      |    |MANAGEMENT|    |
      |PROCESS |              |_________________|    |__________|    |
      |________|<-----------------------------------------|          |
          |                                                          |
      ____v_____________                                             |
      |CRITIQUE        |        ____________                         |
      |ACTIONS         |------->|   RISK   |                         |
      |(Post-Situation)|        |MANAGEMENT|------------>------------|
      |________________|        |__________|


      These elements of ADM are discussed in depth as they relate to
      the specific discipline in each of the training manuals.

      4.  OPERATIONAL PITFALLS.  There are a number of classic
      behavioral traps into which pilots have been known to fall.
      Pilots, particularly those with considerable experience, as a
      rule always try to complete a flight as planned, please
      passengers, meet schedules, and generally demonstrate that they
      have the "right stuff."  This much-talked-about "right stuff" is
      a fragile image.  The basic drive to demonstrate the "right


      stuff" can have an adverse effect on safety and can impose an
      unrealistic assessment of piloting skills under stressful
      conditions.  These tendencies ultimately may lead to practices
      that are dangerous and often illegal, and may lead to a mishap.
      All experienced pilots have fallen prey to, or have been tempted
      by, one or more of these tendencies in their flying careers.
      These dangerous tendencies or behavior patterns, which must be
      identified and eliminated, include:

           a.  Peer Pressure.  Poor decision making based upon
      emotional response to peers rather than evaluating a situation

           b.  Mind Set.  The inability to recognize and cope with
      changes in the situation different from those anticipated or

           c.  Get-There-Itis.  This tendency, common among pilots,
      clouds the vision and impairs judgment by causing a fixation on
      the original goal or destination combined with a total disregard
      for any alternative course of action.

           d.  Duck-Under Syndrome.  The tendency to sneak a peek by
      descending below minimums during an approach.  Based on a belief
      that there is always a built-in "fudge" factor that can be used
      or on an unwillingness to admit defeat and shoot a missed

           e.  Scud Running.  Pushing the capabilities of the pilot and
      the aircraft to the limits by trying to maintain visual contact
      with the terrain while trying to avoid physical contact with it.
      This attitude is characterized by the old pilot's joke:  "If it's
      too bad to go IFR, we'll go VFR."

           f.  Continuing visual flight rules (VFR) into instrument
      conditions often leads to spatial disorientation or collision
      with ground/obstacles.  It is even more dangerous if the pilot is
      not instrument qualified or current.

           g.  Getting Behind the Aircraft.  Allowing events or the
      situation to control your actions rather than the other way
      around.  Characterized by a constant state of surprise at what
      happens next.

           h.  Loss of Positional or Situation Awareness.  Another case
      of getting behind the aircraft which results in not knowing where
      you are, an inability to recognize deteriorating circumstances,
      and/or the misjudgment of the rate of deterioration.


           i.  Operating Without Adequate Fuel Reserves.  Ignoring
      minimum fuel reserve requirements, either VFR or Instrument
      Flight Rules (IFR), is generally the result of overconfidence,
      lack of flight planning, or ignoring the regulations.

           j.  Descent Below the Minimum Enroute Altitude.  The
      duck-under syndrome (mentioned above) manifesting itself during
      the en route portion of an IFR flight.

           k.  Flying Outside the Envelope.  Unjustified reliance on
      the (usually mistaken) belief that the aircraft's high
      performance capability meets the demands imposed by the pilot's
      (usually overestimated) flying skills.

           l.  Neglect of Flight Planning, Preflight Inspections,
      Checklists, Etc.  Unjustified reliance on the pilot's short and
      long term memory, regular flying skills, repetitive and familiar
      routes, etc.


      5.  ATTITUDE ASSESSMENT TEST.  In each ADM manual, a chapter
      addresses five hazardous attitudes that can affect a pilot's
      judgment, and how these hazardous attitudes can have an impact on
      safe flying.  Subsequent chapters in each of the ADM manuals
      provide methods of modifying these hazardous attitudes.

      student should take the Self-Assessment Hazardous Attitude
      Inventory Test in order to gain a realistic perspective on
      his/her attitudes toward flying.  The inventory test requires the
      pilot to provide a response which most accurately reflects the
      reasoning behind his/her decision.  The pilot must choose one of
      the five given reasons for making that decision, even though the
      pilot may not consider any of the five choices acceptable.  The
      inventory test presents extreme cases of incorrect pilot decision
      making in an effort to introduce the five types of hazardous
      attitudes described in Chapter 3 of this AC.


           A.  Read over each of the six situations and the five
      choices contained in the inventory test.  Keep in mind that there
      are no correct answers.

           b.  Decide which one of the five choices is the most likely


      reason for the decision made.  Using a copy of the Attitude
      Inventory Answer Sheet (appendix 1), place the number 5 in the
      space provided.

           c.  Continue by ranking in declining order the remaining
      four probable reasons from 4 (next most likely) to 3, 2, and 1
      (least likely) until all five blanks have been filled.  (Figure 3
      provides an example of how the alternatives might be ranked.)

      Situation 1 (Example)

      a.  1  (your least likely reason)

      b.  3

      c.  5  (your most likely reason)

      d.  2

      e.  4


      Situation 1.  You are on a flight to an unfamiliar, rural
      airport.  Flight service states that VFR flight is not
      recommended since heavy coastal fog is forecast to move into the
      destination airport area about the time you expect to land.  You
      first consider returning to your home base where visibility is
      still good, but decide instead to continue as planned and land
      safely after some problems.  Why did you reach this decision?

           a.  You hate to admit that you cannot complete your original
      flight plan.

           b.  You resent the suggestion by flight service that you
      should change your mind.

           c.  You feel sure that things will turn out safely, and that
      there is no danger.

           d.  You reason that since your actions would make no real
      difference, you might as well continue.

           e.  You feel the need to decide quickly, so you take the
      simplest alternative.


      Situation 2.  While taxiing for takeoff, you notice that your
      right brake pedal is softer than the left.  Once airborne, you
      are sufficiently concerned about the problem to radio for
      information.  Since strong winds are reported at your
      destination, an experienced pilot who is a passenger recommends
      that you abandon the flight and return to your departure airport.
      You choose to continue the flight and experience no further
      difficulties.  Why did you continue?

           a.  You feel that suggestions made in this type of situation
      are usually overly cautious.

           b.  Your brakes have never failed before, so you doubt, that
      they will this time.

           c.  You feel that you can leave the decision to the tower at
      your destination.

           d.  You immediately decide that you want to continue.

           e.  You are sure that if anyone could handle the landing,
      you can.

      Situation 3.  Your regular airplane has been grounded because of
      an airframe problem.  You are scheduled in another airplane and
      discover it is a model you are not familiar with.  After your
      preflight, you decide to take off on your business trip as
      planned.  What was your reasoning?

           a.  You feel that a difficult situation will not arise so
      there is no reason not to go.

           b.  You tell yourself that if there were any danger, you
      would not have been offered the plane.

           c.  You are in a hurry and do not want to take the time to
      think of alternate choices.

           d.  You do not want to admit that you may have trouble
      flying an unfamiliar airplane.

           e.  You are convinced that your flight instructor was much
      too conservative and pessimistic when he cautioned you to be
      thoroughly checked out in an unfamiliar aircraft.

