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A Guide to Land Use and Public Transportation for Snohomish County, Washington





Click HERE for graphic.



A Guide to Land Use and Public Transportation
for
Snohomish County, Washington


Prepared By
The Snohomish County Transportation Authority

December, 1989




The Snohomish County Transportation Authority
Board of Directors

Chairman Bill Brubaker, Snohomish County Council
Vice Chairman M.J. Hrdlicka, Mayor, City of Lynnwood
Brian Corcoran, Snohomish County Councilmember
Liz McLaughlin, Snohomish County Councilmember
William E. Moore, Mayor, City of Everett
Richard H. Toyer, Mayor, City of Lake Stevens


The Technical Assistance Team for the
Public Transportation Plan

Bob Caldwell, Washington State Dept. of Transportation
John Conrad, Washington State Dept. of Transportation
Dennis Derickson, City of Everett Planning Dept.
Carlton Gipson, Everett Transit
George Godley, Snohomish County Planning Dept.
Aaron Grimes, Snohomish County Planning Dept.
Paul Kaftanski, Community Transit.
Johannes Kurz, Snohomish County Public Works Dept.
Cis Leroy, Everett Transit
Terry Morrison, Snohomish County Planning Dept.
Mike Partridge, City of Lynnwood Planning Dept.
Klaus Schilde, Snohomish County Planning Dept.
Mike Smith, Puget Sound Council of Governments



The Blue Ribbon Committee

King Cushman, Pierce Transit
Larry Frank, Transportation Research Center
Eileen Kadesh, Metro
Scott Rutherford, Transportation Research Center
Michael Surface, Seattle Master Builders Association
Joe Savage, KJS Associates, Inc.


The Snohomish County Transportation Authority Staff

Caroline Feiss, Executive Director
John Dewhirst, Senior Planner
Ardelle Bailey, Administrative Secretary
Susan Bergen, Intern

SNO-TRAN

5800 - 198th Street S.W. # A-2
Lynnwood, WA 98036
(206) 672-0674


Graphic and Marketing Consultants: Ilium Associates, Inc.



This Project was funded in part by grants from the Urban Mass
Transportation Administration of the United States Department of
Transportation under the Urban Mass Transportation Act of 1964, as
amended.  The contents of this plan reflect the views of SNO-TRAN,
which is solely responsible for the facts and accuracy of data
herein.The contents do not necessarily reflect the official views
or policy of the U.S. Department of Transportation.


                                                                    


                                                   December 21, 1989

Dear Interested Community Member:

Snohomish County Transportation Authority (SNO-TRAN) is pleased to
present its new publication entitled "A Guide to Land Use and
Public Transportation for Snohomish County."

This guide is an introduction to the new topic of public
transportation-compatible land uses.  It gives insights to
exploring new approaches to resolving old transportation problems. 
"A Guide to Land Use and Public Transportation" is the product of a
year-long process undertaken by SNO-TRAN with the assistance of the
county's transit operators, plus public and private interests.

SNO-TRAN is dedicated to helping Snohomish County communities
create an environment that enhances the mobility of its citizens. 
Making a range of transportation options work has to be a goal for
all of us if our communities are to continue to be livable and
prosperous.

This guide is one of a series of efforts SNO-TRAN is taking to
foster transportation alternatives through the creation of a public
transportation-compatible environment.  If you are interested in
participating or have questions, please call SNO-TRAN at 672-0674.

Sincerely,


Bill Brubaker, Chairman             M.J. Hrdlicka, Vice Chairman
Snohomish County Councilmember      Mayor, City of Lynnwood

Brian Corcoran                      Liz McLaughlin
Snohomish County Councilmember      Snohomish County Coucilmember

William Moore                       Richard Toyer
Mayor, City of Everett              Mayor, City or Lake Stevens




Table of Contents

Introduction to Public
Transportation Compatibility                               Chapter 1

How Public Transportation Works                            Chapter 2

Public Transportation-Compatible Land Uses                 Chapter 3

Model Public Transportation-Compatible
Land Use Goals and Policies for Community                  Chapter 4
Plans

Public Transportation - Compatible Zoning                  Chapter 5

Transportation Management: Making Better
Use of the Transportation System                           Chapter 6

Public Transportation-Compatible Subdivision
Design                                                     Chapter 7

Public Transportation-Compatible Site Design               Chapter 8

Public Transportation Compatibility Worksheets             Chapter 9

Appendix A: Public Transportation Terms
Appendix B: Sources                                       Appendix A


 


Chapter 1: Introduction to Public Transportation Compatibility

Introduction



     This guide offers suggestions that local jurisdictions,
     developers, community groups, and land owners working with
     their local transit operators can use to locate and design
     activities and facilities and change trip-making behaviors so
     that options to autos can become realistic.


People are bewildered by the congestion that is inundating their
communities, too many people are using too many automobiles.  Air
quality and, indeed, our quality of life are being threatened by
the endless stream of autos.  Creating alternatives to the single-
occupant auto means creating an environment that permits people to
easily use other types of transportation - buses, rail,
ridesharing, ferries, walking, and bicycles.  Right now those
choices are not available in many areas.

One of the results of our use of the automobile has been land use
patterns that can only be served by the auto.  Low density suburbs
and strip commercial developments were not designed to accommodate
public transportation services that require large numbers of riders
to make them work efficiently.  Retrofitting traditional bus
services into these areas is difficult, under the best
circumstances, and may not be very effective.  To compound the
problem, such areas usually lack basic facilities such as arterials
that buses can use and sidewalks that bring passengers to bus
stops.

Making alternatives to the single-occupant auto a reality means
creating new travel patterns based on land uses, road networks,
pedestrian facilities and even employment practices that are public
transportation compatible.  This guide offers suggestions that
local jurisdictions, developers, community groups, and land owners
working with their local transit operators can use to locate and
design activities and facilities and change trip-making behaviors
so that options to autos can become realistic.

Click HERE for graphic.

The term "public transportation" applies to a wide variety of
transportation services available to the public including bus
service, rail, express bus, passenger and auto ferries, and
rideshare services such as carpools and vanpools.
Source: A Director of Urban Public Transportation Service, UMTA
(August, 1988)

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Chapter 1.  Introduction to Public Transportation Compatibility

The Community Can Benefit From Public Transportation


The community can derive both direct and indirect benefits from
integrating a variety of public transportation services into its
structure.

Residents can benefit from:

           
     -     Increased mobility for elderly and disabled people
     -     Improved mobility for many who are auto dependent
     -     Increased economic opportunities
     -     Environmental benefits   
     -     Better community image
     -     Reduced congestion
     -     Less land in parking
     -     Better transit service

The development and business communities can benefit from:

     -     Reduced employee late arrivals
     -     Reduced employee stress
     -     Alternative commute options for bad weather
     -     Potentially lower traffic mitigation costs
     -     Reduced parking requirements
     -     Improved community image

 Local government can benefit from:

     -     Reduced requirements for new roads
     -     Relieving congestion faster than building roads
           Partnerships with public transportation agencies and the
           private sector to share costs and create visible
           solutions
     -     Added capacity to respond flexibly to change
     -     Community awareness that action is being taken

     Publicly provided transportation is a valuable but limited re-
source.  For a community to benefit fully from this scarce public
resource, the location, design and patterns of use of its residen-
tial, commercial and industrial areas and particularly its streets
and public facilities need to support public transportation.  The
measures of the success of these land use changes will be greater
public transportation ridership and increased numbers of people who
know they have real alternatives to the single-occupant auto.

Click HERE for graphic.

Residents benefit from public transportation.
Source: Metro Year 2000 Public Transportation Plan, (May 1989)



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Chapter 1: Introduction to Public Transportation Compatibility

Community Needs to Plan for Public Transportation                   
    
The issue is not to change the land uses that make up a community,
but rather influence their mixture and design.

We are realizing that we must integrate the planning and our
transportation network.  Planning for public transportation does
not imply a radical departure from current development practices. 
The issue is not to change the land uses that make up a community,
but rather to influence their mixture and design.  Locating
apartment houses on major streets with bus routes and installing
sidewalks to bus stops are examples of planning for public
transportation.

Public transportation can be integrated into a community in many
ways.  The coordination between community planning and public
transportation needs to start when the community first writes or
amends its community plan.  That coordination needs to continue as
the plan is revised, updated and implemented through project
reviews, capital improvement program development, and the creation
of new community programs.

     A community can influence the public transportation compati-
bility of a plan by considering public transportation as it ad-
dresses each of these development issues:

     -     Pedestrian access
     -     The amount, cost, and location of parking
     -     The location of townhouses and apartments
     -     The location and design of Shopping & employment
     -     The location of transit facilities
     -     The location of community facilities, schools, parks,
           etc.
     -     The mix of land uses
     -     The design of building complexes and their surroundings
     -     The design of residential developments 
     -     The design of streets and intersections

 These issues are the topics of this guide to land use and public



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Chapter 1. introduction to Public Transportation Compatibility

Into Action


In order to achieve the integration of public transportation into a
community, both the community and transportation agencies need to
consider taking the following actions.

The Local Jurisdiction Responsibilities

     1.    Form partnerships with the local transportation agencies
           to better understand the issues.

     Community and neighborhood plans, capital facilities program-
ming, street and sidewalk design and improvements all need to
incorporate public transportation.  For example, a consistent
network of sidewalks, crosswalks, and bus shelters is crucial for
bus rider safety and should be part of all plans in areas to be
served by buses.  Similar pedestrian facilities will be needed at
ferry terminals, transit centers and future rail stations.

Click HERE for graphic.

Partnership with public transit


     2.    Include public transportation issues when formulating
           development regulations.

     Community plans need to be translated into usable regulations
in zoning, subdivision, site design, environmental and parking
requirements.  For example, placing commercial buildings along
streets with bus routes helps promote ridership and can be achieved
by requiring the placement of parking at the sides or backs of
buildings and by requiring direct pedestrian connections to
sidewalks leading to bus stops.

Click HERE for graphic.

Community participation is necessary.



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Chapter 1: Introduction to Public Transportation Compatibility

Into Action, continued


     There is growing interest in "transportation management"
strategies.  These include tools that can either increase the
people carrying capacity of the existing transportation system,
including roads, or reduce the amount of single-occupant auto
traffic.  For example, ordinances use incentives to encourage
rideshare or transit fare subsidy programs and disincentives to
discourage huge parking lots or roads that cannot carry buses.


     3.    Assure compliance of development proposals with public
           transportation guidelines within environmental   (SEPA)
           and other development regulations.

     Once the transit-compatible policies and regulations have been
adopted, all these regulations must be applied consistently to
public and private development projects including road im-
provements.


 The Transportation Agency Responsibilities

     If a public transportation-compatible community is to be cre-
ated, local transit agencies must participate in many aspects of
the community where they have traditionally not been involved.  The
local transit agency must:

     -     Educate the community about the benefits and needs of a
           public transportation system;

     -     Work with public agencies and private developers to
           develop compatible design criteria and regulations;

     -     Work with public agencies and developers to help plan and
           design compatible developments;

     -     Work with other public transportation agencies such as
           the State Ferries and the State Department of
           Transportation to assure transit compatibility at ferry
           terminals and on state highways;

     -     Work with the cities and the County to assure con-
           struction of transit-compatible roadway improvements such
           as arterial HOV lanes and bus pullouts;

     -     Supply new markets with new transportation services, only
           if that service is supported by a public transportation-
           compatible environment.

Click HERE for graphic.

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Chapter 1. Introduction to Public Transportation Compatibility


SNO-TRAN'S Guide to Public Transportation and Land Use


To be useful, this guide must be viewed as an introduction to land
use and public transportation.  Most of its suggestions are new, a
few may be radical, some are simple, others are complex; but these
ideas are offered as starting points for communities to discuss new
approaches to resolving their transportation problems.


This guide is an introduction to the emerging concept of public
transportation-compatible land uses.  It is written for the benefit
of those designing, planning developing, reviewing or rendering
decisions on land uses or development projects.

This guide contains the following:

     -     The first two chapters are, an introduction to the
           concept of public transportation-compatible land uses and
           the workings of public transportation.

     -     Chapter 3 describes the criteria that make land uses
           compatible with public transportation.

     -     Policy guidelines are discussed in the form of model
           community plan goals and policies in Chapter 4.

     -     The next four chapters, 5-8, describe specific ways to
           achieve compatibility through a zoning ordinance, a
           transportation management approach, the design of
           residential subdivisions and the site design for most
           types of developments.

     -     Chapter 9 contains work sheets to apply all these
           concepts and details to proposed developments to assist
           in determining whether or not those developments are
           compatible with public transportation.

     -     The two appendices include a glossary of public
           transportation terms (which may be used as models for
           ordinance definitions) and a list of the references used
           to write this guide (which may be considered a
           bibliography of public transportation compatibility).



1-6

 


Click HERE for graphic.




Chapter 2:  How Public Transportation Works


Introduction


While public transportation includes a whole variety of
transportation services including ferry and passenger rail, the
focus of this chapter will be on the two most common forms of
public transportation - buses and ridesharing (typically provided
by carpools and vanpools).


We take public transportation for granted, but public transpor-
tation only works when conditions are right.  This chapter is
designed to help communities understand why bus services and
ridesharing programs work under some conditions and not under
others and why transit can't respond to all requests for service.

     Unless one lives in larger, higher density cities where many
people have traditionally relied on public transportation, it may
be difficult to use public transportation, especially in suburban
areas - even if a person wants to.  It is especially difficult in
lower density areas where the number of people "heading your way"
is probably pretty small.  Another name for public transportation
is mass transportation, service for masses of people.  Public
transportation is very effective where it can pick up many
passengers at each stop throughout the day.  The perception of
"empty buses" in suburban areas reflects a number of factors
involving development and lifestyle choices that result in too few
riders living too far apart.

The public transportation services you see on the street are the
product of understanding:

     -     How people decide to take trips on transit or the demand
           for service;

     -     How services can best be tailored to meet that demand;

     -     How the right resources (vehicles, drivers, etc.) can be
           assigned to fit the service design; and

     -     How those services and resources will really work
           When they are put out in the community.

This chapter is structured like the public transportation planning
process that is based on the understandings of demand, service
design, resource allocation and running the service on the street. 
It is hoped that the reader's understanding of this process will
help further cooperation between the community and public
transportation.



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Chapter 2: How Public Transportation Works

An Introduction to Trip Making


To understand the demand for public transportation services, we
have to understand how trip making works.

When a person decides to take a trip, he or she consciously an
unconsciously considers practical options and personal preferences. 
One thinks about the trip's destination and evaluate whether to
walk, take the bus, drive a car, use a carpool vanpool, etc.  That
choice is colored by:

     -     What options are available, (i.e., whether to walk or
           take one of several vehicle choices);

     -     How long the trip will take, which is based on the routes
           the vehicle can take and how fast it will go;

     -     Whether the vehicle choice will get him/her to the
           destination on time;

     -     How much the trip will cost for each of the vehicle
           choices (cost here includes fuel costs, parking costs and
           fares, and

     -     How many inconveniences or discomforts will be
           experienced like waiting in the rain, having to walk in
           the dark or enduring endless traffic congestion.


     *     While there are other costs of driving a car (insurance,
           depreciation), few people think of these other costs when
           they decide to take a trip.

Click HERE for graphic.

Deciding to take a trip

Trip-Making Examples

Can the Bus be the Choice?

Mike, a Snohomish County resident, considers how he wants to travel
to the grocery store:

     -     If he walks, it will take half an hour each way and 
           he'll have to cross that vacant lot since there is no 
           direct sidewalk route to the store. If he walks, the 
           store is likely to be closed by the time he gets there, 
           but even if he can shop, he'll have to carry the bags
           back.