      Situation 4.  You were briefed about possible icing conditions,
      but did not think there would be any problem since your departure
      airport temperature was 60 degrees F (15 degrees C).  As you near


      you destination, you encounter freezing precipitation, which
      clings to your aircraft.  Your passenger, who is a more
      experienced pilot, begins to panic.  You consider turning back to
      the departure airport, but continue instead.  Why did you not

           a.  I have made it this far.  What is the use in turning
      back now?

           b.  The panic of the passenger makes you think it will not
      happen to me - I have encountered ice before and nothing

           c.  Why is he panicking?  I can handle this situation just
      like I have done before.

           d.  FAA regulations exaggerate the dangers of icing.  I can
      handle this situation.

           e.  I have got to do something.  Descend!  That will make
      everyone realize that I am in control.

      Situation 5.  You do not bother to check weather conditions at
      your destination.  En route, you encounter headwinds.  Your fuel
      supply is adequate to reach your destination, but there is almost
      no reserve for emergencies.  You continue the flight and land
      with a nearly dry tank.  What most influenced you to do this?

           a.  Being unhappy with the pressure of having to choose what
      to do, you make a snap decision.

           b.  You do not want your friends to hear that you had to
      turn back.

           c.  You feel that flight manuals always understate the
      safety margin in fuel tank capacity.

           d.  You believe that all things usually turn out well, and
      this will be no exception.

           e.  You reason that the situation has already been
      determined because the destination is closer than any other

      Situation 6.  You are 40 minutes late for a trip in a small
      airplane.  Since the aircraft handled well on the previous day's
      flight, you decide to skip most of the preflight check.  What
      leads you to this decision?


           a.  You simply take the first approach to making up time
      that comes to mind.

           b.  You feel that your reputation for being on time demands
      that you cut corners when necessary.

           c.  You believe that some of the preflight inspection is
      just a waste of time.

           d.  You see no reason to think that something unfortunate
      will happen during this flight.

           e.  If any problems develop, the responsibility would not be
      yours.  It is the maintenance of the airplane that really makes
      the difference.


           a.  Paragraph 7 presented examples of six situations from
      the student/private pilot ADM manual.  For pilots with advanced
      ratings, the remaining ADM manuals provide similar situations and
      self-assessment tests.  The following are example situations
      taken from these texts.

      Situation 7.  Instrument Pilot ADM Situation.  You plan an
      important business flight under instrument conditions in an
      aircraft with no deicing equipment through an area in which light
      to moderate rime or mixed icing in clouds, and precipitation
      above the freezing level has been forecast.  You decide to make
      the trip, thinking:

                a.  You believe your skills are good enough to handle
      ice accumulation on the aircraft.

                b.  You have been in this situation many times and
      nothing has happened.

                c.  You must get to the business meeting in 2 hours and
      cannot wait.

                d.  You don't allow an icing forecast to stop you;
      weather briefers are usually overly cautious.

                e.  There is nothing you can do about atmospheric

      Situation 8.  Commercial Pilot ADM Situation.  Your passengers


      have shown up almost an hour late.  You are going to an airport
      that requires a reservation.  Which of the following alternatives
      best illustrates your reaction?

                a.  You think to yourself, if I hurry, maybe I can
      still make it.

                b.  Nothing will happen if I miss this reservation.

                c.  I'm smart enough to talk our way in when we arrive.

                d.  I can't help it if my passengers were late.  I
      don't control them.

                e.  The Feds wouldn't dare keep me out.

      Situation 9.  Helicopter Pilot ADM Situation.  You are to fly a
      helicopter which you know is old and has been poorly maintained.
      A higher than normal turbine outlet temperature on startup is
      indicated, and you suspect the fuel control.  Two fellow company
      pilots, travelling as passengers, do not want to be delayed.
      After 5 minutes of debate, you agree to make the trip.  Why did
      you permit yourself to be persuaded?

                a.  You feel that you must always prove your ability as
      a pilot, even under less than ideal circumstances.

                b.  You believe that regulations over-emphasize safety
      in this kind of situation.

                c.  You think that the fuel control will certainly last
      for just one more flight.

                d.  You feel that your opinion may be wrong since the
      two other pilots are willing to take the risk.

                e.  The thought of changing arrangements is annoying,
      so you jump at the suggestion of the other pilots.

      Situation 10.  Instructor Pilot ADM Situation.  You perform a
      slip demonstration during an approach to landing and fly the
      aircraft to the left of the runway centerline to a position which
      would make an attempted landing possible but dangerous.  You
      return control of the aircraft to the student and instruct him to
      "execute proper landing procedures."  Which of the following best
      characterizes your attitude about putting the student and
      yourself in this situation?


                a.  I can always handle this even if he can't.

                b.  Whatever happens, it's up to him now.

                c.  I've never had a problem doing this in the past.

                d.  The quicker we get through this, the better.

                e.  These aircraft can take a lot worse landings than
      the manuals suggest.

      9.  SCORING INSTRUCTIONS.  After completing the inventory test,
      transfer the responses for each alternative from the completed
      Attitude Inventory Answer Sheet (appendix 1) to the appropriate
      section of the Scoring Form (appendix 2).  Total the ranking
      scores for each scale and enter the total in the space provided
      at the bottom of each column.  The total score for each situation
      must be 15, while the total for situations 1 through 6 must be
      90.  If the totals are not 15 and 90, review for possible errors
      in the transfer of scores and check addition.  These totals are
      then marked on the Attitude Profile (appendix 3) where indicated
      for situations 1 through 6.

      10.  ATTITUDE PROFILE.  Using the total scores for each Scale I-
      V from appendix 2, place an "X" on the corresponding scale
      profile in appendix 3.  Notice that the score values run from
      bottom to top, so that the highest value should be at the highest
      point on the profile sheet.  Straight lines should be drawn from
      the score in each scale to the score in the next scale (connect
      the "X's") so that the profile resembles a graph.  Note the
      hazardous attitude shown at the bottom of each scale on appendix

      11.  PROFILE EXPLANATION.  The profile graph indicates the
      comparative tendency for each of the five hazardous attitudes.
      The higher the relative rank (first, second, third, etc.), the
      greater the propensity to respond with that hazardous attitude.
      The pilot should keep in mind his/her results while reviewing the
      explanation.  An explanation of the pilot's profile starts with
      the description of an all-too-common flight situation.

           a.  A pilot of a single-engine aircraft checks the weather
      and notes that there is a possibility of a thunderstorm at the
      destination airport.  The pilot has never operated an aircraft in
      bad weather and knows that a flight instructor would advise
      against flying.  Despite this knowledge, the pilot takes off,
      crashes in poor weather, and is seriously injured.


           b.  Why does this occur so often?  Because many accidents
      involve pilots who allow themselves to be influenced by one or
      more of the five basic hazardous attitudes.  These attitudes get
      pilots into trouble by causing them to take chances that invite
      an accident.  (The five hazardous attitudes are the ones recorded
      on the assessment inventory just completed.)

      12.  SUMMARY.

           a.  The pilot should use the profile to determine which
      hazardous attitudes dominated his/her responses.  The profile
      will illustrate which hazardous thought patterns have a greater
      tendency to influence a pilot's judgment.  The inventory test may
      indicate the actual tendency of the pilot; however, exhibiting
      attitudes similar to those described are common and normal.  As a
      pilot's flying career progresses, the ability to identify these
      hazardous attitudes will help the pilot counteract his/her
      hazardous thoughts.  The goal of this exercise is to balance all
      thoughts against possible outcomes so that actions are
      nonhazardous.  A critical part of ADM training is learning to
      examine the thinking process and control hazardous attitudes.
      Flying will become safer if a pilot is able to identify and act
      upon hazardous attitudes.

           b.  In reviewing the five hazardous attitudes in Chapter 3,
      a pilot should pay particular attention to hazardous attitudes
      that may characterize his/her own tendencies.  Hazardous
      attitudes occur to every pilot to some degree at some time.
      Problems arise when these hazardous attitudes occur regularly
      and/or to an extreme.  Therefore, a pilot should learn to
      recognize these hazardous attitudes in order to take corrective


      13.  HAZARDOUS ATTITUDES.  ADM addresses the following five
      hazardous attitudes.

           a.  Antiauthority (don't tell me!).  This attitude is found
      in people who do not like anyone telling them what to do.  In a
      sense they are saying no one can tell me what to do.  They may be
      resentful of having someone tell them what to do or may regard
      rules, regulations, and procedures as silly or unnecessary.
      However, it is always your prerogative to question authority if
      you feel it is in error.

           b.  Impulsivity (do something quickly!) is the attitude of
      people who frequently feel the need to do something-anything-


      immediately.  They do not stop to think about what they are about
      to do, they do not select the best alternative, and they do the
      first thing that comes to mind.

           c.  Invulnerability (it won't happen to me).  Many people
      feel that accidents happen to others, but never to them.  They
      know accidents can happen, and they know that anyone can be
      affected.  They never really feel or believe that they will be
      personally involved.  Pilots who think this way are more likely
      to take chances and increase risk.

           d.  Macho (I can do it).  Pilots who are always trying to
      prove that they are better than anyone else are thinking I can do
      it - I'll show them.  Pilots with this type of attitude will try
      to prove themselves by taking risks in order to impress others.
      While this pattern is thought to be a male characteristic, women
      are equally susceptible.

           e.  Resignation (what's the use?).  Pilots who think what's
      the use?  do not see themselves as being able to make a great
      deal of difference in what happens to them.  When things go well,
      the pilot is apt to think that's good luck.  When things go
      badly, the pilot may feel that someone is out to get me, or
      attribute it to bad luck.  The pilot will leave the action to
      others, for better or worse.  Sometimes, such pilots will even go
      along with unreasonable requests just to be a "nice guy."


           a.  Hazardous attitudes which contribute to poor pilot
      judgment can be effectively counteracted by redirecting that
      hazardous attitude so that appropriate action can be taken.
      Recognition of hazardous thoughts is the first step in
      neutralizing them in the ADM process.  This chapter is designed
      to familiarize the pilot with a means of counteracting hazardous
      attitudes with an appropriate antidote thought.

           b.  When a pilot recognizes a thought as hazardous, the
      pilot should label that thought as hazardous, then correct that
      thought by stating the corresponding antidote.  Antidotes should
      be memorized for each of the hazardous attitudes so that they
      automatically come to mind when needed.

      15.  ANTIDOTE RECALL EXERCISE.  The hazardous attitude antidotes
      (figure 4) should be learned thoroughly and practiced.  Make a
      copy of the Antidote Recall Exercise form (appendix 4) and,
      without referring to the text, write the characteristic thought
      for each hazardous attitude and its appropriate antidote.  Check


      the statements and continue if they are correct.  If not,
      continued study of the antidotes is recommended until they are

      definitions, the self-assessment test, the hazardous attitudes,
      and the antidotes represent the foundation for understanding the
      factors of good ADM.  However, they represent only about 10
      percent of the important process of learning and putting ADM into
      practice.  The other 90 percent can be achieved only through
      completion of all of the situation exercises in the appropriate
      manual (i.e., Student/Private, Instrument, Commercial, etc.) and
      applying the principles learned to each and every flight.  Some
      examples of the reinforcement exercises from each of the manuals
      follow.  These are presented as examples of the types of decision
      errors which have contributed to accidents in the past.

                HAZARDOUS                     ANTIDOTE

      Antiauthority:  Don't              Follow the rules.  They
      tell me.                           are usually right.

      Impulsivity:  Do                   Not so fast.  Think
      something quickly.                 first.

      Invulnerability:  It               It could happen to me.
      won't happen to me.

      Macho:  I can do it.               Taking chances is

      Resignation:  What's               I'm not helpless.  I can
      the use?                           make a difference.

                        FIGURE 4.  THE FIVE ANTIDOTES

      of the following situations.  At the end of each situation, an
      alternative should be selected which best illustrates the
      reactions of a pilot who is thinking a particular hazardous
      attitude.  After the most appropriate alternative is selected,
      refer to the explanation of alternatives page for the proper
      response.  This page will provide the correct answer.  If the
      selection is accurate, proceed to the next situation.  If an
      incorrect alternative was selected, the reader should review the


      situation again and select another alternative.  Repeat the
      exercise until the correct alternative is selected.

           a.  The Impulsivity Hazardous Attitude.

                (1)  Situation:  As you enter the landing pattern, you
      normally lower the flaps.  The tower suddenly changes the active
      runway.  Distracted, you forget to use the before-landing
      checklist.  On short final you find yourself dangerously low with
      a high sink rate.  Glancing down, you realize that you forgot to
      extend the flaps.  Which of the following alternatives best
      illustrates the impulsivity reaction?

                     (i)  You feel that nothing is going to happen
      because you have made intentional no-flap landings before.

                     (ii)  You laugh and think, "Boy, this low approach
      will impress people on the ground."

                     (iii)  You think that using a checklist is a
      stupid requirement.

                     (iv)  You immediately grab the flap handle and add
      full flaps.

                     (v)  You think that it all depends on whether you
      get an updraft or downdraft now.

                (2)  Explanation of Alternatives:

                     (i)  Feeling that nothing bad can happen suggests
      the invulnerability hazardous attitude (it won't happen to me).
      Go back to the situation and select another alternative.

                     (ii)  When you are thinking about impressing
      people on the ground, watch out for the macho hazardous attitude
      (I can do it).  This can cost you dearly.  Go back to the
      situation and select another alternative.