     -     If he takes the bus, it'll take even longer since the 
           bus goes via the playfield. He may get there after the
           store closes since the  bus  won't come for another 20
           minutes. Lugging groceries on a bus is not really
           appealing.



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Chapter 2: How Public Transportation Works

An Introduction to Trip Making, continued


     -     So Mike takes the car.  He can drive directly to the
           store, the trip will take ten minutes so he'll have time
           to shop; and bringing groceries home in the car is easy.

     What would make it possible for Mike to take the bus to the
     store?

     Probably nothing practical, short of there being no parking
     available or a very high cost to park.  But in today's
     suburban environment, there are too many factors that favor
     his car.

Can the Bus or Ridesharing Be the Choice?

     Sally has to decide how to get to a new job:

     -     Walking or riding a bike is out  -  the job is too far
           away.

     -     There is bus service to her job site, but the bus can't
           safely stop outside her subdivision because it is a busy
           state highway and there is no bus pullout: She'd have to
           walk 200 feet on the highway to the nearest stop and
           there is no sidewalk.  In order to be sure she gets to
           work on time, Sally would have to leave the house an hour
           before work starts to catch the bus.

     -     She'd like to carpool or vanpool, but her employer has
           established variable work schedules and she can't find
           anyone who lives near her who works the same hours.

Click HERE for graphic.

Commuting on a bus to work.
Source:Metro Year 2000 Public Transportation, (May, 1989)

     -     She takes her car.  She can drive easily to her job and
           the employer has provided acres of free parking.  She
           decides the congestion she encounters is tolerable.

     What would make it possible for Sally to use public
     transportation for her work trips?

If the developer of her subdivision had put in a sidewalk to the
bus stop and if her neighbors joined her in requesting a
rescheduling of the bus service, Sally might have been able to take
the bus.  If her employer encouraged ridesharing by consolidating
work schedules or allowing people to set their own schedules
(flextime), and providing priority, close-in parking spaces for
people who rideshare, Sally might be able to put together a carpool
or vanpool.

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Chapter 2: How Public Transportation Works

Public Transportation: Designing Service


Public transportation operators are businesses, supplying trans-
portation services.  They have to design services to assure that
their shareholders - the taxpayer and the transit user - see
services that are as productive as possible.

Productivity means passengers, To provide productive services,
public transportation operators have to balance demand for service
with available resources - vehicles, drivers, operating funds -
designing suitable routes and schedules to fit.

     -     In big cities there are usually large numbers of people
           (demand)  wanting to go to a set of destinations (along
           the route) when the buses make the trip (the schedule).
           The cost per passenger is fairly low since it is
           distributed among many passengers riding the bus.

     -     In suburban areas where riders are fewer and five farther
           apart, their trip destinations and times they want to
           travel may be similar (workers going to a major
           employment center) or very diverse  (shoppers going to
           different malls). The cost of carrying each of these
           riders will be much higher since each trip will probably
           be longer and serve fewer passengers.

     -     One exception is express bus service:  Large numbers of
           suburban riders are collected at park-and-ride lots and
           taken directly to their destinations, quickly and
           cheaply. These trips do not have to wander through low
           density areas collecting one passenger here and another
           there and so are very cost-effective.

     -     Another exception is ridesharing which effectively
           tailors "mass" transportation to serve a smaller group to
           fill the vehicle.  Carpools and vanpools can be set up by
           employers, the transit operator or by individuals where
           small clusters of travelers have similar origins and
           destinations for regularly scheduled trips.  While a
           carpool or vanpool doesn't appear to make a big dent in
           congestion, in the aggregate, ridesharing can be a major
           tool in reducing peak period traffic.  Ridesharing, like
           other forms of public transportation needs a compatible
           environment if it is to be truly effective.*

Click HERE for graphic.

TSM in Washington State

Source:  WSDOT Transportation System Management (TSM) in Washington
State

*    A compatible environment requires roadways, parking and
     information programs that make it possible for rideshare
     vehicles to compete with the private auto.  Chapters 3,6,7,8,
     and 9 have information on this.



2-4


 
Chapter 2: How Public Transportation Works

Public Transportation Resources: Best Use



     Public transportation planners have to consider how best to
     use their resources to fit the services they design.


The number of buses a transit operator has is pretty much fixed
from year to year.  Ordering new coaches can take one to two years
from the time specifications are developed to when the buses are
delivered.  In most cases, buses are specially built for each order
- you can't just go pick them "off the shelf."

If buses are to be used on a new route or added to an existing
route, those buses are probably going to be taken off an
established route, reducing the frequency of service on that route. 
How will the users of that route react?

The number of rideshare vans available through a transit operator's
rideshare program depends on how much money is available for
purchasing vans and on the demand in the community for vanpools. 
The operator has to balance community interest in ridesharing with
demands for fixed-route bus services and services for elderly,
disabled and other people who require specialized services.  One
advantage of vanpools is that the operating costs of the vans are
usually shared by the van users who pay a monthly fare that covers
most, if not all, those costs.

The number of drivers available depends on the overall number of
drivers employed, the number available on any given day (not on
vacation or sick leave), the number of shifts, and the number of
trips within each shift.  One reason that transit agencies are
turning to 60-foot articulated (bending) buses is that they can
carry many more people with one driver than can be carried on a
conventional 40-foot bus.  Trains can carry even more people with
one driver (and some trains operate without drivers!).

The size of the operating budget depends on the amount of funds
available from taxes, fares, advertising, and government grants.  A
typical transit agency operating budget looks like this:

Click HERE for graphic.

Even if transit agencies want to provide more services and
facilities (like transit centers and park-and-ride lots), they face
many barriers:

     -     Buying land and constructing new facilities means meeting
           a great number of state, local and federal rules and
           regulations including environmental regulations, planning
           requirements, and building codes, man of which take
           several ears to meet.



2-5




Chapter 2: How Public Transportation Works

 Public Transportation Resources: Best Use, continued


Buying new vehicles can also be complicated by federal purchasing
rules, new "alternative fuel" regulations, and lengthy purchasing
processes.  Some examples:

     -     There are many buses available for delivery from European
           manufacturers but they are off limits because of the "Buy
           America"  rules.  Because of backlogged orders, American
           manufactured buses may take three years to arrive.

     -     Buying rideshare vans on the State contract saves a great
           deal of money, but the State only buys vehicles twice a
           year, meaning long delays in getting needed vans.



2-6





Chapter 2:  How Public Transportation Works 

Transit's Favorite Stories: What Works and What Doesn't


There are many stories that public transportation agencies can tell
about what works and what doesn't work when services are evaluated
in their operating environment (the community).

The following examples are all drawn from Snohomish County.


1. Why Transit Can't Meet the Ferry

In one of the towns served by the ferry system, the buses need to
make a left turn, across the lane of ferry traffic being loaded or
unloaded, throwing bus schedules way off.

Click HERE for graphic.

                     It's hard to keep on schedule

- The Public Transportation Solution

     What was needed was a left-turn traffic signal activated by
     the bus driver so buses could make the turn and continue on
     schedule.


2.  A Trip In the County

In an effort to reduce traffic, several cities have decided not to
build arterials through their cities.  Transit buses, unable to
take the logical, straight route have to wander through neighbor-
hoods and out into farmlands, resulting in long, unproductive
routes.

Click HERE for graphic.

Buses need riders

 >  The Public Transportation Solution

As cities lay out their street plans or make plans to annex new
areas, they should work together with local developers, community
groups and the transit operator to consider the transit service
implications of the road design and weigh the benefits to the
community of having efficient bus operations.


 3.  Can't Get Back From There


A major employer wants buses to serve its very large facility to
help reduce traffic congestion.  Unfortunately, the road into the
site was not designed for large vehicles and there is no place for
buses to turn around. (For safety reasons, buses don't back up.)



2-7


 


Chapter 2: How Public Transportation Works

 Transit's Favorite Stories: What Works and What Doesn't continued

Click HERE for graphic.

Big buses and small roads create problems!

The Public Transportation Solution

Developers should work with transit planners early in the site
planning process to assure that roads are wide enough, turning
space is provided and that pavements are designed to carry buses so
that when bus service is needed, the transit system can respond.


4.  Foiling Ridesharing

Another major employer would be a perfect site for a major
ridesharing program since many of its employees could efficiently
use carpools and vanpools.  The problem is that the employer offers
hundreds of "free" parking places (though they cost $1,000-
$3,000/space to develop), making it easy for people to drive alone. 
Congestion and a lot of space wasted on parking are the results.

Click HERE for graphic.

Free Parking Foils Ridesharing                          

     >     The Public Transportation Solution

     The employer has a number of options available.  Single -
     occupant vehicles (SOVS) could be required to park in lots
     farthest from the buildings and preferential parking could be
     reserved for rideshare vehicles. SOVs could be charged for
     parking; carpools and vanpools could park free. The employer,
     working with transit, could develop incentive programs to
     encourage employee ridesharing.  A number of company cars
     could be made available to ridesharing employees who need to
     make business-related trips during the day.

     5.    Multi-Purpose Trips Need Autos

At a number of residential and employment sites in the county,
residents and workers are forced to use their cars for a whole
range of trips people have to take during the day because no
services are available on site or within a safe and easy walking
distance.  Because they need their cars for these kinds of trips,*
these people are not candidates for public transportation.

*    Recent statistics show that short trips to stores, daycare,
     banks, recreation areas, etc., account for a large portion of
     all vehicular trip making.  Single use land uses are one major
     reason that so many people have to use their autos for these
     trips.



2-8





 Chapter 2: How Public Transportation Works

Transit's Favorite Stories:  What Works and What Doesn't, continued

Click HERE for graphic.

Mixed-Use Development
Source: Burnaby Metrotown, Burnaby Planning Department, (June,
1977)

     The Public Transportation Solution

          As new developments are planned, mixed-use developments
     should be given greater emphasis.  Banks, dry cleaners,
     restaurants, daycare, fitness centers and the like can enhance
     a development by reducing the need for people to take their
     cars to run errands during the day or after work.

6. Give Transit a Break

     People like the privacy and comfort of their private cars and
getting them to use ridesharing and buses is very difficult unless
those modes have a "leg up" on cars.  Time savings and "leaving the
driving to us" can be transit's advantage over private auto use.


The Public Transportation Solution

     The advantage express buses have can be created elsewhere if
local communities and developers, working with the transit
operator, consider building high occupancy vehicle (HOV) facilities
(park-and-ride lots, bus turning lanes, HOV lanes) into the
arterial network.  A good example is Community Transit's express
bus operations into Seattle which use the HOV lanes (also called
diamond lanes) down I-5.  Those lanes, reserved for buses and
rideshare vehicles, can save minutes on a rush hour trip making
those express buses very popular.

Click HERE for graphic.

High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes give transit an advantage.
Source: Preliminary a Report on High Occupancy Vehicle (HOC)
Facilities and Activities, 
WSDOT, (January, 1989)



2-9





Chapter 2: How Public Transportation Works

Service Planning Guidelines


          The section that follows contains more detail on public
     transportation service planning.  If the reader is interested
     in additional information on any of the points raised in this
     chapter, he or she is encouraged to contact the local transit
     operator.


What do public transportation planners consider as they plan
service? One thing they look at is potential routes.  The following
are from Community Transit's 'Guideline for Route Analysis."

Route Planning Guidelines

Goal:      Provide safe, efficient, effective transportation service
           for the residents of a community.

 Factors:

     -     Accessibility to route by residents
           Consider:      - % of population within walking
                          distance of a bus stop

     -     Diversity of destinations served
           Consider:      - Number of activity centers connected
                          - Transfer opportunities provided

     -     Efficiency of routing/directness
           Consider:      -  Bus travel time vs. auto travel time
                          -  Minimize loops

     -     Safety of route
           Consider:      - Street width/pavement conditions
                          - Road conditions in adverse weather
                          - Safety of travel lane stops
                          - Pullout and shelter facilities (poten-
                          tial)
                          - Manageability of turns
    
     -     Responsiveness to the public
           Consider:      - Public input in the forms of service
                            requests, survey responses, etc.
                          - Political pressures & political
                          feasibility

 Tasks:

     1.    Identify multi-family and high density single family
           locations.
     2.    Locate activity centers (employment, retail, etc.)
     3.    Gather data on ridership trends and current route
           ridership.
     4.    Incorporate public input and solicit comments.
     5.    Identify the locations of other bus routes or modes of
           Public transportation in the area to consider transfer
           connections where applicable.
     6.    Check on any road improvement projects planned for the
           area.
     7.    Drive through the area to do preliminary time checks and
           initial inspection of road conditions and route
           characteristics.

*    Loops are circular routes that can take people way out of
     their way and are very inefficient.  Direct routing is much
     preferred.


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Chapter 2: How Public Transportation Works
 
Service Planning Guidelines, continued

Bus Stops: How They are Designed and Sited

A bus stop is basically a bus zone plus the bus stop itself.  The
bus zone is usually 80 to 160 feet long - the space for the bus to
pull in and out to serve the bus stop.  The bus stop is the
passenger loading "platform" and is generally marked by a bus stop
sign and may have a shelter and other facilities such as phone
booths, lighting and transit service information signs.

Ideally, bus stops are paved areas, accessible from two sides by
paved sidewalks with wheelchair ramps at intersections.  The bus
stop area needs to be large enough to accommodate the anticipated
number of passengers that will board and alight there and large
enough for a wheelchair to maneuver on and off the lift on the side
of the bus. (See Chapter 8 for more information on bus stop
design.)


Click HERE for graphic.

             Bus stop design and location are important.
     Source: Accommodating the Pedestrian, Richard Untermann (New
     York, 1984)

The location of bus stops is decided by the following factors:

     -     Safety considerations for pedestrians and vehicles
     -     Passenger demand-how many people will use the stop
     -     Local regulations  -  the location of bus zones and stops
           has to be approved by the local jurisdiction
     -     Impacts on private property
     -     Efficiency of operations -  what will this stop mean   
           to overall operating speeds and timed transfers
     -     Sight distances must be such that drivers and passengers
           have clear views on either side of the stop (generally
           not less than 300 feet).

Bus stops can be located immediately before or immediately after an
intersection or they can be located midblock.  Each has its
advantages and disadvantages and each has its own bus zone
dimension requirements.  The local transit operator can help
evaluate potential bus stop locations and provide designers with
their adopted standards.

Bus stop signs are provided by the transit operator and must be
located and mounted to meet the operator's and the local
jurisdiction's standards.  Bus stop shelters may be provided by the
operator, if passenger volumes and other considerations permit.  If
a non-operator provided shelter is desired for a location, its
design and siting must be approved by the transit operator.  The
reasons for this approval requirement include safety, barrier-free
design and long-term maintenance concerns.

Click HERE for graphic.

Bus stops must be convenient.



2-11





Click HERE for graphic.





Chapter 3: Public Transportation - Compatible Land Uses

Land Use is Important to Public Transportation                      
                                         
Developers and business people can derive substantial benefits by
integrating public transportation into their development projects
and businesses.


Public transportation works most effectively where you find high
activity levels, Unlimited parking and quality pedestrian and
transit access.  Such activities or land uses can be considered
"public transportation compatible."

The benefits to the community of creating public transportation -
compatible environments were reviewed in the introduction (Chapter
1).  Key among the benefits is increased mobility for the many
types of trips community members may wish to take for shopping,
jobs, school, and recreation.  Effective public transportation
system operations depend in large part on how the community is
designed and particularly how its land uses relate to its road
network.

Definitions

Developers and business people can also derive substantial benefits
by integrating public transportation into their development
projects and businesses.  Well designed transit facilities
integrated into developments can:

     -     Reduce parking needs and costs;
     -     Lower front-end construction costs;
     -     Mitigate traffic impacts;
     -     Mitigate SEPA requirements;
     -     Attract customer attention;
     -     Improve employee morale;
     -     Increase employee retention;
     -     Increase employee productivity; and
     -     Create a better community image.