                     (iii)  Thinking that checklists are stupid
      suggests that you feel that aircraft designers, the Government,
      and your instructor, all of whom urge the use of checklists, are
      wrong.  This suggests the antiauthority hazardous attitude (don't
      tell me).  Go back to the situation and select another

                     (iv)  Right!  Immediately adding full flaps
      without thinking is an example of the impulsivity hazardous


      attitude (do something quickly).  Unfortunately, in this
      situation, full flaps will probably only increase the sink rate.
      Go on to the next situation.

                     (v)  If you are convinced that it is up to the
      wind, this implies the hazardous attitude of resignation (what's
      the use).  Go back to the situation and select another

                (3)  A Good Attitude.  Distractions can be
      dangerous -- always use your checklist.

           b.  The Antiauthority Hazardous Attitude.

                (1)  Situation:  You approach the VOR and the
      controller asks if you want to execute the entire VOR procedure
      or will you accept a right turn of more than 90 degrees to
      intercept the final approach course.  You state that you will
      make the turn directly onto final at 2,000 feet although this
      will press you to get properly established on final.  Which of
      the following alternatives best illustrates the antiauthority

                     (i)  It was not your idea to make the approach
      like this.

                     (ii)  A controller is not going to influence the
      way I fly.

                     (iii)  You do not need the full approach; you know
      you are a good instrument pilot.

                     (iv)  You are in a hurry and do not wish to bother
      with the full approach.

                     (v)  You know the controllers will be impressed
      with this approach.

                (2)  Explanation of Alternatives.

                     (i)  By assuming someone else has responsibility
      for your approach, you exhibit the resignation attitude (what's
      the use?).  Go back to the situation and select another

                     (ii)  Right!  The regulations are for someone else
      attitude assumes controllers are interfering with your business.
      You are thinking in an antiauthority manner.  Go on to the next



                     (iii)  Here you are taking the invulnerability
      stand (it won't happen to me).  You think of yourself as
      invulnerable.  Go back to the situation and select another

                     (iv)  This is the impulsivity hazardous attitude
      (I must act now, there's no time).  Go back to the situation and
      select another alternative.

                     (v)  The desire to impress another influences your
      decision.  This is the macho attitude (I'll show you - I can do
      it).  Go back to the situation and select another alternative.

                (3)  A Good Attitude.  Make as much time available on
      an approach as possible.  You may need it.

           C.  The Macho Hazardous Attitude.

                (1)  Situation:  On a trip to the west coast, you make
      an en route refueling stop at an airport in the Rockies.  After
      refueling, the density altitude prior to your departure is
      reported as 10,500 feet.  You are at maximum takeoff weight when
      you depart.  At the present rate of climb, you will just barely
      clear the minimum crossing altitude (MCA) at the next
      intersection on your flight route.  Which of the following
      alternatives best illustrates the macho reaction?

                     (i)  There is really nothing you can do about it;
      it is up to air traffic control (ATC) to make sure you clear.

                     (ii)  The MCA's have plenty of leeway for
      clearance.  So what if you are a little low.

                     (iii)  You are a good pilot and will make it.

                     (iv)  When you see that you cannot climb enough,
      you immediately inform ATC of your situation without determining
      your intentions.

                     (v)  Mountain flying is not any different from any
      other flying and you have never run into any problems before.
      Nothing will happen.

                (2)  Explanation of Alternatives.

                     (i)  Assuming someone else is responsible for you


      is the resignation hazardous attitude.  Go back to the situation
      and select another alternative.

                     (ii)  This is the antiauthority hazardous attitude
      (don't tell me).  Go back to the situation and select another

                     (iii)  Right!  Thinking I'll show you - I can do
      it, is the macho hazardous attitude.

                     (iv)  Acting before thinking, this is the
      impulsivity hazardous attitude (do something quickly).  Go back
      to the situation and select another alternative.

                     (v)  This is the invulnerability hazardous
      attitude (it won't happen to me).  Go back to the situation and
      select another alternative.

                (3)  A Good Attitude.  Be aware of your limitations and
      don't exceed them.

           d.  The Invulnerability Hazardous Attitude.

                (1)  Situation:  While preflighting the pressurization
      system, you discover that the rate adjustment control is
      inoperative.  Knowing that you can manually control the cabin
      pressure, you opt to disregard this discrepancy and depart on
      your trip.  You will have to handle the system yourself.  Which
      of the following alternatives best illustrates the
      invulnerability reaction?

                     (i)  It's too late to fix it now.

                     (ii)  You can handle a little problem like this.

                     (iii)  What's the worst that could happen?

                     (iv)  I certainly didn't break it.  It's not my

                     (v)  You barely need the pressurization at the
      filed altitude anyway.

                (2)  Explanation of Alternatives.

                     (i)  This is the impulsivity hazardous attitude
      (there's no time - I must do something quickly).  Go back to the
      situation and select another alternative.


                     (ii)  This is the macho hazardous attitude showing
      through (I can do it).  Go back to the situation and select
      another alternative.

                     (iii)  Right!  Nothing bad is going to happen to
      you because of your invulnerability.  Go on to the next

                     (iv)  This is the resignation hazardous
      attitude - what's the use? - where someone else is responsible.
      Go back to the situation and select another alternative.

                     (v)  This type of thinking is characteristic of
      the antiauthority attitude (rules and regulations are made to be
      broken).  Go back to the situation and select another

                (3)  A Good Attitude.  Settle for nothing less than
      full operating systems.

           e.  The Resignation Hazardous Attitude.

                (1)  Situation:  Your copilot shows up for duty and you
      notice that the copilot's behavior is somewhat out of the
      ordinary.  You know your copilot has had a cold.  When
      questioned, the copilot said maybe it was the antihistamine that
      he/she took the night before.  Although your aircraft requires a
      crew of two, you decide to ignore your copilot's drowsiness and
      inattention.  Which of the following alternatives best
      illustrates the resignation reaction?

                     (i)  You could fly this jet by yourself anyway.

                     (ii)  You two have flown together many times, and
      everything has always worked out fine.

                     (iii)  What else can you do?  He was assigned this
      flight too.

                     (iv)  He/she might not be within the regulations,
      but he/she says he/she's okay and that's what counts.

                     (v)  There is really no time to call another
      copilot now.

                (2)  Explanation of Alternatives.


                     (i)  This is a trait of the macho hazardous
      attitude (I can do it).  Go back to the situation and select
      another alternative.

                     (ii)  This is the invulnerability attitude (it
      won't happen to me).  Go back to the situation and select another

                     (iii)  Right!  When you feel as if it is out of
      your control, you are exhibiting the resignation hazardous

                     (iv)  This is the antiauthority hazardous attitude
      (the rules and regulations don't apply to me).  Go back to the
      situation and select another alternative.

                     (v)  This is the impulsivity hazardous attitude
      (do something quickly).  Go back to the situation and select
      another alternative.

                (3)  A Good Attitude.  Don't let others do your
      thinking for you.

                        CHAPTER 4.  STRESS AND FLYING

      18.  WHAT IS STRESS?  Stress is a term used to describe the
      body's nonspecific response to demands placed on it, whether
      these demands are pleasant or unpleasant in nature.  The demands
      on a pilot can range from unexpected windshear encountered on a
      landing to a lost wallet.  Piloting the aircraft is the pilot's
      responsibility.  Therefore, a healthy pilot should perform at
      his/her optimum level and make decisions to the best of his/her
      ability.  Numerous physical and physiological conditions in a
      pilot's personal and professional life, as well as the nature of
      flight itself, can hamper this ability.  Even though a pilot
      holds a medical certificate stating that the pilot meets the
      health requirements for a particular type of flight operation,
      the decision whether the pilot is fit to fly is strictly the


           a.  If you hope to succeed at reducing stress associated
      with crisis management in the air or with your job, it is
      essential to begin by making a personal assessment of stress in
      all areas of your life.  You may face major stressors such as a
      loss of income, serious illness, death of a family member, change
      in residence, or birth of a baby, plus a multitude of


      comparatively minor positive and negative stressors.  These major
      and minor stressors have a cumulative effect which constitutes
      your total stress-adaption capability which can vary from year to
      year.  To enhance your awareness about the sources of stress in
      your life, the life change profile questionnaire (appendix 5) is
      presented.  Place a check in the Happened column if you have
      experienced the event described in the last 12 months.  Total
      your score at the end of the questionnaire.

           b.  The more change you have, the more likely you are to
      suffer a decline in health .  As a rule of thumb, if you score
      over 20 checks, mostly in the top half of the checklist, you have
      an 80 percent chance of a serious health change.  If you have
      about 20 checks distributed over the checklist, you have about a
      50 percent chance of illness in the near future.  Each of us has
      personal stress-adaption limitations.  When we exceed this level,
      stress overload may lead to poor health or illness.

      20.  IS STRESS BAD?  Stress is a response to a set of
      circumstances that induces a change in a pilot's current
      physiological and/or psychological patterns of functioning
      forcing the pilot to adapt to these changes.  Stress is an
      inevitable and necessary part of life that adds motivation to
      life and heightens a pilot's response to meet any challenge.  In
      fact, performance of a task will generally improve with the onset
      of stress, but will peak and then begin to degrade rapidly as
      stress levels exceed a pilot's adaptive abilities to handle the

      21.  HANDLING STRESS IN FLYING.  Accidents often occur when
      flying task requirements exceed a pilot's capabilities.  A
      superior pilot uses superior judgment to avoid stressful
      situations which might call for use of superior skills.  The
      difference between pilot capabilities and task requirements is
      the margin of safety (figure 5).  In this example, the margin of
      safety is minimal during the approach under ideal conditions.
      For this pilot, a cold and fatigue may reduce the minimal margin
      of safety as well as the overall margin of safety throughout the

           a.  Stress is insidious.  Stress has a gradual and
      cumulative effect that develops slowly, so slowly that stress can
      be well established before becoming apparent.  A pilot may think
      that he/she is handling everything quite well, when in fact there
      are subtle signs that the pilot is beyond his/her ability to
      respond appropriately.

           b.  Stress is cumulative.  A generalized stress reaction can


      develop as a result of accumulated stress.  There is a limit to a
      pilot's adaptive nature.  This limit, the stress tolerance level,
      is based on a pilot's ability to cope with the situation.  If the
      number or intensity of the stressors becomes too great, the pilot
      is susceptible to an environmental overload.  At this point, a
      pilot's performance begins to decline and judgment deteriorates.

                       FIGURE 5.  THE MARGIN OF SAFETY
                            [FIGURE NOT INCLUDED]

           c.  Signs of inadequate coping.  The indicators of excessive
      stress often show as three types or symptoms:  (1) emotional, (2)
      physical, and (3) behavioral.  These symptoms differ depending
      upon whether aggression is focused inward or outward.  Those
      individuals who typically turn their aggressive feelings inward
      often demonstrate the emotional symptoms of depression,
      preoccupation, sadness, and withdrawal.  The individual who
      typically takes out frustration on other people or objects
      exhibits few physical symptoms.  On the other hand, emotional
      symptoms may show up as overcompensation, denial, suspicion,
      paranoia, agitation, restlessness, defensiveness, excess
      sensitivity to criticism, argumentativeness, arrogance, and

           d.  Life Stress Management.  There are many techniques
      available that can help reduce the stress in your life or help
      you cope with it better.  Not all of the following ideas may be
      the solution, but some of them should be effective for you.

                (1)  Become knowledgeable about stress.

                (2)  Take a realistic assessment of yourself.

                (3)  Take a systematic approach to problem solving.

                (4)  Develop a life style that will buffer against the
      effects of stress.

                (5)  Practice behavioral management techniques.

                (6)  Establish and maintain a strong support network.

           e.  Cockpit Stress Management.  Good cockpit stress
      management begins with good life stress management.  Many of the
      stress coping techniques practiced for life stress management are
      not usually practical in flight.  Rather, you must condition


      yourself to relax and think rationally when stress appears.  The
      following checklist outlines some thoughts on cockpit stress

                (1)  Avoid situations that distract you from flying the

                (2)  Reduce your workload to reduce stress levels.
      This will create a proper environment in which to  make good

                (3)  If an emergency does occur, be calm.  Think for a
      moment, weigh the alternatives, then act.

                (4)  Maintain proficiency in your aircraft; proficiency
      builds confidence.  Familiarize yourself thoroughly with your
      aircraft, its systems, and emergency procedures.

                (5)  Know and respect your own personal limits.

                (6)  Do not let little mistakes bother you until they
      build into a big thing.  Wait until after you land, then
      "debrief" and analyze past actions.

                (7)  If flying is adding to your stress, either stop
      flying or seek professional help to manage your stress within
      acceptable limits.

           f.  Flight Fitness.  A "Go/No-Go" decision is made before
      each flight.  The pilot should not only preflight check the
      aircraft, but also his/herself on each and every flight.  A pilot
      should ask, "Could I pass my medical examination right now?"  If
      the pilot cannot answer with an absolute "yes," then the pilot
      should not fly.  The following checklist is intended for a
      pilot's personal preflight use.  A pilot may elect to carry a
      copy in his/her flight bag and onboard the aircraft.

                (1)  Do I feel well?  Is there anything wrong with me
      at all?

                (2)  Have I taken any medication in the last 12 hours?

                (3)  Have I had as little as one ounce of alcohol in
      the last 12 hours?

                (4)  Am I tired?  Did I get a good night's sleep last


                (5)  Am I under undue stress?  Am I emotional right

                (6)  Have I eaten a sensible meal and taken in a good
      load of protein?  Do I have a protein snack, such as cheese, meat
      or nuts, aboard?

                (7)  Am I dehydrated?  Do I need to take noncarbonated
      liquids such as water or fruit juices?

                (8)  Am I equipped with sunglasses, ear protectors,
      appropriate clothing?