 Definitions

"Public transportation" applies to a wide variety of transportation
services available to the public.  To understand how land uses can
support these services, we can divide the services into the
following categories:

Local Transit        High Capacity       Ridesharing
Services             Transit Services    Services

- Local buses        - Express buses     - Carpools
- Special services   - Rail transit      - Vanpools
  (for elderly &     - Passenger &       - Buspools
  disabled & other     auto ferries        (Subscription
  special groups)                           bus)



3-1





Chapter 3: Public Transportation - Compatible Land Uses

What Makes Land Use Compatible With Public Transportation           

      
Public transportation-compatible land uses have to be defined using
a variety of criteria.

Public transportation-compatible land uses have to be defined using
a variety of criteria.  Few of these criteria are cast in concrete
because there always will be variations caused by local conditions
or the type of public transportation service available.  The
compatibility criteria for the location and types of land uses may
differ for local bus service, express bus service and rail service.

"Compatible" land uses generally meet most of the following eight
criteria:

     1.    Land uses are located within existing urban or suburban
           activity centers

     2.    Land uses are located within mixed-use areas 

     3.    Land uses are located near transit service
           
     4.    Land uses have an orientation towards transit services

     5.    Walking distances are pedestrian scale 

     6.    Design encourages riders

     7.    Land uses encourage riders

     8.    Land uses have minimal parking


1.   Land Uses Are Located Within Existing Urban or Suburban
     Activity Centers

Public transportation works best when land uses are located within
an existing urban area or a suburban activity center.  Generally,
the closer a land use is to the middle of an activity center the
better.  Generally, the greatest number of transit riders can be
found in the middle of activity centers where land uses are
concentrated and parking is expensive and scarce.

Historically, the proximity of activities to a downtown has been
important.  In the future, this factor may not be as important
since so many activities are locating in suburban areas.  What is
more important is the concentration of activities within activity
centers in suburban areas.

2.    Land Uses Are Located Within Mixed-Use Areas

Bus and rail services and ridesharing work better where activities
are mixed together and people can walk between activities. 
Example: Offices mixed with restaurants and retail stores or small
shops located within residential areas.  People can take care of
several activities without making multiple auto trips.


3-2



Chapter 3: Public Transportation - Compatible Land Use

Compatibility Criteria, continued

Click HERE for graphic.

                     Locate in mixed use areas
     Source: Accommodate The Pedestrian, Richard Untermann, (New
     York, 1984)


3.   Land loss Are Located Near Public Transportation Service

Land uses must be located near a bus stop or other public
transportation facility or a planned route.  A site is not public
transportation-compatible if service is not currently provided at,
or planned for, that location, even if somebody thinks public
transportation "could work there."


4.   Land Uses Have An Orientation Towards Public    Transportation
     Service

     Land uses need to be oriented to public transportation
facilities.  People are not motivated to use public transportation
services if buildings do not provide convenient, quality access -
even if buildings are located close to a bus route or rail line. 
Building entrances and paved walkways need to lead directly to a
bus stop, a park-and-ride lot, or a station.

Click HERE for graphic.

           Orient land uses to public transportation facilities.
Source: Design Guidelines for Bus and Light Rail Facilities, Rail
Transit, (Sacramento, CA)

Shopping centers, for example, very seldom provide any attractive
way for pedestrians to reach the building entrance from a bus stop
without a lengthy walk through a parking lot or across landscaping. 
Bus operators are hesitant to enter these parking lots where buses
can be tied up in traffic.


3-3

Chapter 3: Public Transportation - Compatible Land Uses

Compatibility Criteria, continued

People can be expected to walk no more than 1,000 feet to a bus
stop or a park-and-ride parking space.

5.   Walking distances are pedestrian-Scale

The closer both the beginning and end of a trip are to a bus stop,
the greater the likelihood of people using public transportation. 
For example, isolated activities, even high-density activities, do
not generate riders if public transportation is difficult to reach. 


People can be expected to walk no more than 1,000 feet to a bus
stop or a park-and-ride parking space.  The walking distance
increases slightly, to 1,320-1,758 feet (1/4 to 1/3 of a mile), for
rail station access.

Click HERE for graphic.

                     Pedestrian walking distances

     The quality of the walk is as important as actual distance. 
The distances people will walk are reduced dramatically by steep
grades, a lack of weather protection, and a lack of paved, hazard-
free surfaces.  These factors become crucial for people with
disabling conditions that affect mobility.  On the other hand,
walking increases as the environment improves.

     Distances are not measured in a straight line, but by the
actual walking distance, given circuitous roadways, missing
sidewalks, and other obstacles.

Click HERE for graphic.

 Measure actual walking distances.


6.   Design Encourages Bus
  
     Bus service can work most effectively where bus facili-
ties,such as bus stops or transfer centers, are designed into
buildings, residential developments, roads, and building entrances.


Click HERE for graphic.

Source: Design Guidelines for Bus and Light 
Rail Facilities Regional Transit, (Sacramento, CA)



3-4



Chapter 3: Public Transportation: Compatible Land Uses 

Compatibility Criteria, continued



7.    Land Uses Encourage Riders

Three types of land uses - residential, non-residential, and
employment - will be discussed for their ability to generate
transit riders.

 Residential

Ridership on public transportation increases as residential density
increases.  Under good conditions, at 15 dwelling units per net
acre (du/ac), there can be a 100% increase in bus usage over that
of 5 du/ac; at 30 du/ac, bus usage can triple; at 50 du/ac there
can be more bus trips than auto trips.

Low density residential areas cannot sustain traditional bus
services.  However, these areas may be served by other types of
public transportation such as dial-a-bus, park-and-ride facilities,
van/carpools and similar new public transportation services.

Click HERE for graphic.

Low density single-family housing of under four dwelling units per
acre - a residential density too low generally support any transit
except park-and-ride express buses to very large downtowns

     The threshold for local bus service to residential areas is
approximately four to seven dwelling units per acre.  In certain
suburban locations, at or above 8 du/ac, bus service may be
improved to one-half hour from one-hour headways if conditions
permit.

Click HERE for graphic.

Small-lot single family housing of seven dwelling units per acre
can generally support local bus service.

Click HERE for graphic.

Medium density residential between seven to fifteen dwelling units
per acre can generally support local bus service.  If these
densities are maintained over a large enough area, with good
access, rail transit may be supported.

3-5



Chapter 3: Public Transportation - Compatible Land Uses

Compatibility Criteria, continued


     The threshold for high capacity transit such as express bus
and rail services is approximately 24 dwelling units per acre under
certain conditions such as size of the downtown and the distance to
that downtown.

Click HERE for graphic.

Multifamily residential of twenty to twenty-five dwelling units per
acre is the threshold to support high capacity transit if location
and access are good.

Click HERE for graphic.

High-density residential can support all types of public
transportation service.

 Non-Residential

Land uses should have the potential to generate ridership through-
out the day and, ideally, during the off-peak periods - midday,
evening hours, and weekends.  High levels of off-peak ridership can
greatly improve public transportation efficiency.  As an example, a
mixed-use area containing restaurants, a museum, a theater and
retail stores has greater potential to generate bus and rail riders
than an area with only retail stores.  Adding housing to the mix
can improve the situation substantially.  Redevelopment of old
buildings and dilapidated city areas offers a second opportunity to
create land uses compatible with public transportation.

Employment

Even more than residential densities, public transportation rid-
ership increases as employment density rises.  Concentrated
employment areas offer the greatest opportunity to generate
ridership on public transportation.

In most areas, the local bus service threshold for business is
approximately, 50 to 60 employees per acre.

Low density employment areas, with a range of .5 to 2.0 floor area
ratio (FAR - a ratio comparing the amount of total floor space to
the total land area), such as the areas around Paine Field and
along State Route 527, generate enough traffic to clog the roads
but insufficient riders to sustain bus service.  However,
businesses falling into " category may be served by other types of
services such as subscription bus and car/vanpools.



3-6





Chapter 3 : Public Transportation - Compatible Land Uses

Compatibility Criteria, continued


8.   Land Uses Have Minimal Parking

Ridership for all types of public transportation increases as the
price of parking increases or as the availability of parking
decreases.

Zoning ordinances can limit the amount and location of parking. 
For example, regulations can require that parking lots be located
at the sides or rear of a building, leaving "front door" access for
bus users and pedestrians.  Single-occupant vehicle parking can be
made expensive or parking can be reserved for rideshare vehicles.

Restricting parking requires that adequate alternatives are in
place.  Before communities or developers consider dramatic changes
in parking policy, they must work with transit operators to assure
that quality public transportation service is available.

Click HERE for graphic.

Locate new centers on the street with parking in the rear
Source: Accommodating the Pedestrian. Richard Untermann  (New York,
1984)


Click HERE for graphic.

Minimize space for parking while emphasizing the connection to
transit.
Source: Market Based Transit Facility Design, H Z. Rabinowitz, et
al., (February, 1989)


3-7





Chapter 3: Public Transportation - Compatible Land Uses

Transportation Compatibility Chart

The following table charts the compatibility between community
activities and various modes of transportation.

Click HERE for graphic.

* Single, multifamily, and congregate residential uses
# Under 1,000 square feet     + Over 5,000 square feet




3-8





Chapter 3: Public Transportation - Compatible Land Uses

Click HERE for graphic.    

3-9





Click HERE for graphic.




Chapter 4: Model Public Transportation Supportive Goals and
Policies for Community Plans

Community Plan for Public Transportation

These model goals and policies are intended to be examples for
communities to start community discussions about transportation and
land use issues.  These model goals and policies must be tailored
to meet each community's own situation.  Ideally, similar goals and
policies - along with design standards developed to implement them
- will be consistent throughout Snohomish County and, ultimately,
the region since effective transportation systems do not stop at
political boundaries.

Public transportation can be a tool for improving quality of life
within our communities, but only if it is included in the plans and
policies that shape development within the community.  Each
community needs to consider how it can best incorporate techniques
for developing land uses and road networks support public
transportation and, conversely, making public transportation
support larger community goals.

Public transportation as a part of land use and transportation
system development is gaining In importance in the State of
Washington.  For example, under the State Environmental Policy Act
(SEPA), environmental impact mitigation requirements for
development proposals - or project denials - must be tied to a
community's goals and policies.  Public transportation should be
included among those goals and policies.

The Local Transportation Act (the LTA), approved by the Legislature
in 1988, is designed to assist local and regional jurisdictions
develop programs to jointly fund transportation improvements
required because of growth and economic development in their areas. 
The Act requires that the programs "indicate how public
transportation and ride-sharing improvements and services will be
used to reduce off-site transportation impacts from development"
(39.92.030 R.C.W.).

The Transportation Improvement Board (TIB) which funds local road
improvements gives priority to "multi-modal solutions for projects
including transit, high occupancy vehicle lanes or rail" (WAC 479-
113-011).  Such multi-modal solutions need to be supported by local
planning.

Transportation Benefit Districts (TBDS) were authorized by the 1987
Legislature.  TBDs can be created to finance road improvements
through funding mechanisms such as bonds, benefit assessments and
impact mitigation fees.  Inclusion of high occupancy vehicle
facilities in a TBD program would support the TBD legislative
purpose.


Preamble:
It is in the interest of this community to integrate public
transportation into the community to enhance mobility and the
quality of life for our citizens.  In order to solve the problem of
increasing traffic congestion, air pollution and the loss of land
to parking and roads, we must develop goals, policies, and
strategies to better integrate public transportation into our
transportation and land use planning programs.



4-1



Chapter 4: Model Public Transportation Supportive Goals and
Policies For Community Plans

Goal I: Public Transportation Systems Goal

Goal I:
Assure the provision of local and regional public transportation
systems which contribute to the relief of traffic congestion,
promote energy conservation, and enhance mobility for the
community.

Objectives

     1.    Plan, develop, and maintain an integrated transportation
           system that moves people efficiently and safely in the
           community as well as in the region.

     2.    Develop community circulation systems which conserve
           land, financial, and energy resources, facilitate public
           transportation services, and provide safe and efficient
           mobility,

Policies

     1.    Improve the present transportation system by working
           cooperatively with other local jurisdictions, the Puget
           Sound Council of Governments (PSCOG), the State
           Department of Transportation (WSDOT) and the transit
           agencies.

     2.    Improve the usability of public transportation, particu-
           larly for those people who habitually - travel by auto to
           school, work, and other activities.

     3.    Encourage private participation in the supply of public
           transportation and paratransit services.

     4.    Encourage energy conservation by making public trans-
           portation services a priority in the community.

     5.    Work with the region's planners to plan for regional 
           high capacity transit CHCT) facilities to serve the 
           community (if applicable).

     6.    Coordinate the location of bus facilities with existing 
           or new ferry terminals (if applicable).

Implementation strategy

     1.    Work with the local transit agencies to plan and develop
           the appropriate public!  transportation services to meet
           the needs of the people in the community.

     2.    Work with the regional transportation agencies and
           adjacent jurisdictions to determine how this community
           can best be served by the regional transportation system.

     3.    Charge a broad-based community committee to work with the
           planning commission as it develops a transportation plan
           that includes a strong public transportation element and
           implementation program.

     4.    Commit financial resources for transportation planning
           and implementation programs.

     5.    Support funding to enhance public transportation services
           to the community.

     6.    Work with the transit systems and the WSDOT to develop a
           system of secure, Conveniently located park-and-ride lots
           to encourage use of bus and rideshare services.



4-2




Chapter 4: Model Public Transportation Supportive Goals and
Policies for Community Plans

Goal II: Public Transportation-Compatible Land Use Goal

Goal II:
Establish land uses and urban patterns that support public
transportation and promote ridership.

Objectives

     1.    Coordinate land use decisions with existing and planned
           public transportation services.

     2.    Include a strong public transportation element in future
           community and transportation plans and capital  
           improvement programs.

     3.    Employ site planning and design criteria to make public
           and private development supportive of public 
           transportation.

     4.    Develop a mixed-use land development ordinance which
           permits the mixing of land uses to reduce trip-taking and
           support public transportation.

Policies

     1.    Develop land use patterns that facilitate multi-purpose
           trips and minimize the number and length of vehicle
           trips.

     2.    Utilize major transportation routes as a tool to help
           influence development patterns.

     3.    Plan for higher density land uses along public  
           transportation corridors.

     4.    Plan activity centers' with a mixture of employment, mid-
           to high-density housing, shopping, entertainment,
           government, cultural, recreational and educational fa-
           cilities.

     5.    Connect adjacent residential areas with other land uses
           by removing barriers that restrict bus, pedestrian, and
           bicycle circulation.

     6.    Require developers through the established permit
           process, to include public transportation compatible
           designs in their projects.

     7.    Promote residential developments at densities and in
           areas which can be served by public transportation.

     8.    Require employment centers to be developed at densities
           and in areas which can be served by public transpor-
           tation.

     9.    Require activity centers to be developed at densities and
           at locations which can support public transportation

     10.   Promote a mixture of land uses at public   transportation
           facilities" and private employment   centers to encourage
           use of bus and ridesharing services.

*    "Activity center" is defined as any major attraction that
     brings together 100 or more people at any given time. 
     Examples are shopping centers, community colleges and
     recreational facilities. "Employment centers" rare places it 
     100 or more jobs at a single site or at adjacent sites.

**   "Public Transportation facilities" are bus stops, transit
     centers, park-and-ride lots, high occupancy vehicle(HOV) lanes
     and pullouts, ferry terminals, rail stations, etc.

4-3





Chapter 4: Model Public Transportation Supportive Goals and
Policies for Community Plans

Goal II: Public Transportation-Compatible Land Use Goal, continued

Implementation Strategy

     1.    Educate the community to the opportunities for public
           transportation serving various types of land uses.

     2.    Amend existing community plans and programs to support
           public transportation services. 

     3.    Amend land regulation ordinances, such as zoning and
           subdivision, plus administrative procedures to  
           integrate public transportation services facilities.

     4.    Work with local transit agencies to review development
           applications early in the review process.  Require
           developers to coordinate with the local transit agency in
           the early stages of a development project.

     5.    Work to establish mixed-use activities such as shopping
           and other services at park-and-ride lots, where 
           appropriate.

     6.    Work to establish daycare facilities at park-and-ride 
           lots and at public and private employment centers served
           by public transportation, where appropriate.

Click HERE for graphic.

Educate the community to the opportunities for public
transportation serving various types of land uses.



 4-4




Chapter 4: Model Public Transportation Supportive Goals and
Policies for Community Plans

Goal III: Special Population Goal

Goal III:
Improve public transportation service accessibility for elderly,
disabled, low and moderate income, youth, and other mobility-
disadvantaged people.
                                                     
Objectives

     1.    Recognize in community planning the special  
           transportation needs of the elderly, young, disabled and
           low income persons who may not be adequately served by
           the existing transportation system.

     2.    Assure the use of barrier-free access criteria for 
           public and private facilities.

Policies

     1.    Create safe, barrier-free access to public 
           transportation and pedestrian facilities.

     2.    Assure that all State and local barrier-free codes are 
           used in all development and redevelopment projects.

     3.    Identify how community projects can support transit and
           make services more usable and desirable to special
           populations.

Implementation Strategy

     1.    Establish, or encourage the local transit operator to
           establish, a citizens' advisory committee to recommend 
           programs and actions to the community's decision makers
           on special transportation issues.

     2.    Support funding programs to enhance transportation
           service between homes and medical and social services,
           recreational and employment opportunities.

     3.    Enforce the Washington State Regulations for Barrier Free
           Facilities on all public and private development projects
           (WAC 51.10).

Click HERE for graphic.

Barrier-free transit access
Source: Elderly and Handicapped Transportation Study, Community
Transit, (January, 1981)


4-5


Chapter 4: Model Public Transportation Supportive Goals and
Policies for Community Plans

Goal IV: Public Transportation Facilities Goal

Goal IV:-
In areas served by public transportation., incorporate and give
priority to public transportation in the design of all major public
and private projects.

Objectives

     1.    Use generally accepted transit-compatible design 
           standards to make public and private projects accessible
           by public transportation.

     2.    Use generally accepted pedestrian access and barrier free
           design standards for-all public and private  projects.

 Policies

     1.    As a condition of development approval in areas served by
           public transportation, require the provision of public
           transportation facilities in, -or adjacent to,  public
           and private developments.

     2.    Provide safe and convenient pedestrian access between
           developments and public transportation facilities.

     3.    Ensure that arterial streets are designed for high 
           occupancy modes of transportation:

           a.   Provide for high occupancy vehicle  (HOV)  priority
                at major intersections and along major corridors;

           b.   Provide facilities for buses such as shelters and
                turnout lanes;

           c.   Provide bicycle and pedestrian facilities - such as 
                pathways and marked crosswalks  -  when planning and
                constructing street improvements; and

           d.   Assure that major intersections and arterials are
                designed for heavyweight vehicle movements.

 Implementation Strategy

     1.    Adopt and integrate the following types of design 
           standards into the community's development standards:

           a.    Public transportation access

           b.    Pedestrian/bicycle access

           c.    HOV facilities on streets

           d.   Heavyweight vehicles on streets

     2.    Educate the community to the benefits of using these new
           standards.

Click HERE for graphic.

Integrate transit and development.
Source: Transformation of Transportation. Office of Appropriate
Technology, (Sacramento, CA)



 4-6





Chapter 4: Model Public Transportation Supportive Goals and
Policies for Community Plans

Goal V: Transportation System Management Goals

Goal V:
Improve circulation in and around the community by the management
of existing transportation facilities and by promoting alternatives
to single occupant auto use.*

Objectives

     1.    Emphasize non-structural solutions to circulation system
           deficiencies in the community.

     2.    Adopt and enforce a Transportation System Management
           Ordinance for the community.

     3.    Minimize the amount of auto parking in public and private
           developments.

 Policies

     1.    Encourage commuters to use car/vanpool programs and pub c
           transit as alternatives to the single;occupant
           automobile.

     2.    Develop management plans that cover parking, congestion,
           and access to encourage use of 'high occupancy vehicles
           and make public transit operate more efficiently'.

*    Transportation management includes both techniques to increase
     the efficiency of the existing transportation system and
     techniques to encourage use of alternatives to the single
     occupant auto. See Chapter 6.

     3.    As a condition of development approval in areas served by
           bus, require activity centers and employment centers to
           promote and maintain ridesharing, bus use and incentive
           programs.

     4.    Consider incentives for those developers who actively
           promote and encourage ridesharing and public transit
           programs.

     5.    Encourage the formation of transportation management
           associations (TMAS) in major retail, office, and
           industrial centers to assist in achieving public 
           transportation use.

Implementation Strategy

     1.    Establish a special community committee to educate the
           community and develop a TSM ordinance with financial and
           other incentives.  New parking regulations would be a
           part of this effort. (A model TSM ordinance to use as a
           starting point is included in Chapter 6.)

     2.    Adopt a transportation management ordinance for the
           community and amend the zoning ordinance with the new
           parking regulations.

     3.    Provide the resources to enforce the transportation
           management ordinance in the community.

     4.    Develop community transportation management demonstration
           projects for municipal facilities and employees.



4-7

Chapter 5:  Public Transportation - Compatible Zoning

Click HERE for graphic.





Chapter 5:  Public Transportation - Compatible Zoning

Introduction

          If a community's plan contains public transportation-
     friendly goals and policies, then the zoning provisions can
     put those goals and policies into action.

     Zoning provisions are the most commonly used techniques to
carry out a community's priorities.  Zoning provisions are not
intended to set policy, but implement policy.  If a community's
plan contains public transportation-friendly goals and policies,
then the zoning provisions can put those goals and policies into
action. (Refer to Chapter 4, "Model Public Transportation -
Compatible Goals and Policies").

     Public transportation-compatible zoning provisions can be
added to existing zoning ordinances to become the regulatory basis
for new development and redevelopment.  Eventually, public trans-
portation-compatible development will be found in all areas in
a community.

     This chapter will outline issues for zoning provisions that
can be used to enhance bus ridership - the most frequently used
mode of public transportation; then zoning issues for high capacity
transit (HCT) will be explored; and lastly specialized zoning
techniques for encouraging transit ridership will be briefly dis-
cussed.

Click HERE for graphic.

     Compatible land uses requires compatible zoning provisions.
 source: Market Based Transit Facility Design, Harvey Z.
Rabinowitz, et at., (February, 1989)



5-1





Chapter 5:  Public Transportation - Compatible Zoning

Zoning Provisions for Conventional Transit

     This section discusses guidelines for zoning provisions
targeting conventional public transportation.

 General Provisions

 These provisions apply to all zoning districts.

     -     Include definitions of public transportation modes and
           facilities in the definition section of the zoning
           ordinance. (Refer to the appendix of this guide for
           "Public Transportation Terms" for model definitions.)

     -     Establish a low percentage  (of whatever measure the
           zoning ordinance uses)  as the threshold requirement for
           the application of transit-compatible standards to
           redevelopment, major additions and changes to existing
           land uses and buildings.

     -     Include a provision to establish a basis for measuring
           the distance of pedestrian trips, such as the following
           example:  "Measure pedestrian trips by the actual walking
           distance, not by the straight line between the origin and
           destination."

     -     Permit compatible home occupations in all residential
           zoning districts.  Compatible home occupations need to be
           defined by the zoning ordinance.

     -     Determine with the local transit operator a procedure to
           include the transit operator in the review of commercial,
           residential  (including residential subdivisions),
           industrial, and office applications.

 Land Use Guidelines

     The main goal of these guidelines is to encourage the
appropriate locations of those land uses which generate public
transportation ridership.  Include the following guidelines to help
make zoning districts compatible with public transportation
service:

     -     Incorporate mixed, compatible land uses into all zoning
           districts - permit the combining of complementary office,
           service, residential and retail uses.

     Rationale

          Mixed land uses can reduce the need for and the number of
     auto trips, encourage walking between land uses, and encourage
     public transportation usage.

Click HERE for graphic.


Source: Market Based Transit Facility Design. Harvey Z. Rabinowitz,
et al., (February, 1989)



5-2





Chapter 5:  Public Transportation - Compatible Zoning

Zoning Provisions for Conventional Transit, continued

     -     Create a neighborhood commercial district or allow
           compatible convenience retail uses within residential
           areas.

 >  Rationale

     Neighborhood commercial areas can reduce both the number and
length of auto trips and walking may become possible. People may
travel to the workplace on transit knowing that convenience
shopping is located close to the beginning or end of a transit
trip.  It is not necessary to drive a car to work if shopping can
be done during a commute.

     -     Permit on-site services such as daycare pharmacy and
           convenience stores in residential developments and at
           park-and-ride lots, and allow compatible uses such as
           restaurants, banks, service, daycare, convenience stores
           in employment centers.

     Rationale

          Mixing land uses is also necessary within buildings and
     individual developments to encourage public transportation use
     and walking between buses, and reduce the need for a car for
     errands during the workday.  The location of daycare is an
     important consideration for many parents deciding whether they
     drive or ride public transportation to work.

     -     Encourage public transportation-compatible in-fill
           development on bypassed vacant parcels in developed areas
           adjacent to bus routes and stops.

Rationale

     Public transportation works best in developed urban envi-
ronments.  Vacant parcels of land within 750 feet of bus stops or
other transit facilities do not allow public transportation to
operate efficiently.  Using zoning incentives, such as those
mentioned in the last section of this chapter, in these areas can
encourage public transportation-compatible development.  Refer to
Chapter 3, "Public Transportation-Compatible Land Uses."

Click HERE for graphic.

 Zoning regulations can create pedestrian oriented design
Source: Accommodating the Pedestrian. Richard Untermann, (New York,
1984)

     -     Work with the local transit operators to retain existing
           bus facilities when vacant parcels are developed.

5-3

Chapter 5: Public Transportation - Compatible Zoning

Zoning Provisions for Conventional Transit, continued

     Rationale

          Often bus facilities, such as stops, located adjacent to
     vacant parcels are lost when parcels are developed.  While
     development of vacant parcels may provide additional riders,
     the development may require the relocation of existing bus
     facilities.  Care must be taken that facilities are provided
     to serve the new development.

     -     Discourage auto-oriented uses in areas adjacent to bus
           stops and other transit facilities.

     Rationale

          Auto-oriented uses are generally low-density land uses
     such as car sales lots, drive-through retail, or gas stations
     which are opposite to the higher-density land uses that
     usually generate riders for public transportation.  In
     addition, auto-oriented uses can generate traffic that can
     negatively impact transit operations.

     -     On streets in commercial, office, or mixed use areas with
           bus routes and nearby bus facilities, require pedestrian
           uses at the street level of buildings to stimulate
           activity and interest

     Rationale

          Public transportation operates best in areas with high
     levels of pedestrian activity.  The design of buildings can
     contribute to this activity with entrances, windows, and
     display areas.

     -     Increase residential densities along bus routes and at
           bus stops.  Set minimum densities as well as the maximum
           density.

 Rationale

Public transportation works best in high density areas. Refer to
Chapter 3, "Public Transportation-Compatible Land Uses" for further
detail.

     -     Increase employment densities in activity centers.

   Rationale

          Density of the work place is one of the more important
     factors determining whether people will commute on the bus. 
     Bus service works best in areas with employment densities over
     60 employees per acre.

Click HERE for graphic.

5-4


Chapter 5:  Public Transportation - Compatible Zoning

Zoning Provisions for Conventional Transit, continued

Pedestrian Access Guidelines

     Public transportation vehicles provide only part of the total
trip Getting to and from the bus is an equally important part of a
trip and is frequently ignored.  The main goal of the pedestrian
access guidelines is to assure pedestrian access between bus stops
an the origins and destinations of riders.  Include the following
guidelines in the zoning district or site-planning criteria section
of zoning provisions:

     -     Stimulate pedestrian access by providing landscaped
           walkways and arcades between: 

           -     Major buildings within a development

           -     Adjacent developments or buildings

           -     Major buildings and streets with public transpor-
                tation facilities

     Rationale

     People will use public transportation if they can walk to and
     from the bus stop in safe and protected environment.

     -     Provide sidewalks along streets with bus stops and
           streets leading to bus stops along with safe crosswalks
           at or near bus stops.

     Rationale

     Bus riders must have a safe place to walk and wait.
Approximately 50% of all bus riders will cross a street getting to
or from a bus.

     -     Provide sidewalks, walkways and passenger areas at bus
           stops that are paved with all-weather material.  Gravel,
           grass and similar materials are not considered an
           appropriate paving material.

     >    Rationale

          Pedestrian and wheelchairs must have safe all-weather
     surfaces to use.  People cannot be encouraged to take a bus if
     they have to traverse through mud, gravel, or dirt to reach a
     bus stop at either end of a transit trip.

     -     Include provisions for weather protection for the
           pedestrian.

     Rationale

          Walking to and waiting at a bus stop in the rain and cold
     does not encourage riders for public transportation.

     -     Eliminate barriers that discourage pedestrian access such
           as:

           -    Walls and beams

           -    Large landscaped areas or parking lots between major
                building entrances and bus stops

           -    Walking distances 750-1000 feet

           -    Unsafe conditions



5-5





Chapter 5:  Public Transportation - Compatible Zoning

Zoning Provisions for Conventional Transit, continued

     Rationale

          Public transportation only works well when riders can
     safely and easily access the system

     -     Provide wheelchair ramps and other facilities conforming
           to the State's barrier-free design standards (WAC 51.10).

      Rationale

          Accessibility for the disabled is not only required, but
     is a good practice.  Accessibility for the disabled provides
     good access for all people.

Click HERE for graphic.

     One design for barrier-free sidewalks

Source: Accommodating the Pedestrian.  Richard Untermann, (New
York, 1984)

    -      Provide lighting to improve pedestrian safety and
           security.

 Rationale

     Good lighting can help make pedestrian areas safe.

Design Guidelines

     The main goal of these design guidelines is to foster designs
that encourage pedestrian activity.  A pedestrian-friendly, human
scaled environment benefits everyone, especially public
transportation riders.  These design guidelines need to be consider
in the design or site-plan criteria in zoning provisions:

     -     Cluster major buildings in commercial and residential
           developments, and at employment centers.

     >-  Rationale

          Clustering of land uses provides the best opportunities
     to encourage pedestrian activities to a development while
     shortening walking distances.

     -     Orient buildings and main entrances to streets with bus
           facilities.

     Rationale

           Buildings and main entrances oriented to public 
           transportation facilities can encourage pedestrian access
           to a site and reduce the walking distance.  Refer to
           Chapter 8, "Public Transportation-Compatible Site
           Design."

     -     Reduce large setbacks for retail, employment, and
           multifamily land uses on streets with bus f acuities.

>- Rationale

     Large setbacks discourage pedestrian access to public
     transportation.



5-6





Chapter 5:  Public Transportation - Compatible Zoning

Zoning Provisions for Conventional Transit, continued

Parking Guidelines

     The handling of parking issues is crucial to creating public
transportation-compatible zoning provisions.  The main goal the
parking guidelines is to give equal consideration to public
transportation as is given to parking for the single-occupant
automobile.

     It is important to work with the local transit operator before
attempting to change parking requirements to assure adequate public
transportation service to the affected area is in place.  The
following parking guidelines must be considered in zoning
provisions:

     -     Create minimum and maximum parking requirements for
           certain land uses such as offices, employment and
           industrial centers.

     Rationale

          Unlimited parking encourages the single-occupant commute.