                         CHAPTER 5.  RISK MANAGEMENT

      22.  ASSESSING RISK.  Risk management is the responsibility of
      everyone involved in aviation.  The flight operations manager,
      for example, who is faced with the decision as to just how hard
      to push a pilot to go, becomes a party to the risk management
      process.  It is understandable from an economic point of view
      that the mail, checks, boss, passenger, whatever, must get
      through.  This question "Is the success of the task worth the
      risk?"  must always be kept in mind during decision making.  Risk
      management in ADM is discussed in detail in DOT/FAA/PM-86/43,
      Aeronautical Decision Making for Instrument Pilots.

      23.  THE DECIDE MODEL.

           a.  A good tool to use in making good aeronautical decisions
      is the Decide Model (figure 6).  The Decide Model, comprised of a
      six step process, is intended to provide the pilot with a logical
      way of approaching decision making.  The Decide Model is
      described in greater detail in DOT/FAA/PM-86/43, Aeronautical
      Decision Making for Instrument Pilots.

           b.  The six elements of the Decide Model represent a
      continuous loop decision process which can be used to assist a
      pilot in the decision making process when he/she is faced with a
      change in a situation that requires a judgment.  This Decide
      Model is primarily focused on the intellectual component, but can
      have an impact on the motivational component of judgment as well.
      If a pilot practices the Decide Model in all decision making, its
      use can become very natural and could result in better decisions
      being made under all types of situations.

           1.  Detect.  The decision maker detects the fact that change
      has occurred.


           2.  Estimate.  The decision maker estimates the need to
      counter or react to the change.

           3.  Choose.  The decision maker chooses a desirable outcome
      (in terms of success) for the flight.

           4.  Identify.  The decision maker identifies actions which
      could successfully control the change.

           5.  Do.  The decision maker takes the necessary action.

           6.  Evaluate.  The decision maker evaluates the effect(s) of
      his action countering the change.

                         FIGURE 6.  THE DECIDE MODEL

                      CHAPTER 6.  IDENTIFYING THE ENEMY

      24.  GENERAL.

           a.  Most preventable accidents have one common factor:
      human error, rather than a mechanical malfunction.  Pilots who
      are involved in accidents generally know what went wrong.  Very
      often, the pilot was aware of the possible hazards when the
      decision the pilot made led to the wrong course of action.  In
      the interest of expediency, cost savings, self-gratification, or
      other often irrelevant factors, the incorrect course of action
      was chosen.  This cycle of decisions began at the flight planning
      desk with decisions made on how much fuel to carry, the route,
      the alternate route, and adequate weather conditions.  This cycle
      continues throughout the flight with decisions made on speed,
      altitude, and when to descend.  Each flight is a sequence of
      choices with certain milestones in the sequence that require
      particular determination and discretion.

           b.  Flying is rapidly changing from a physical to a mental
      task.  Initial instruction to manipulate and control an aircraft
      requires approximately 1 to 2 years.  However, training to
      command an aircraft intelligently involves a decade or two of
      experience and periodic recurrent training.  ADM is designed to
      reduce the extremely long and sometimes painful process of
      learning how to make good judgment decisions based upon
      experience alone.  While it is true that simple errors of
      equipment operation are seldom serious, mistakes in judgment can
      be fatal.


      25.  PERSONAL CHECKLIST.  One essential decision point before a
      flight is the checklist of basic principles that cannot be
      compromised.  This personal checklist should include the
      fundamental tenets applicable to every flight.  Once a pilot
      decides what not to do, the decision on what needs to be done
      becomes clear.  Consider the following never's as factors that
      contribute significantly to unsafe flight:

           a.  Flight while under the influence of alcohol or drugs,
      including applicable prescription drugs, is a never.  Several
      drinks of an alcoholic beverage will influence thought and
      reaction for approximately 24 hours, while heavy drinking will
      have lingering effects for up to 36 hours or longer.  Effects
      from the use of marijuana remain in the system for at least a
      week.  The concept should be obvious that flight safety is
      measurably compromised within those time periods.  The side
      effects and duration of all prescription drugs are well
      documented and available from a local pharmacist, the family
      physician, a drug addiction agency, or the Surgeon General.

           b.  Flight with a known medical deficiency is never
      expedient or legal (FAR Section 61.53).

           c.  Flight outside the certified flight envelope is never
      safe.  Weight, balance, speed, maneuvers, G-loading, and flight
      in known icing should be limited to flight manual parameters.
      Beyond that, you are in the wilderness and all discoveries could
      be unhappy experiences.

           d.  Flight with less than the required minimum fuel is never
      reasonable.  The applicable FAR's are sufficiently liberal.
      Twenty or 30 minutes fuel in VFR conditions (depending on
      aircraft category) and acceptable IFR reserves should be adequate
      to provide for contingencies.

           e.  VFR flight into instrument meteorological conditions is
      never justified.

           f.  Descent below the applicable minimum enroute altitude
      anywhere is never justified.

           g.  Casual neglect of any applicable checklist is never
      justified.  A checklist may be larger or smaller, however,
      certain standards should be established for all flights so that
      the first decision point is whether or not to begin the flight.
      This can be the toughest decision.

           h.  Aircraft accident statistics show that pilots should be


      conducting preflight checklists on themselves as well as their
      aircraft.  Pilot impairment contributes to many more accidents
      than failures of aircraft systems.  The following version of the
      "I'M SAFE" personal checklist (figure 7)  contains all of the
      most common categories of pilot impairment and can easily be
      committed to memory.

      26.  HOW TO BE A SAFE PILOT.

           a.  A pilot does not have to be a genius to be a safe pilot.
      However, a pilot should be an emotionally stable person who can
      accept the fact that he/she is not in possession of all facts or
      skills for all situations and be willing to accept the
      recommendations of those who specialize in evaluating, assessing,
      and administering aviation procedures.

      1.  Illness.        Do I have any symptoms?

      2.  Medication.     Have I been taking prescription or over-the
                          counter drugs?

      3.  Stress.         Am I under psychological pressure from the
                          job?  Do I have money, health, or family

      4.  Alcohol.        Have I been drinking within 8 hours?  Within
                          24 hours?

      5.  Fatigue.        Am I tired and not adequately rested?

      6.  Eating.         Have I eaten enough of the proper foods to
                          keep adequately nourished during the entire

                     FIGURE 7.  THE "I'M SAFE" CHECKLIST

           b.  Reaching a consensus on all matters within the aviation
      community can prove difficult, if not impossible.  Even though
      the rules and procedures are designed to serve most of the people
      most of the time, a pilot can always argue for different ways of
      doing things.  An experienced, mature pilot will accept and
      follow the rules and procedures which will benefit the aviation
      community.  The immature, emotionally unbalanced pilot has strong
      tendencies to satisfy a personal need regardless of the


           c.  Some pilots break rules simply for the immediate
      gratification of some emotional need.  Even though the pilot may
      know that this emotional need is not considered a healthy habit
      (e.g., smoking, speeding, overeating, etc.), the pilot is,
      nonetheless, driven by his or her own emotions.