     -     Require transportation system management techniques to
           provide alternatives to the auto and reduce the parking
           requirements.  Assign enforcement duties to a specific
           section or persons.

     Rationale

     When alternatives to the single occupant car are feasible and
     readily accessible, the parking requirement needs to be
     reduced. This becomes a double incentive:first, cost can be
     shifted from providing parking to providing alternatives; and
     second, tight parking situations can reinforce the use of
     alternative modes.  Refer to Chapter 6, "Transportation
     Management: Making Better Use of the Transportation System."

     -     Require preferential parking for carpools and vanpools
           adjacent to major entrances of buildings.

>-  Rationale

Click HERE for graphic.

     Preferential parking is a quick and easy incentive to those
     using ridesharing vehicles.



5-7





Chapter 5:  Public Transportation - Compatible Zoning

Zoning Provisions for Conventional Transit, continued

     -     Encourage the shifting of the location of parking to the
           rear and sides of buildings from the front of buildings
           when adjacent to bus facilities.

     Rationale

     Large parking lots between a building entrance and a bus stop
     discourage pedestrian access.

     -     Reduce parking requirements for uses near public
           transportation facilities.

     Rationale

          When an area is adequately served by public transporta-
     tion, the amount of parking can be reduced.  This can become
     an incentive to developers to locate near public
     transportation facilities.

Click HERE for graphic.

Parking is located to the rear
Source: Market Based Transit Facility Design, Harvey Z. Rabinowitz,
et al., (February, 1989)


5-8





 Chapter 5:  Public Transportation - Compatible Zoning

 Zoning Provisions for High Capacity Transit

Click HERE for graphic.

     A high capacity transit (rail or express bus) system is being
designed for the Central Puget Sound Area.  The zoning guidelines
that follow have been drawn from a variety of sources and may prove
useful to communities which may have high capacity transit (HCT)
station areas in the future.  Consider these guidelines for zoning
provisions for HCT station areas:

     -     Meet the goals and policies of a community's plan.

     The community plan is the primary vehicle by which residents
and land owners  "let the world know"  what they want to see happen
in their community.  The community plan alerts everyone, including
investors, to the community's priorities.

     The zoning provisions for HCT station areas must reflect those
community policies. Stations must be designed to serve the
community.  Thus, some station areas may be highly developed  -  to
meet the community development goals - while others may have no
development at all.

     -     Include land uses that have a potential for increasing
           ridership.

     Certain retail and educational uses create the highest
ridershipper square foot of any use.  Hotels, low-density, single-
family residences, and light industry create the least ridership
per square foot.

     In areas where such development is appropriate, retail
establishments and high-density residential uses are desirable near
stations.  Major department stores with shopper goods generate more
HCT riders than convenience stores.  Retail uses create more off-
peak trips than most other uses,and thus help spread system use
throughout the day.

     Office uses have a mixed record.  At central city stations,
they can be quite supportive of the HCT system.  At some suburban
station locations, large scale office developments have proved to
be counterproductive.  The reason is that suburban office work
trips can be very dispersed, often coming from areas not served by
public transportation.

     Government offices and others (e.g. medical) which attract
regular clients and visitors can generate somewhat more favorable
public transportation ridership than offices that do not serve the
public.

     Refer to Chapter 3, "Public Transportation-Compatible Land
Uses," for additional information on the types of uses that may
work best for station areas.



5-9





 Chapter 5:  Public Transportation - Compatible Zoning

 Zoning Provisions for High Capacity Transit, continued

Click HERE for graphic.

Transfer centers need to be located in high density areas.
Source: Metro Transportation Facility Design Guidelines, Metro,
(April, 1985)

     -     Encourage pedestrian use in the immediate station
           vicinity, and create direct pedestrian access within the
           114-mile radius between an HCT station and neighboring
           development.

          In order for development to be supportive of HCT, there
     must be easy pedestrian access to an HCT station.  The most
     successful developments are those which jointly share
     entrances and facilities with an HCT station.  For example,
     the Gresham, Oregon Transit Development Zoning District
     states:

          Development shall promote convenient, direct, and
     barrier-free pedestrian circulation between buildings and
     adjacent light tail stations, park and ride facilities,public
     sidewalks and pedestrian routes.  All buildings and sites
     shall orient their interior and on-site circulation to the
     closest adjacent rail station.... Enhanced pedestrian spaces
     and amenities accessible to the public are encouraged, such as
     plazas, arcades, galleries, courtyards, outdoor cafes, widened
     public sidewalks (more than six feet wide out-side of the
     public right of way), benches, shelters, street furniture,
     public art, kiosks, and street vending.  Arcades (covered
     walks) are encouraged between primary building entries and
     adjacent public sidewalks and on other on-site walkways.... 
     When an area equivalent to 10% of the structure's floor area
     is devoted to a plaza, galleria or arcade the maximum
     allowable density may be increased to 2.5 square feet gross
     floor area/1 square foot of site. (Section 2.0430)

Click HERE for graphic.

Zone activity centers in station areas.
Source: Transformation of Transportation, Office of Appropriate
Technology, (Sacramento, CA)



5-10




Chapter 5:  Public Transportation - Compatible Zoning

Zoning Provisions for High Capacity Transit, continued

     -     Promote building orientation that aids pedestrian access.

     Buildings need to be oriented towards HCT stations. Major
     entrances, arcades, outdoor areas, or canopies need to be
     designed to promote access between buildings and the HCT
     station.  Gresham's Transit Development District ordinance
     states,  "...All buildings and primary building entries shall
     be located to minimize walking distance from a development to
     the closest adjacent transit station or street containing a
     transitway."  (Section 3,1140)

     -     Reduce or eliminate the amount of required parking

     Parking does not contribute to the creation of a pedestrian-
     oriented station area.  Parking consumes large amounts of land
     without contributing activities that generate HCT ridership.

     If parking lots are necessary, they need to be situated at the
     sides or rear of the buildings and not hinder the pedestrian
     access.  The exceptions to this guideline are the park and
     ride lots at suburban HCT stations.

     -     Include design guidelines for HCT station areas.

          Station areas need to be treated with special design
     techniques which are usually different from the jurisdiction's
     standard zoning criteria.  Streetscapes, landscaping, access
     and setbacks require different approaches that necessitate the
     establishment of design guidelines to create effective station
     areas.  Gresham's Transit District provisions state:

          Buildings should maintain continuity of design elements
     such as windows, entries, store fronts, roof lines, materials,
     pedestrian spaces and amenities, and landscaping.... Buildings
     should avoid blank walls and provide a series of openings
     (windows, entries, display areas) on facades which are at
     street level and/or which face a light rail station (Section
     3.1140).



5-11





Chapter 5: Public Transportation - Compatible Zoning

Specialized Zoning Techniques

     Many communities exploring public transportation compatibility
have found that conventional zoning regulations are inadequate. 
New zoning techniques have been evolving which will make
development compatible with public transportation an have withstood
legal challenges.  The following is a brief description of those
techniques which offer promise to Snohomish County jurisdictions.

     -     Bonus or Incentive Zoning

          Bonus or incentive zoning is an increasingly popular
     technique.  Increased development rights are provided to a
     developer, usually in the form of higher densities or greater
     building height, in return for the provision of something
     deemed to be in the public interest or benefit.

          Incentive zoning can be included as a part of a special
     zoning district or it can be used in conjunction with regular
     zoning districts.  For example, a low floor area ratio (FAR)
     could be set in the regular zoning districts around bus
     transfer centers to entice developers to provide the desired
     improvements and take a bonus.

          Other examples: Parking requirements can be reduced, or
     higher densities can be achieved in exchange for locating near
     a bus transfer center.  Granting FAR bonuses for
     weatherization improvements to increase pedestrian comfort
     near or at bus stops could be considered.

          The additional benefits granted to a developer and the
     zoning requirements being waived must be carefully coordinated
     with a plan to achieve the desired results.  Bellevue,
     Washington, as a part of its downtown plan, will create a
     "pedestrian friendly" downtown by emphasizing a network of
     mid-block pedestrian corridors complete with plantings,
     interesting paving and retail frontages.  To accomplish this
     plan, generous density bonuses will be granted to abutting
     properties that contribute to this plan.

     -     Overlay Zone

          An overlay zone is a zoning district adopted into a
     zoning ordinance to overlay the conventional zoning districts
     and is usually tied to one or more specific parcels of land or
     larger areas.  It is defined by a set of standards used to
     locate one or more particular uses in a special area or to
     require special attention to be paid to a particular
     condition.  An overlay zone is approved when an application
     can meet all standards.


     -     Planned Unit Development Zoning

     Planned unit development (PUD) zoning is a popular zoning
technique used to encourage coordinated development of large tracts
of land usually in the suburbs.  The PLJD approach permits more
creativity and flexibility in a development than the strict
application of traditional zoning regulations.

     Also, governments can have greater discretion and control in
granting approval and are able to require not only public
transportation-compatible land uses, densities, and designs, but
also dedication of land for transit facilities.



 5-12





Chapter 5:  Public Transportation - Compatible Zoning

Specialized Zoning Techniques, continued

     -     Special District Zoning

     Special district zoning creates a specific zoning district for
specific areas because of their unusual character or proximity to a
special facility, or special problems which conventional zoning
cannot address.  Special districts have been most effective when
they contain bonus or incentive zoning provisions.

     Special zoning techniques have been used in Portland and in
San Francisco to encourage high density development and good design
in HCT station areas.              The purpose of Portland's
"Transit Overlay Zone" reads as follows:

          The Transit Overlay Zone encourages a mixture of
     residential, commercial, and employment opportunities within
     identified light rail station areas which provide goods and
     services primarily to public transit and pedestrians.  The
     Transit Zone allows for a more intense and efficient use of
     land at increased densities for the mutual reinforcement of
     public investment and private development.  The site devel-
     opment standards of the Transit Zone are designed to encourage
     a safe and pleasant pedestrian environment near transit
     stations by encouraging an intensive area of shops and
     activities, by encouraging amenities such as benches, kiosks,
     and outdoor cafes, and by limiting conflicts between vehicles
     and pedestrians. (Section 570.010)

Click HERE for graphic.

Mixed land uses are best for public transit ridership
Source: HCT Suburban Area Planning Development, Stanton-Masten
Associates, (November, 1989)


5-13





Chapter 6: Transportation Management: Making Better Use of
the Transportation System

Click HERE for graphic.





Chapter 6: Transportation Management: Making Better Use of
the Transportation System

Introduction

     If transportation management approaches are not embraced, the
best efforts toward improving roadways, increasing transit
services, and implementing planning programs will be virtually
useless.

     Communities around the nation are discovering that making
dents in traffic congestion and creating real mobility improvements
for their residents means doing more than g up roads and beefing up
bus systems.  Two "tools" have emerged to help in this effort:
Transportation System Management (TSM) and Transportation Demand
Management (TDM).

     Both TSM and TDM techniques are designed to help local
governments, land developers, employers, community groups, and
others understand how they can make better use of existing
transportation facilities, often at relatively little cost.

     Transportation System Management techniques include improving
roads, intersections and other facilities to make them operate more
efficiently and carry more vehicles and people.  Building high
occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes is one example of a TSM technique.

     Transportation Demand Management encourages the traveling
public to use options other than the single-occupant auto or to
travel during the least congested times of the day.  Programs such
as "ridesharing" encourage people to use buses or carpools or
vanpools and are examples of TDM.

     Some people call TSM the "concrete and steel congestion
management strategies" and TDM the "people-based, congestion
management strategies." Both are important and both have their
places in transportation planning and land use development in our
communities.  Indeed, it is becoming clearer that if transportation
management approaches are not embraced by communities, developers,
and employers, especially in the more congested parts of the
county, the best efforts toward improving roadways, increasing
transit services, and implementing planning programs will be
virtually useless.

     This chapter is an introduction to TSM and TDM: Interested
readers are encouraged to talk to their local transit operator and
planning agency for more detailed information on how these measures
work and what assistance can be provided for persons interested in
developing transportation management programs.



6-1





Chapter 6: Transportation Management: Making Better Use of
the Transportation System

Using Transportation Management

Examples of Transportation Management Techniques

TSM                            TDM
- HOV lanes on freeways        - Employer-subsidized bus passes
- HOV lanes on arterials       - Preferential parking rates for
- Queue-jump lanes for buses     vanpools/carpools
- Park-and -ride lots          - Transit/commuting options
- Priority signals for buses     information for employees
                               - "Flex time" programs
                               - Ridematching services

     Transportation management programs are carried out through
voluntary implementation approaches or mandated approaches.  The
following provides a brief introduction to these approaches.

Voluntary Transportation Management Programs

     -     Individual Employer Programs

     A large employer voluntarily establishes a ridesharing program
     for its employees with assistance from the local transit
     operator.  The employer holds a "transportation fair"  each
     year, circulates rideshare information with paychecks, and
     sets aside reserved parking for carpools and vanpools.

-    Voluntary programs operated by single employers can be
     effective and may be a good solution in low-density areas
     where TMAs and other group actions may be impossible. 
     Voluntary programs are subject to frequent staff turnovers and
     to changes in company priorities. It addition, they address
     what may be area-wide problem with a site-specific solution.
     This is particularly true where major employers are located in
     relative isolation in employment parks.

     While the program may work well initially, experience else-
     where suggests that over time the employer's level of involve-
     ment may decline, incentive programs may no longer be pub-
     licized, priority parking for vanpools may not be enforced,
     and the program may lose momentum and eventually disappear.

-    Transportation Management Associations (TMA)

     Transportation Management Associations are generally developed
     by private sector representatives with the participation of
     the local transit operator and other affected public agencies. 
     The TMA in Bellevue, Washington, for example, includes
     membership of downtown Bellevue business leaders, developers, 
     METRO and Community traffic in specific areas through a
     variety of strategies that may include limiting parking,
     initiating transit incentive programs, implementing ride-
     matching services, etc.

     TMA membership is voluntary as are all the programs provided
     by the TMA.  Costs are covered by membership fees and by
     special grants or assessments.

-    Transportation Management Associations can be very effective
     with the right leadership and broad-scale participation from
     the area. The program can be tailored to the local situation
     and modified easily.  However, since compliance is voluntary,
     there may be problems enforcing some program elements.

*    A joint committee of Metro and SNO-TRAN has funded a study of
     developers TSM program compliance.  The results are expected
     in 1990.



6-2


Chapter 6: Transportation Management: Making Better Use of
the Transportation System

Using Transportation Management, continued

Mandated Transportation Management Program Examples

-    Ridesharing Ordinances

A local jurisdiction passes an ordinance requiring:

     -     All small employers with less than 50 employees to
           publicize the local transit operator's bus and
           ridesharing services; and

     -     All Mid to large-sized employers (50 or more employees) 
           to prepare a plan for involving employees in public
           transportation programs, creating preferential parking
           for carpools and vanpools, setting up walking and bicycle 
            use incentive programs, etc.

Another jurisdiction has a similar TDM ordinance, but this one also
requires:

      -    Appointment of a transportation coordinator by each large
           employer and fines to mandate compliance.

     -     Rideshare ordinances are hard to monitor and administer
           since employers may try to encourage ridesharing and bus
           use, but be unable to get Large numbers of employees to
           do so.  In addition, most of these ordinances are so
           vague, particularly in their requirements for small
           employers, that they may have no practical effect.

     -     Agreements with Developers

     Many communities require TSM and/or TDM programs as mitigation
     measures for traffic that results from building a large, new
     development.  The developer then passes on these program
     requirements in lease negotiations to tenants.  Generally,
     compliance by the tenant is voluntary, although some
     Jurisdictions require lease agreements to call for ongoing
     participation.

     -      While physical TSM improvements (such as adding bus
           pullouts or shelters) are fairly easy to require and have
           been completed by developers under such agreements, long-
           term TDM actions, such as providing rideshare
           coordinators at developments, are harder to enforce. 
           Locally, little is known about compliance with such
           agreements over time.

     -     Transportation Management Ordinances

     Transportation management ordinances are in place in many
communities as tools to reduce use of single occupant autos
especially during peak periods.  Generally, the ordinances require
all employers   (except the very smallest)  to prepare management
plans targeted to meet certain trip-reduction goals.  The local
jurisdiction provides technical support and ordinance enforcement
and reports back to the community on the success of the program.

     -     Experience shows that this approach can work if
           sufficient resources (public and private) are allocated
           to employee information and incentive programs and if the
           allowed demand management tools are (a) effective and (b)
           properly developed and maintained.  For example, commuter
           ridematch efforts have to be consistently provided so
           that carpool/vanpool occupancies remain high.



6-3





Chapter 6: Transportation Management Making Better Use of the
Transportation System

Using Transportation Management, continued

     -     Transportation Demand Programs

     Communities may require existing developments to institute
demand management programs to mitigate against air quality or
traffic problems.  In some communities, TDM requirements are
attached to business license renewals and in others, the
jurisdiction provides reduced-cost transit passes as incentives to
existing businesses to develop TDM programs.

     -     While most transportation management programs have fo-
           cused on new developments, this approach reaches 
           existing employers and other traffic generators. Its use
           in this state is questioned.  In its report, 
           Transportation Demand Management Policy Guidelines, 
           METRO indicates that Washington jurisdictions may be
           restricted in imposing these types of regulations on
           existing businesses .



6-4





Chapter 6: Transportation Management: Making Better Use of
the Transportation System

What Makes Transportation Management Work?

     To work, transportation management programs have to be
carefully planned and implemented, and the local transit operator
is there to help.

     As the material above indicates transportation management
programs can either be voluntary or required.  Both have the
purposes, but mandatory programs seem to be most effective i the
long run for the following reasons:

     -     Everyone knows what to expect.  The rules are established
           in ordinances and can only be changed by formal
           procedures.

     -     The programs are ongoing.   Properly drafted and
           supported regulations continue to be in effect even if
           property changes hands or company priorities shift.

     -     Solutions tend to be area-wide.  Since programs are not
           developed in isolation by individual property owners, 
           "economies of scale"  may be realized by programs that
           are undertaken throughout an area.

     -     Costs may be shared.  Marketing strategies, costs of
           printing, even acquisition of passenger vans or other
           equipment can be shared by area participants, although
           this is also true for some voluntary programs (such as
           those operated by TMAS).

     Whether it is mandatory or voluntary, a transportation
management program is most likely to be successful where:

     -     There is a clear understanding of the problem and widely-
           shared interest in resolving the problem;

     -     There is understanding of what the various transportation
           management tools and strategies can do, how effective
           they will be under local conditions, what their
           implementation costs  (up front and ongoing) will be, and
           how they will be monitored and revised over time;

     -     There is a coalition of private and public sector and
           transit representatives who are willing to spend the time
           and money to create, market and enforce the program; and

     -     Local land uses, parking availability, transit and
           rideshare services, and pedestrian facilities are con-
           ducive to safe and comfortable travel by other than the
           single-occupant auto.

     Transportation management tools can run the gamut from being
very simple (and inexpensive) to being complex and costly to set up
and operate over time.  The examples listed above are just a
sampling of the many variations of programs that can be considered
to help reduce the use of autos for work and other trips.

     Some of these techniques or programs can be easily implemented
by a developer, an employer, or the transportation coordinator at a
college or other major trip-generator.  Others require the
assistance of specially trained people available from the local
transit agency or from other resources such as the Urban Mass
Transportation Administration (UMTA).



6-5





Chapter 6: Transportation Management Making Better Use of the
Transportation System

Sample Costs of Transportation Management Programs

     The five strategies that follow are examples of transportation
management programs that range in cost from under one thousand
dollars to many thousands of dollars.  The METRO report fists many
other examples and provides extensive details on them.*

Strategy Example 1: Commuter Information Center

     Install permanent information display with holders for bro-
chures and timetables.  The transit operator can provide con-
struction specifications and materials, and owners can pay for the
design, construction, and maintenance.

     Cost Examples:

     Standard wall-mounted triple board with:

           -    12 timetable pockets & 2 brochure pockets = $ 450

           -    36 timetable pockets & 6 brochure pockets = $ 800

           (Rates vary depending on materials used)


Strategy Example Work Site Promotions Transit Fairs

     Once a year events are held at the work site to inform
employees about commuting options and incentive programs.  Usually
the events are two to four hours long (depending on number of
employees).  The local transit operator(s) provides handouts, makes
the presentations, and answers questions.

*    The material which follows was taken from cost estimates
     prepared by King County METRO and reported in Transportation
     Demand Management Strategy Cost Estimates (July 1989).


     Cost Examples:

     For each work site promotional event:

     -     850 Employees or less  =  $100  +  8 hrs.  staff time.
           Budget includes food, beverages, any rentals, prizes,
           etc.

           Staff time includes setting up, cleaning up, planning
           meetings with transit operator, publicity, etc.

     -     850-8,000 Employees =  $1,500  +  16 hrs.  staff time.
           Budget includes food, beverages, balloons, music,
           rentals, etc.

           Staff time includes arranging for other exhibits, ar-
           ranging entertainment, setting up, cleaning up, solic-
           iting prizes, planning meetings, publicity, etc.

Strategy:  Example 3:  Alternative Work Hours

    Three types of alternative work hours can be used to reduce
peak our trip making: flex-time which allows employees to choose
heir own working hours within a range of hours; the compressed r
week which allows employees to work 40 hours in less than five days
(e.g. four 10-hour days); and staggered work hours/shifts r which
the employer sets different shifts for employees, usually without
employee input.

     Cost Examples:

     Alternative work hours can add to security and utility costs,
but may save money by making better use of parking, equipment and
other facilities since employees



6-6





Chapter 6: Transportation Management: Making Better Use of
the Transportation System

Sample Costs of Transportation Management Programs, continued

are not all on-site at the same hours.  Leave and overtime costs
can also be reduced if employees can set their own schedules.

Click HERE for graphic.

Flex time allows employees to choose their own working hours
within a range of hours.

Strategy Example 4:  Subsidized Transit Passes

     In many areas, developers are required to provide one- to
three month free transit passes to the employees at new commercial
developments or the residents of new residential developments. 
Some developers choose to provide transit passes or pay vanpool
costs voluntarily to reduce auto traffic at their sites or cut the
costs of providing parking stalls.

     Cost Examples:

     -     The federal government currently allows an employer to
           provide an employee up to a $15 transit subsidy per
           month.

     -     Many employers have set up monthly payroll deduction
           plans to pay for annual or quarterly transit passes
           (transit passes cost less than daily fares).

     -     Employers have set up in-house transit pass outlets for
           their employees.

     -     Employers pay 100% of transit pass costs as a company
           benefit instead of paying for parking fees.

Strategy Example 5: Provision of Bus Stop Elements

     In partnership with the local transit operator, bus stops can
be constructed at employment, residential, retail sites and other
developments for a variety of costs, depending on the nature of the
stop.  Three bus stop elements are provided as examples.

     Bus stop landing pads are asphalt or concrete paving which
passengers step onto as they board or alight from buses.  Bus
shelter footings are the concrete bases supporting bus shelters.
Bus pullouts are the paved shoulder of a road where buses can
safely stop for passengers.

     Cost Examples:

     -     Bus stop landing pad = $500 - $1,000
           (depending on whether asphalt or concrete is used)



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Chapter 6: Transportation Management Making Better Use of the
Transportation System

Sample Costs of Transportation Management Programs, continued

Click HERE for graphic.

Source: Bus Facilities: Design Guidelines, Orange County Transit
District

     -     Bus shelter footing = $2,000
           (excavation, forming & pouring)

     -     Bus pullouts = $10,000 - $20,000 (very site specific;
           costs will reflect drainage, curb and gutter, and
           Wheelchair ramp requirements)

6-8

Chapter 6: Transportation Management: Making Better Use of
the Transportation System

Transportation Management Ordinances

     The subject of transportation management ordinances has been
discussed in this area for several years.  After two years of
study, METRO and the Puget Sound Council of Governments proposed a
model ordinance for King County in 1986.  That same year a TSM
Subcommittee of the Snohomish County Subregional Council was formed
to explore the model's usefulness in this county.  Transportation
management concepts were very new in 1986 and the proposed model
was not adopted by any of the jurisdictions at that time.  Since
then, a number of communities in King County have adopted TSM
ordinances or regulations that effectively mandate certain TSM
programs such as special parking ordinances to promote ridesharing.

There is general agreement that transportation management
ordinances should contain:

     -     Goals that set out desired reductions in vehicle trips
           during specified periods such as the peak hour; the goals
           may be defined by geographic subarea   (downtown vs.
           balance of the community)  or by time periods (by 1992,
           by 1995).

     -     Land Uses and Program Requirements that define what
           transportation management programs are required for what
           scale of and type of development (e.g. "Employers with
           100+ employees must prepare a TSM Plan").

     -     Incentives may be included, although they are often not
           part of these ordinances.  In return for specific
           transportation management program commitments (usually
           costly ones), the jurisdiction provides some form of
           zoning variance. (e.g. "Tacking requirement reductions of
           up to 15%;" reductions in impact fees.)

     -     Monitoring requirements for the diction and/or the
           developer are defined. (e.g. "Annual employee surveys
           shall be submitted to the city by employers;" "the city
           will conduct employee surveys.")

     -     Enforcement provisions may be included and may cover the
           levying of fines for noncompliance  ("failure to
           implement plan provisions fine is  $250 per day") as well
           as milestones for special efforts requirements (e.g. "The
           city will enforce ordinance if employer does not achieve
           trip reduction goals within X months after the
           development is 75%  occupied").

     -     Administration  of the ordinance must be spelled out.
           Usually the responsible entity within the jurisdiction is
           named  (the Assistant City Manager, the City TSM
           Coordinator, the County TSM Task Force).

     Beginning on the next page are examples of transportation man-
agement provisions from various jurisdictions.



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Chapter 6: Transportation Management: Making Better Use of
the Transportation System

Selected Transportation Management Provisions

     The following are examples of transportation management
materials used in other areas.

City of Pleasanton, California

Transportation Systems Management
Employer's Requirements
(Pursuant to Ordinance No. 1154)


     The City of Pleasanton is committed to maintaining the
community as an attractive and convenient place to live, work,
visit and do business.  To that end, a Transportation Systems
Management (TSM) Ordinance was adopted on October 2,1984.  It calls
for employers, complexes and the City to work together in reducing
traffic trips on City streets.

     Under the ISM Ordinance, the following requirements are made
of employers with a permanent place of business within Pleasanton. 
Requirements one (1) through five (5) are to be prepared and
submitted to the City Transportation Coordinator by January 2,1985. 
Future employers are to submit and begin implementation within two
months following issuance of a Zoning Certificate, if required, or
within two months following the date the employer opens for
business.  New complexes shall have four months following initial
occupancy in which to comply.

Click HERE for graphic.

6-10





Chapter 6: Transportation Management: Making Better Use of
the Transportation System

Selected Transportation Management Provisions, continued            

Transportation Survey

     An annual survey will be conducted by the City through all
employers to establish employee commute pattern data and to provide
carpool and vanpool matching information.  The survey is to be
distributed with the City's Business License Tax Form and/or by
direct mail.  Employers are to make copies of the survey and
distribute them to all employees.  When completed, they should be
returned to the City by June 30 of each year.

Information Program

     Employers are to establish methods for disseminating to all
employees informational materials regarding transit, ridesharing
and other commute alternatives.  The materials may be provided by
the City Transportation Coordinator and/or the employer.  The City
Transportation Coordinator has a form available to assist in
putting together an appropriate information program.

TSM Program

     The TSM Program is to be designed and provided to the City
Transportation Coordinator to help achieve reductions in traffic
generated by employees during peak travel periods (7:30 a.m. to
8:30 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. to 5:30 p.m.). These programs will assist
in achieving& over a four year period, a forty-five percent (45%)
reduction in the number of vehicle trips that would occur during
the peak periods ff the commute trips of all employees were made by
single-occupancy vehicle trips.

     The TSM Program shall include any reasonable combination of
measures which may include, but not be limited to, the promotion
and marketing of carpools, vanpools, bicycles, transit-related
programs, and alternative work hour programs.

     A TSM Program form is available for designing an appropriate
program.  Please contact the City Transportation Coordinator for
the forms and assistance in putting a program together.

     In addition, complexes shall include a program for
coordinating, monitoring and assisting with the TSM Programs of
employers within the complex.

Appoint a Transportation Coordinator

     Employers of less than 50 employees but located within a
complex may appoint the complex's coordinator to be responsible for
developing and implementing the TSM Program.

     Employers with 50 or more employees shall appoint a
coordinator who shall be responsible for primary implementation of
the TSM Program.

 Every complex shall have a coordinator who shall:

     -     Be responsible for primary implementation of the TSM
           Program;

     -     Serve as liaison to the City Transportation 
           Coordinator,the TSM Task Force, and coordinators in the
           complex;

     -     Participate in any regional activities required by the
           City Transportation Coordinator,

     -     Be responsible for developing and implementing the TSM
           Programs for employers of less than 50 employees located
           within the complex, if so requested by the employer.



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Chapter 6: Transportation Management: Making Better Use of the
Transportation System

Selected Transportation Management Provisions, continued

Include TSM Requirements in CC & R's and/or Lease

     Every complex owner, property owner's association, landlord,
and/or manager shall include reference to, and participation in,
the requirements of the TSM Ordinance in the recorded Conditions,
Covenants, and Restrictions (CC & R's) and in every lease.

Annual Report

     Each employer having 50 or more employees, or which is located
in a complex, and each complex doing business in the City on June
30 shall provide the City Transportation Coordinator with an annual
progress report.  The annual report will be due August 1 and shall
cover the immediately preceding July 1 to June 30 period, or the
portion of the period the employer/complex was in business.

     The annual report shall describe the TSM Program and results
achieved during the reporting period, and the TSM Program intended
for the ensuing year.  An annual report form is available from the
City Transportation Coordinator.

TSM Task Force

     The TSM Task Force shall be responsible for the coordination
and implementation of the citywide TSM effort, in accordance with
the goals of the TSM Ordinance.

     The Task Force shall be comprised of the following members:

     -     a representative from each complex who occupies an
           executive and/or management level position, or similar
           position within the complex, and who has authority to act
           relative to the mandated duties of the TSM Task Force;

     -     a representative from each employer of one hundred (100)
           or more employees on a single shift who occupies an
           executive and/or management level position, or a similar
           position within the organization, and who has authority
           to act relative to the mandated duties of the TSM Task
           Force;

     -     the Downtown Merchant's Association Coordinator; and,

     -     a representative from each transit authority and 
           ridesharing agency serving Pleasanton.

The TSM Task Force shall hold regularly scheduled meetings in
Pleasanton.



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Chapter 6: Transportation Management: Making Better Use of the
Transportation System

Selected Transportation Management Provisions, continued

City of Hartford, Connecticut
(September 26, 1983)

Ordinance Amending Section 35-6 of the Municipal Code
Concerning Transportation Management Plan

     Be It Ordained by the Court of Common Council of the City of
Hartford:

     That Section 35-6 of the Municipal Code of the City of
Hartford concerning off street parking and off street loading
provisions is hereby amended by adding Subsection 35-6.21,
concerning a Transportation Management Plan, to read as follows:

     35-6.21 Transportation Management Plan.  All applications for
site plan approval and/or a special permit for developments in the
B-1 Downtown Development District shall include a preliminary and
final transportation management plan.  The purpose of the
transportation management plan is to clearly indicate access to and
from the site; pedestrian and vehicular circulation and parking;
the impact of the proposed access, circulation and parking on the
City's pedestrian and vehicular circulation system; and conformity
to the Downtown Development Plan.