           d.  Existing rules would go a long way to remedy the
      accident rate; however, personality traits that cause irrational
      behavior also make pilots prone to disregard the rules that would
      assure safe operations.

           e.  When a pilot exhibits one or more of the five hazardous
      attitudes or irrational behavior, that pilot may also be exposing
      any emotional weaknesses in his/her personality.


           a.  The development of good decision making skills is far
      more difficult than developing good flying skills, but it can be
      done.  Good judgment may mean not flying while under the
      influence of any medication, when it is too windy, or refusing a
      revenue flight when it would require flying in marginal weather.

           b.  Many pilots fail to make proper decisions; sometimes due
      to a lack of knowledge, but too often the result of a human
      tendency to rationalize a situation until it appears justifiable.
      When a pilot really wants to do something (such as loading that
      one last passenger when close to maximum gross weight, or
      performing a high speed, low altitude pass), the pilot can
      generally make himself/herself believe that it was all right to
      do it.  A pilot can be his/her own worst enemy.

           c.  In addition to the FAR, AC's, articles in magazines,
      books written by expert pilots and instructors, Pilot Proficiency
      Programs, Airman's Information Manual, NOTAM's, Airworthiness
      Directives, and Biennial Flight Reviews, there are some do's and
      do not's that can ensure the prevention of most accidents.  All
      of this information is safety-oriented.  Not following this
      safety-oriented information is similar to not following the
      advice of a doctor or lawyer.

           d.  The most important decision a pilot will make is to
      learn and adhere to published rules, procedures, and
      recommendations.  Pilots, by learning and adhering to these
      published rules and procedures, can take most hazards out of
      flying.  When a pilot operates an aircraft, human lives are held
      in the balance.  Therefore, a pilot has a moral responsibility to
      operate in the safest possible manner.


           e.  Aviation has reached a new plateau.  Acquiring
      aeronautical knowledge, airmanship skills, and proficiency are
      relatively easy.  Navigation has been reduced to calculator
      simplicity.  Modern autopilots and electronic displays have
      significantly reduced a pilots's workload.  Today's technology
      requires administrative management and aeronautical decision
      making skills as prerequisites for safety and efficiency.

      28.  SUCCESSFUL DECISION MAKING.  Successful decision making is
      measured by a pilot's consistent ability to keep himself/herself,
      any passengers, and the aircraft in good condition regardless of
      the conditions of any given flight.

                          CHAPTER 7.  TEACHING ADM

      29.  PURPOSE.  The ADM manual for Instructor Pilots
      (DOT/FAA/PM-86/44) contains all of the necessary background
      material to teach effectively the subject material of the
      companion publication entitled "Aeronautical Decision Making for
      Student and Private Pilots" (DOT/FAA/PM-86/41).  This chapter
      provides a brief introduction and overview on the process of
      teaching ADM.

      30.  BACKGROUND.  The instructor's ADM training manual is a
      result of 10 years of research, development, testing, and
      evaluation of the effectiveness of judgment and decision making.
      It is a revision of the prototype publication "Judgment Training
      Manual for Instructor Pilots," which was developed jointly by the
      Federal Aviation Administration, General Aviation Manufacturers
      Association, and Transport Canada in an effort to improve general
      aviation safety.


           a.  Although the information in this chapter is designed to
      help pilots overcome a variety of circumstances which may result
      in poor pilot judgment, the flight instructor is the key element
      of this program.  The flight instructor's attitude and approach
      to flying may often influence students more than any specific
      lesson.  By always setting a good example and by giving students
      support and encouragement throughout this program, a flight
      instructor helps students develop good judgment and sound flying

           b.  To help prepare for this role, thought should be given
      to the differences between the instructor as an evaluator and the
      instructor as coach.  The evaluator sees his/her role as one of


      telling the student what to do, then monitoring the student's
      performance.  In contrast, think of the instructor in a slightly
      different perspective; someone who actively stimulates learning,
      such as a "coach."  The instructor not only makes assignments and
      observes the results, he/she also helps the student learn through
      demonstration and personalized instruction.


           a.  The ADM manual for student and private pilots is simple
      and repetitive for two reasons:

                (1)  The simplicity provides frequent positive
      reinforcement; and

                (2)  The repetition builds good judgment habits and
      refreshes memory so that information can be readily recalled in a
      variety of circumstances, even when under stress.

           b.  The scenarios in the student and private pilot ADM
      manual should stimulate the student's interest and appreciation
      of the need for good pilot judgment and ADM.

           c.  The instructor has a profound effect on a student as a
      role model and as an opinion shaper.

                (1)  Use of the ADM concepts to guide conversations
      with the student focuses the instruction on judgment-related
      training and increases the student's ability to provide
      self-generated feedback.

                (2)  Knowing how to recognize and respond to hazardous
      attitudes and high stress is very important to exercising good
      pilot judgment.  The instructor should encourage the student to
      develop these skills but, in doing do, should never attempt to
      analyze or modify the student's personality.

                (3)  The student learns concepts and behavioral
      techniques and repeatedly applies this learning to relevant
      flight situations during ground and flight training.

           d.  The basic instructional principles which follow are
      simple, but application does take some practice.  When you first
      try to apply them you may feel somewhat awkward, but you will
      become more comfortable with them eventually.  After a few
      months, the use of these principles will become automatic.

                (1)  Behavior positively reinforced will continue.


                (2)  Behavior followed by punishment may decrease.

                (3)  Be very specific about learning objectives.

                (4)  Reinforce generously in the early stages of

                (5)  Shift slowly from continuous to occasional

                (6)  Shape existing behavior into desired behavior.


           a.  General.  Students must be exposed to this material
      early in their pilot training, ideally during the first quarter
      of the student standard private pilot training course.

           b.  Description of Material in the Student and Private
      Manual (DOT/FAA/PM-86/41).  Three approaches are presented in
      this manual to improve the pilot's judgment and decision making
      skills.  The first approach presents an analytical method for
      making decisions and evaluating risk (Chapters 2 and 3).  The
      second approach (Chapters 4, 5 and 6) addresses the pilot's
      hazardous attitudes and substitutes ones which promote good
      judgment.  The third approach (Chapter 7) deals with overcoming
      high stress which reduces judgment and decision making abilities.


           a.  General.  The following material, contained in Chapter 8
      of DOT/FAA/PM-86/41, Aeronautical Decision Making for Student and
      Private Pilots, should be integrated, where appropriate, into the
      topics of the conventional ground training syllabus.

                (1)  "Preflight and Aircraft Systems" after aircraft
      and aircraft systems.

                (2)  "Weight/Balance and Performance" after performance
      and weight and balance.

                (3)  "Official Procedures and Communications" after
      airports and communication, aviation regulations, and the
      Airman's Information Manual in Canada - the AIP.

                (4)  "Cross-Country Flying" after basic navigation and
      radio navigation.