Preliminary Transportation Management Plan

     A preliminary transportation management plan shall include, at
a minimum, written estimates of the following information:

     A.    The number of on-site parking spaces required by the
           provisions of Section 35-6.17.

     B.    The number and types of parking spaces to be provided on-
           site such as: employee parking, transient parking for on-
           site uses, transient parking for off-site uses, parking
           for high occupancy vehicles, parking for compact cars and
           handicapped parking.

     C.    The number, location and type of any parking spaces to be
           provided off-site and the method of transporting persons
           between the off-site facility and the project site.

     D.    Alternative modes of transportation such as mass transit,
           carpools, vanpools, and bus pools available and to be
           provided.

     E.    Expected usage of the alternative modes of 
           transportation.

     F.    Location of all vehicular and pedestrian entrances and
           exits.


Final Transportation Management Plan

     A final transportation management plan shall include, at a
minimum, a written statement with appropriate supporting
documentation, describing the following information:

     A.    The number of on-site parking spaces required by the
           provisions of Section 35-6.17.

     B.    The number and types of parking spaces to be provided on-
           site such as:  employee parking, transient parking for
           on-site uses, transient parking for off-site uses,
           parking for high occupancy vehicles, parking for compact
           cars and handicapped parking.



6-13





Chapter 6: Transportation management Making Better use of the
Transportation System

Selected Transportation Management Provisions, continued

     C.    The number, location and type of any parking spaces to be
           provided off-site and the method of transporting persons
           between the off-site facility and the project site.

     D.    Alternative modes of transportation such as mass transit,
           carpools, vanpools, and bus pools available and to be
           provided.

     E.    Expected usage of the alternative modes of 
           transportation.

     F.    Location of all vehicular and pedestrian entrances and
           exits.

     G.    The impact of the proposed development on the City's
           vehicular and circulation system including the numerical
           impact on a.m. and p.m. peak hour volumes and peak hour
           link and intersection capacities for all streets and
           intersections within three (3) blocks of the project
           site.

     H.    How the proposed access and pedestrian and vehicular
           circulation and parking conform to and implement the
           recommendations of the transportation and circulation
           elements of the Downtown Development Plan.

Reduction in required number of on-site parking spaces.

     The Court of Common Council is authorized to allow the
reduction of the on-site, off-street parking spaces required in the
B-1 Downtown Development District in accordance with the provisions
of this section in instances where the reduction is in accord with
an approved transportation management plan and will reduce traffic
and congestion on city streets; where alternative modes of
transportation are provided to get to and from the site; and where
the reduction of the on-site parking is in conformance with the
Downtown Development Plan and will provide for a more appropriate
form of development:

     A.    Up to a ten percent  (10%)  reduction in the number of
           required non-transient off-street parking spaces is
           permitted when the applicant and/or employers who are
           tenants of the applicant's project agree to the
           following:

                1.   Designation of an employee transportation  
                     coordinator responsible for promoting
                     ridesharing and public transit use among
                     employees.

                2.   Participate in area-wide ridematching system or
                     provide a ridematching program at the site.

                3.   Designate a minimum of twenty percent (20%)  
                     of the non-transient off-street parking spaces
                     to be offered at a discount parking rate for
                     vehicles containing three (3) or more persons.
                     If there is to be no charge for parking, then 
                     reserve a minimum of twenty percent (20%) of
                     the non-transient off-street parking spaces for
                     vehicles with three (3) or more persons. The
                     reserved preferential spaces shall be located
                     in close proximity to the building entrances,
                     relative to other spaces, and shall be clearly
                     signed or marked "RESERVED MINIMUM THREE
                     PERSONS PER VEHICLE."



 6-14





Chapter 6: Transportation Management Making Better Use of the
Transportation System

Selected Transportation Management Provisions, continued

     B.    Up to a thirty percent (30%) reduction in the number of
           required non-transient off-street parking spaces is
           permitted when the applicant submits a transportation
           management plan demonstrating a comprehensive approach to
           reducing the parking demand at the site.  The reduction
           granted shall be commensurate with the parking demand
           reduction projected by the transportation management
           plan.  The plan will be reviewed by the City Manager to
           determine the adequacy in reducing parking demand through
           increased ridesharing and applicant and/or employer
           commitment to the program.  Reductions shall be computed
           based on levels of auto occupancy and transit ridership
           determined by the City Manager to be applicable to the
           area in which the site is located.

           In addition to the techniques required in Section 35- 
           6.21(3) (a), a minimum of three (3) of the following
           techniques shall be provided to qualify as an acceptable
           comprehensive transportation management plan for the
           purposes of parking space reduction:

           1.   Provisions of vanpools or subscription bus service
                for employees.

           2.   Subsidy of employee use of high occupancy vehicles
                such as carpools, vanpools, and bus pools.

           3.   Instituting a parking charge and not permitting such
                charge to be employer-subsidized.

           4.   Provision of parking cost subsidies for high 
                occupancy vehicles, if a parking charge exists.

           5.   Provision of, or participation in, shuttle services
                from off-site parking facilities owned or leased by
                the applicant or employers who are tenants of the
                applicant's project.

           6.   Provision of subsidized transit passes.

           7.   Any other technique or combination of techniques
                acceptable to the City Manager and capable of
                reducing non-transient parking demand at the work
                site.

     C.    A reduction of one  (1)  required on-site non-transient
           parking space may be permitted for each non-transient
           parking space provided in an off-site parking facility in
           accordance with the following conditions:

           1.   The facility must be owned or leased by the
                applicant or employer tenants of the applicant's
                project.

           2.   Regular shuttle service between the off-site facil-
                ity and the project site must be provided by the
                applicant or employers who are tenants of the
                applicant's project.

           3.   The off-site facility must be located in conformity
                with the Downtown Development Plan.

           4.   The off-site facility must be developed in 
                accordance with all other applicable provisions of
                Section 35-6 of the Municipal Code.



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Chapter 6: Transportation Management: Making Better Use of the
transportation System                                               
                                       

    Transportation management, continuing character  obligation.

     Where a final transportation management plan is approved by
the council, the applicant shall covenant to ensure continued
compliance with the final transportation management plan.  The
covenant shall be for a term of twenty (20) years unless the
council specifically finds that another period of time would be in
accordance with the purposes set forth in section 35-6-21.  Such
covenant shall be recorded on the land records and shall run with
the land.





Chapter 6: Transportation Management Making Better Use of the
Transportation System 

Selected Transportation Management Provisions, continued

Community Transit's Employer Services
A Full Range of Services and Programs

     Community Transit, Snohomish County's public transit system,
is more than simply buses.  We have ideas and services that can
help your company deal with the ever increasing traffic congestion
and growth that is affecting our whole region.  Whether your
company is in Snohomish County, plans to re-locate here, or your
company has employees living or working in Snohomish County,
Community Transit's Employer Services can help you.

Ridematching

     Community Transit's commuter ridematch program enables your
employees to find other commuters who want to share the ride and
save money by carpooling or vanpooling.  Commuters are matched by
origin, destination and work schedules.  The service is free and
information is mailed out within 48 hours.  During 1990 CT, along
with 2 other transit systems, will link up with computerized
ridematching services and will be able to provide commuters with a
region wide matching service.

Vanpool Program

     Community Transit has 15-passenger vans available.  Vans are
owned and maintained by CT.  A flat monthly fare is charged to a
vanpool group to cover gas, insurance and maintenance costs.  The
fare is based on the number of passengers in the van and the round
trip mileage.  A member of the group volunteers to drive and rides
for free.  Vanpooling is an option for employees who have longer
commutes and live in areas not served by regular fixed-route
transit.  During 1990, Community Transit plans to double the size
of its vanpool fleet.

ETC Program

     Your company designates an employee to be Community Transit's
primary contact.  This person is usually in personnel or facilities
management.  We refer to your staff designed as the Employee
Transportation Coordinator (ETC) and we regularly communicate
transportation information pertinent to your employees.  Your ETC
will occasionally be requested to post or distribute information. 
The ETC program is a communication network that allows CT to
efficiently reach our region's 500,000 daily commuters.

Pass Subsidy Program

     Community Transit employer pass subsidy program provides you
with a way to subsidize all or a portion of your employees' transit
or vanpool fare.  Your subsidy is a low-cost benefit for employees,
a tax deductible business expense and an easy way for you to
encourage your employees to ride the bus or vanpool.

Parking Management Consultant

     Working with your facility or personnel manager, Community
Transit parking management consultations are available at no
charge.  If your company is experiencing parking problems and needs
ideas for solving them, CT can assist you with identifying ways
that can help your employees make the best out of a tight
situation.

Customized Transit Service

     Community Transit has 44 routes serving Snohomish County. 
Personalized route planning however, is available for your
employees and custom bus routes can be designed to meet special
ridership needs.  Working with private bus companies, CT can assist
your company with developing a "bus pool" program for that daily
commute.

Flex-Time Consultation

     Community Transit can assist you in developing flex-time
policies for your company.  Flex-time helps alleviate traffic
congestion by allowing employees to travel at less congested times. 
It has also proven to increase productivity and morale, as well as
expand the number of hours your company is open to serve your
clientele.



6-17


Click HERE for graphic.





Chapter 7: Public Transportation - Compatible Residential
           Subdivision Design

Introduction

          We are still building WWII suburbs as if families were
     large and had only one breadwinner, as if all the jobs were
     downtown, as if land and energy were endless, and as if
     another lane on the freeway would end traffic.
                               The Pedestrian Pocket Book

     The effectiveness of public transportation in the suburbs
depends to a large extent upon the location, density and the design
of residential subdivisions.

     While we are beginning to recognize changes to our suburban
land patterns, we continue to design subdivisions and road
improvements that assume that the automobile is the only mobility
option.  As a result, suburban residential areas are difficult for
public transportation to serve.  There are two primary reasons. 
First, houses at low densities result in a low demand for bus
service.  This issue was discussed in Chapter 3, "Public
Transportation-Compatible Land Uses."

     The second reason is that, generally, most subdivisions are
not designed to accommodate buses, or people walking to and from
bus stops.  This chapter addresses design and other issues relating
to the creation of public transportation-compatible subdivisions.

     The term "public transportation" applies to a wide variety of
transportation services available to the public including buses,
ferries, van/carpooling, park-and-ride facilities, and rail serv-
ice.  In this chapter, bus and rideshare services will be the major
focus.

     The term "subdivision" refers to a type of residential
development comprised of houses or multi-family structures on
individual lots fronting on public streets.  A subdivision
generally contains lots of a sin-similar size and structures of
uniform size and style.  Subdivisions can vary in size from small
ones with only five lots to those with many hundreds of lots.

     The term "short plat" refers to a small subdivision of four
lots or less which by state law does not require the same level of
local review as subdivisions.

     The term "principal and minor arterial streets" refers to
major streets designed to move large volumes of traffic through an
urban or suburban area.

     The term collector arterial streets" refers to streets
designed to filter traffic from local streets to the principal and
minor arterial streets.

     The term "local streets" refers to streets designed to provide
vehicular and pedestrian access to abutting properties.  The second
function is to move low volumes of traffic onto the collector
arterial streets.

7-1



Chapter 7: Public Transportation - Compatible Residential
           Subdivision Design

 Introduction, continued

          Developers can:also derive benefits by integrating public
     transportation into their subdivision projects.

The Benefits of Public Transportation - Compatible
Subdivisions

     Residential subdivisions, compatible with public
transportation, can offer many positive points to their residents
such as:

     -     Reduced reliance on the automobile, reducing auto
           congestion.
     -     Creation of a pedestrian environment.
     -     Provision of real transportation choices.
     -     Reduced energy consumption.

     Developers can also derive benefits by integrating public
transportation into their subdivision projects.  Well designed bus
or ridesharing facilities integrated into subdivisions can:

     -     Mitigate traffic impacts.
     -     Mitigate SEPA requirements.
     -     Create a competitive edge.
     -     Extract potential home buyers' attention.
     -     Create a better community image.

Click HERE for graphic.

Transit improves travel options for residents.
Source: Market Based Transit Facility Design, Harvey Z.
Rabirtowitz, et al., (February, 1989)



7-2



Chapter 7: Public Transportation - Compatible Residential
           Subdivision Design

What Makes a Residential Subdivision Public Transportation
Compatible?

Design features that create public transportation compatibility can
be easily accommodated into most subdivisions.

     Design features that create public transportation
compatibility can be easily accommodated into most residential 
subdivision transportation if they are included at the earliest
stages in the design process and if the public transportation
operator is a partner in that process.

     Developers need to work closely with the local transit
operator as they consider ways to bring bus service to, or as bus
facilities are planned for, their developments.

     The following design criteria are important to creating
residential subdivisions conducive to public transportation
ridership and to pedestrian accessibility, each of which builds
upon the other and can produce an environment for effective public
transportation use:

           1    Locational Criteria
           2    Size of Development Consideration
           3    Vehicular Access and Circulation Criteria
           4    A Pedestrian Access Criteria


1 Locational Criteria

     When a developer is exploring how public transportation might
work at a proposed development, an initial consideration is the
location of the residential development relative to existing or
planned public transportation services and activity centers.  The
following criteria need to be considered:

     Locate residential developments in areas currently served (or
that are planned to be served) by public transportation.

     -     Residential developments need to be situated in areas
           with bus service or in areas which the transit operator
           indicates will or can be served in the future.

     -     Public transportation facilities that can benefit resi-
           dents in subdivisions include bus stops, transit centers
           (transfer centers), park-and-ride lots and passenger
           drop-off points for vanpool and carpool users.


     Locate residential developments adjacent to neighborhood
activity centers.

     -     Compatible neighborhood activity centers, such as
           schools, convenience shopping and recreation centers
           within close proximity to residences can reduce the need
           to use private autos for many trips.

     -     Neighboring activities can have a major impact on the
           demand for public transportation which, in turn, can
           increase levels of service or bring new services to an
           area.



7-3





Chapter 7: Public Transportation - Compatible Residential
Subdivision Design

What Makes a Residential Subdivision Public Transportation-
Compatible?

2    Size of Development Considerations

     Small developments such as short plats account for over 50% of
the residential development in Snohomish County.  The size of a
subdivision is another consideration in assessing public
transportation compatibility and the possibility of bus service. 
The local jurisdiction, working with developers and the transit
operators, should consider the following:

     Coordinate the design of small subdivisions and short plats to
allow residents access to bus service.

     -     Coordinate overall planning for roads and pedestrian
           facilities in areas likely to have multiple short plats
           and small subdivisions to allow residents access to
           current or future bus service.

     -     Work with the local transit operator to locate bus routes
           and facilities in such areas.

     Consider several small residential developments together as if
they were a single, larger subdivision, for the purposes of
planning bus service access and related facilities.

     -     Individual, small, residential subdivisions generally do
           not generate sufficient rider demand for bus service.

     -     Several small developments can have the impact of a large
           development and thus may generate sufficient ridership
           demand for bus service.

Click HERE for graphic.

Desirable
Development with bus and pedestrian access.



7-4





Chapter 7: Public Transportation - Compatible Residential
           Subdivision Design

What Makes a Residential Subdivision Public Transportation-
Compatible? continued

     The number of lots alone does not dictate compatibility.  The
lot size in single-family developments is crucial in determining
whether sufficient density exists to generate ridership for
standard bus services (a range of 4-7 units/acre is the minimum) if
all other conditions are correct.  At less than four tb seven
units/acre, vanpools and carpools may be the best service option. 
For more information on densities, see Chapter 3.

3    Vehicular Access and Circulation Criteria

     Access and circulation are critical.  Even if subdivisions are
located within a bus service area, residents may be without bus
service if subdivisions are not designed to be bus accessible.