                (5)  "Physiological Factors and Night Flying" after
      medical factors and cross-country flying.

           b.  Description of Material.  Each section of Chapter 8 of
      the Aeronautical Decision Making for Student and Private Pilots
      document presents exercises which test the student's judgment and
      decision making knowledge in the previously mentioned topic
      areas.  These exercises require the student to use the terms and
      concepts learned in all previous lessons.  Encourage the students
      to review earlier material as necessary.  After the student has
      completed each section, discuss the answers.  No answer key is
      provided, but bear in mind that, although responses to most of
      the questions may be relatively obvious, there are no absolutely
      right or wrong answers.


           a.  General.  How does a flight instructor combine
      educational principles with the concepts in this manual to
      improve a student's judgment and decision making?  By giving the
      student a series of practical, "hands-on" lessons in which you
      observe performance and response to specific behavior.  Do not
      comment on intentions or motivations.  Use rewards (praise)
      frequently and avoid criticism (punishment) as much as possible.
      Errors or misjudgments by the student should be viewed as
      opportunities for learning, not as occasions for criticism.

           b.  The Lessons.

                (1)  In this unit, while on routine training flights,
      you will give your students "activities" designed to further
      develop their appreciation for the decision making concepts based
      upon an actual preflight or in-flight "hands-on" experience.

                (2)  Take 15 minutes or so for your own preparation the
      first few times you work with each lesson.

                (3)  Start the lessons when the student has the ability
      to control the aircraft confidently during the most basic
      maneuvers.  Use your own judgment, but a suggested starting point
      is about three flight lessons before you expect the student to

                (4)  At least three lessons each are needed to teach
      risk assessment in decision making, hazardous attitude
      recognition, and stress management, for a total of nine lessons.
      Each lesson should take no more than 5 minutes and should be


      integrated into the normal 1-to-2 hour flight training period.

                (5)  The instructor's ADM manual provides 18 lesson
      plans for in-flight teaching of these mental processes.


           a.  Purpose.  The purpose of this chapter of the
      instructor's manual is to further encourage the student to use
      judgment and decision making skills.  Your duties are two-fold;
      (1) you must set up situations to stimulate the student's
      decision making process, and (2) you must respond to student
      behavior in a manner that encourages safe judgments and

           b.  The Scenarios.  Practice situations, provided in this
      section of the manual, create circumstances that may actually
      encourage the student to make an unsafe judgment or decision.
      Why?  Because it is important for the student to become skilled
      at recognizing and replacing hazardous attitudes and unsafe
      tendencies with good judgment behavior.

      37.  TYPICAL TRAINING SCENARIOS.  This section of the
      instructor's manual provides a narrative of a typical judgment
      training session.  You might find it useful in formulating your
      own ideas for conducting your own judgment training flights.  As
      mentioned earlier, all necessary preparation should be completed
      before the student's expected arrival time.


           a.  This training program is more than just a collection of
      related facts and ideas for students to learn.  It is a carefully
      designed educational system.  Using this integrated system
      produces an overall result greater than that attainable by random
      presentation of the individual parts.  To achieve the maximum
      benefits of this system, you must manage the instruction

           b.  The materials presented in this chapter of the
      instructor's manual are listed below.  They are designed to aid
      both the individual instructor and the training supervisor for a
      group of flight instructors, i.e., the chief pilot engaged in
      decision making training activities.  The aeronautical decision
      making training materials are:

                (1)  Schedule of Student Work.  A master plan for
      scheduling training activities for students.


                (2)  Set of Master Copies.  Original documents of all
      the instructional materials and forms required to teach this
      training curriculum.

                (3)  Answer Keys for the Postcheck Exercises.


      Situation 1                        Situation 6

      a.                                 a.
      b.                                 b.
      c.                                 c.
      d.                                 d.
      e.                                 e.

      Situation 2                        Situation 7

      a.                                 a.
      b.                                 b.
      c.                                 c.
      d.                                 d.
      e.                                 e.

      Situation 3                        Situation 8

      a.                                 a.
      b.                                 b.
      c.                                 c.
      d.                                 d.
      e.                                 e.

      Situation 4                        Situation 9

      a.                                 a.
      b.                                 b.
      c.                                 c.
      d.                                 d.
      e.                                 e.

      Situation 5                        Situation 10

      a.                                 a.
      b.                                 b.
      c.                                 c.
      d.                                 d.


      e.                                 e.

                          APPENDIX 2. SCORING FORM


      1.        b         e         c         a         d         15

      2.        a         d         b         e         c         15

      3.        e         c         a         d         b         15

      4.        d         e         b         c         a         15

      5.        c         a         d         b         e         15

      6.        c         a         d         b         e         15

      Items 1-6
      Subtotal                                                       90

      7.        d         c         b         a         e         15

      8.        e         a         b         c         d         15

      9.        b         e         c         a         d         15

      10.       e         d         c         a         b         15

      Items 7-10
      Subtotal                                                       60

      Items 1-10
      Grand Total                                                   150

                        APPENDIX 3. ATTITUDE PROFILE

             50         50        50        50       50 Mark X's below
                                                        this line if
                                                        you answered
                                                        all ten

            40         40         40        40       40

            30         30         30        30       30 Mark X's below


                                                        this line if
                                                        you only
                                                        situations one
                                                        thru six

            20         20         20        20       20 Mark X's below
                                                        this line if
                                                        you only
                                                        seven thru ten






      HAZARDOUS THOUGHT                       ANTIDOTE






                     APPENDIX 5. LIFE EVENTS STRESS TEST

      Item No.       Happened (X)   Life Event

      1.                            Death of a spouse
      2.                            Divorce
      3.                            Marital Separation


      4.                            Jail term
      5.                            Death of close family member
      6.                            Personal injury
      7.                            Marriage
      8.                            Lost your job
      9.                            Marital reconciliation
      10.                           Retirement
      11.                           Change in health of family member
      12.                           Pregnancy
      13.                           Sex difficulties
      14.                           Gain of new family member
      15.                           Business - budgets, schedules,
      16.                           Change in financial state
      17.                           Family member on drugs or alcohol
      18.                           Death of close friend
      19.                           Change to different line or work
      20.                           Change in number of arguments with
                                    spouse or partner
      21.                           Mortgage or loan over $10,000
      22.                           Foreclosure of mortgage or loan
      23.                           Change in responsibilities at work
      24.                           Son or daughter leaving home
      25.                           Trouble with in-laws or partner's
      26.                           Outstanding personal achievement
      27.                           Spouse or partner begins or stops
      28.                           You begin or end work
      29.                           Change in living conditions
      30.                           Revision of personal habits
      31.                           Trouble with boss or instructor
      32.                           Change in work hours or conditions
      33.                           Change in residence
      34.                           Change in school or teaching
      35.                           Change in recreational activities
      36.                           Change in church activities
      37.                           Change in social activities
      38.                           Mortgage or loan less than $10,000
      39.                           Change in sleeping habits
      40.                           Change in number of family social
      41.                           Change in eating habits
      42.                           Vacation
      43.                           Christmas
      44.                           Minor violations of the law


      Total number of checks for the past 12 months       . 
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