     For residents of a subdivision to have bus service, most of
the following criteria must be met:

Maximize bus service and pedestrian access at the site.

     -     Bus facilities must be included in the initial design or
           redesign of the arterial roads abutting a subdivision.

     -     Arterial streets adjacent to the subdivision must have
           safe sidewalks and, if appropriate, bus shelters.

     -     Physical barriers such as perimeter walls, berins,
           landscaping and slopes between the residences in a
           subdivision and bus stops must be avoided.

Click HERE for graphic.

     Design bus facilities and access to bus facilities in
residential subdivisions.

     -     Provide walkways, linking various sections of the
           subdivision to peripheral arterials, especially those
           with bus stops.

     -     Security measures incorporated into the development need
           not preclude this bus access. For example, gates may be
           provided at access points to a subdivision. Also, another
           security consideration, lighting, is very important and
           needs to be included in the design of walkways.



7-5





Chapter 7: Public Transportation - Compatible Residential
           Subdivision Design

What Makes a Residential Subdivision Public Transportation-
compatible? continued

     Accommodate public transportation vehicles on key road
networks within large subdivisions.

     -     Principal, minor and collector arterial streets that 
           will be used by buses must be designed and built to
           accommodate heavy weight and large vehicle requirements.

           -    Street design must take into account the provision
                of bus services in road pavement strength and the
                design of intersections.

           -    Buses cannot operate on cul-de-sacs or on narrow,
                winding streets.  Buses cannot back up, so turning
                room needs to be provided or routes designed so that
                buses can safely move through an area.

     -     Bus facilities, approved by the local transit operator,
           must be designed into arterial streets.

           -     Provide curbs and sidewalks for pedestrians.

           -    Provide bus pullouts based on the transit agency
                guidelines.

           -    Provide bus stops at major boarding points with 
                cover waiting areas, benches and landscaping.
                Protect riders from the weather and buffer them 
                from the abutting streets.

           -    Work with the transit operator and other appropriate
                entities to site park-and-ride lots convenient to
                subdivisions.

     Provide efficient circulation patterns for buses within large
subdivisions

     -     Establish a street hierarchy within subdivisions of
           local,Collector arterial, principal and minor arterial
           streets.

Click HERE for graphic.

Street hierarchy
Source: Planning and Implementing Pedestrian Facilities in Suburban
and Developing Rural Areas, Transportation Research Board

           -    Principal arterials are usually spaced every mile 
                and bisected by minor or collector arterial 
                streets.  By operating buses along the arterial
                collector streets, most residents are brought into
                easy walking distance of a bus stop.

7-6





Chapter 7: Public Transportation - Compatible Residential
           Subdivision Design

What Makes a Residential Subdivision Public Transportation-
Compatible? continued

     -     Provide collector arterial streets through subdivisions
           for transit circulation between neighborhoods.

Click HERE for graphic.

           Collector road with bus, route through neighborhood

           -    These streets, over time, may become popular
                pedestrian routes as they traverse a neighborhood.

           -    These streets warrant specific attention for
                effective and interesting landscaped pathways.

     Design internal subdivision streets to provide access to bus
service.

     -     Sidewalks with buffers on principal, minor and collector 
           arterial streets are necessary for transit access.

     -     Direct, efficient routes through subdivisions are needed
           to assure that bus service is attractive to potential
           users.

           -    Circuitous street patterns not only physically    
                increase walking distance but distort the perception
                of walking distance as well. Perceived distance is
                as critical as actual walking distance in the design
                of pedestrian access.

           -    Bus patrons need to see that buses have convenient
                and direct routes through residential areas. If
                buses wander on long, twisting routes, travel times
                will discourage use.

Click HERE for graphic.

Desired transit routing
Source: Guidelines for Public Transit in Small Communis, Small
Community Systems Branch, Urban Transit Authority of British
Columbia, (September", 1980).

     Develop bike facilities within subdivisions and to nearby
stores, schools, parks, shops and public transportation facilities.

     -     Provide bicycle facilities linking community facilities
           including bus stops.  Separate bicycle lanes and Paths
           from bus  stops and pedestrian walkways.



7-7





Chapter 7: Public Transportation - Compatible Residential
           Subdivision Design

What Makes a Residential Subdivision Public Transportation-
Compatible? continued

     -     Secure bicycle racks and storage facilities should be
           considered for community centers, transit centers, park-
           and-ride lots, schools, shopping centers and similar
           destinations.

4    Pedestrian Access Criteria

     Equal consideration must be given to pedestrian mobility in
subdivisions.

     -     Provide sidewalks along streets and walkways through
           other areas such as schools, parks, or open spaces.

     -     Provide convenient pedestrian access to streets with bus
           stops.

     -     Keep options open for pedestrian connections between
           residences and a butting activity centers,schools, parks,
           and similar uses.

     -     Dedicate the rights-of-way for walkways that serve public
           transportation facilities such as transit centers and bus
           stops.

     Reduce the walking distances between the residences and bus
stops.

     -     Pedestrian routes need to be designed to realistically
           reflect average walking distances to transit facilities.

           -    Average walking distance is approximately 750 feet
                (.14 mile).  Beyond this distance, the percentage of
                passengers who will walk to a transit facility falls
                off rapidly, although the actual distance is
                dependent on the type of service offered (fight
                rail, regular bus, etc.) and the characteristics of
                the walking environment (paved walkways, safe and
                interesting areas).

     -     Provide shortcuts which permit access through midblocks
           to increase flexibility for foot travelers.

Click HERE for graphic.

Walkways can reduce walking distances
Source: Site Planning for Cluster Housing, Richard Untermann, (New
York, 1977)


7-8





Chapter 7: Public Transportation - Compatible Residential
           Subdivision Design

What Makes a Residential Subdivision Public Transportation-
Compatible? continued

     -     Minor alterations in the subdivision layout and careful
           inclusion of well designed walkways can reduce both
           perceived and actual walking distances.

Click HERE for graphic.

     Minor alterations in subdivisions improve walking distances.
Source: Guidelines for Public Transit in Small Communities.  Small
Community Systems Branch, Urban Transit Authority of British
Columbia, (September, 1980)

     Pedestrian walkways need to be designed to safe standards
governing walkways.

     -     Pave all sidewalks and walkways.  Paving materials need
           to be safe under wet weather conditions.

     -     Design pedestrian walkways to be direct and minimize
           unnecessary meandering.

     -     Extend walkways to permit bus passengers to avoid mud,
           landscaping, berms, and parking lots.

Click HERE for graphic.

Source: Subdivision Design Guidelines to Facilitate Transit
Service, Ottawa: Ministry of State for Urban Affairs,
 (March , 1979).
Canadian Urban Transit at a Glance, Ottawa: Canada Mortgage and
Housing Corp., (June,1981).


7-9




Chapter 7: Public Transportation - Compatible Residential
           Subdivision Design

What Makes a Residential Subdivision Public Transportation-
Compatible? continued

     -     Use street signs to mark public walkways within a
           subdivision.

     Walkways must meet all state and local barrier-free design
standards to facilitate use by all people.

     -     Barrier-free design for walkways provides good bus access
           for all people.

           -    Each community has adopted barrier-free design
                standards to assure that developments are accessible
                to, and safe for use by, people who have
                disabilities that impair their mobility.

     Scale the size of facilities to correspond to pedestrian
volumes.

     -     Provide an eight-foot minimum width sidewalk      
           adjacent to bus stops and increase the width if the
           number of users warrants additional circulation space.
           Adequate space for loading wheelchairs onto buses is part
           of this requirement.

     -     Elsewhere, the minimum width of a walkway needs to be six
           feet.


 Maintain  all  sidewalks and walkways in good repair.

     -     Develop maintenance agreements to ensure that all
           pedestrian facilities are properly maintained.

See Chapter 8, "Public Transportation - Compatible Site Design" for
more information on walkways.



7-10





Chapter 7: Public Transportation - Compatible Residential
           Subdivision Design

Alternative Public Transportation Services in Suburban Areas

     The local transit agency can help developers explore the
feasibility fa encouraging use of these alternative services at new
or existing developments.

     Traditional public transportation service provided to the sub-
urbs has been fixed-route bus service.  However, there may be other
modes of public transportation which may serve these areas more
efficiently than buses.  Because of low densities or subdivision
and road design, the following services may provide transportation
opportunities to areas that could not reasonably be served by
conventional bus services:

     -     Park-and-Ride Facilities are facilities provided for
           public transportation users who drive and park their
           autos or cycles and transfer to a bus or rail vehicle to
           complete their trip.  These sites need to be located
           adjacent to, and have easy access to, major arterials or
           highways. They can be designed for exclusive transit use
           or they can share unused portions of parking lots at
           shopping centers, movie theaters, churches, or smililar
           facilities. They can even be included at entrances to
           very large-scale developments as additional "marketing" 
           for the convenience of the commuter in the subdivision.

     -     Carpools and Vanpools are used by groups of people     
           who share the use and cost of a van or auto for   
           transportation to and from a destination on a regular
           basis,    usually between home and work.

     -     Subscription Bus is bus service for which routes and
           schedules are prearranged to meet the travel needs of
           specific groups of riders such as workers at a single
           destination like a major employment center.  The level of
           service is generally higher than that of regular bus
           service, and service is obtained by contractual
           arrangement.  Passenger fares generally cover all
           operating costs.

     These services may also provide opportunities for developers
to mitigate the traffic impacts of their developments. 
Participation in these services, may not require any additional
facilities; for example, bus pullouts and shelters can be used as
collection points for carpools, vanpools and subscription buses. 
Also, the cost of participating in these services may be traded for
not having to accomplish other requirements.  The local transit
agency can help developers explore the feasibility of encouraging
use of these alternative services at new or existing developments. 
Chapter 6 provides more information on these services.



7-11





Chapter 7: Public Transportation - Compatible Residential
           Subdivision Design

Concepts for New Suburban Development

New suburban development design concepts present additional
opportunities to promote public transportation.

     In recent years there has been an increasing need to create
new forms of suburban residential development.  This need arose
from the recognition that quality of life is not determined by the
auto, but by preserving open and recreational space, providing a
mix of land uses and services, assuring a variety of housing types
that enhance social opportunities, and promoting energy conser-
vation.  Costs of land and housing have become even more sig-
nificant as available housing sites become fewer.

     These new suburban development design concepts present
additional opportunities to promote public transportation.  These
concepts enhance opportunities to design access, greater densities,
and mixes of activities into subdivisions with the aim of
increasing ridership on public transportation and reducing reliance
on the auto.

     Several alternatives to the traditional suburban development
patterns and subdivision designs have evolved.  The concepts that
may be the most applicable to Snohomish County - and offer
potential for high levels of public transportation compatibility -
are briefly described.

Click HERE for graphic.

One typical large-scale suburban subdivision
Source: Guide for Including Public Transit in Land Use Planning,
Alameda - Contra Costa
Transit District, (April, 1983)

Pedestrian Pockets

     A comprehensive idea for new suburban development is the
concept called "the pedestrian pocket." This concept creates a
balance between housing, jobs, services and recreation in a
pedestrian environment.  Public transportation, fundamental to the
concept, can be supplied by passenger rail and/or bus service.

     The pedestrian pocket provides a mix of services within a
community, oriented around a large, common open space.  Sitting
jobs and housing together, the concept increases residential
densities (in low rise, three-story, walk-up apartments and two-
story townhouses) to those that can support public transportation,
while maintaining a pedestrian-scale community comfortable for
walking.  The concept does not exclude the auto but



7-12





Chapter 7: Public Transportation - Compatible Residential
           Subdivision Design

Concepts for Now Suburban Development, continued

     The Pedestrian Pocket would provide for many types of housing
needs, elderly clusters are an easy stroll to park, services, and
trolley line; story townhouses with attached garages and private
yards provide for families; three story apartments provide for
singles and childless couples.

     The commercial center of the pedestrian pocket would mix large
back office jobs with ground floor retail restaurants and smaller
business.  The retail would face the light rail line and all
employees would be within walking distance of the station.  Cars
could circulate on the shopping street and parking structures would
provide for those who choose to drive.

     Diverse open space would be divided in the Pedestrian Pocket;
private yards for the families, cluster open for 4 group of houses;
central parks to be used by all, courtyards and a main street
shopping aria around the station at center.

Click HERE for graphic.

Source: Pedestrian Pockets, Peter , (1987)


allows for the convenience of the car, the opportunity to walk, and
the efficiencies of public transportation.

New Traditionalism

     Another alternative to the traditional suburbs is the revival
and reinterpretation of traditional nineteenth century town
planning ideas called "New" or "Neo-Traditionalism." This concept
is less well defined than the pedestrian pocket, but a dozen
developments, mainly on the East Coast, have been built on this
concept.

     A pedestrian-scaled environment and mixture of housing types
and other land uses are the main principles of this concept. 
Narrow, people-scaled streets, networks of footpaths, along with a
comprehensive street system provide equal and convenient
circulation to all modes of transportation.  One feature which
separates neo-traditionalism from the other new concepts is the
integration of public spaces, parks and promenades into the
circulation system.

Zero-Lot Line

     Zero-lot line developments have been built in many communities
to provide affordable housing and variety in housing styles. 
Suitable for urban and suburban areas, this concept combines
features of the detached home with higher densities (7-15
dwellings/acre) which can be served by public transportation.



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Chapter 7: Public Transportation - Compatible Residential
           Subdivision Design

Concepts for New Suburban Development, continued


     The primary, feature of a zero-lot line home, which
distinguishes it from a conventional home, is that the house is
turned "sideways" on a lot.  Setbacks for houses are reduced to
minimize the lot width.  The focus in zero-lot line design is on a
quality street scene and improved treatment of outdoor spaces.

Click HERE for graphic.

Zero-lot line development
Source:  Site Planning for Cluster Housing, Richard Untermann,
 (New York, 1977)

Cluster Housing

     Cluster housing is another alternative design approach for the
suburban subdivision.  Between the extremes of large lot suburban
housing and the high-density apartments of a city is cluster
housing.  This concept is well suited for blending into existing
suburban housing environments since clusters can be planned to have
a scale and character compatible with their immediate neighbors.

     Typically a cluster consists of a certain mix of housing
types: detached, row, townhouse, patio house, or terrace.  Cluster
developments require the establishment of a comprehensive road
system within the development to accommodate traffic.  Typically a
cluster is served from a main cul-de-sac or loop road connected to
a collector road.

Click HERE for graphic.

Cluster housing development             
Source: Site Planning for Cluster Housing, Richard Untermann, 
(New York, 1977)


7-14





Chapter 7: Public Transportation - Compatible Residential
           Subdivision Design

Concepts for New Suburban Development,, continued


 Planned Unit Development

     Another popular alternative to the standard subdivision
development is the master-planned community or planned unit
development (PLJD).  There are approximately 100,000 PUDs in the
United States housing one-tenth of the American population.  PUDs
are popular because they pen-nit more creativity and flexibility in
a development than the strict application of traditional zoning and
subdivision regulations.


Click HERE for graphic.

Large planned unit development

     A PUD provides common open space, amenities, mixed uses, and
the clustering of housing.  Accessibility to public transportation
can be easily planned into most PUD designs. (Refer to Chapter 8,
"Public Transportation-Compatible Site Planning.")

 Mixed-the Development

     This concept mixes different types of compatible land uses
into a development or an area.  For example, certain commercial
uses such as banks, daycare centers, cleaners, beauty shops, or
certain types of offices can be built into residential areas. 
Residences can also be designed into large office and research park
developments.

     The mixed-use concept allows people an opportunity to walk to
a variety of destinations instead of having to drive from place to
place.  Mixed-use development can reduce the number of trips by
25%.  In addition, mixed uses can make public transportation more
viable since it can serve a variety of markets, not just peak hour
commuters.  This concept is the opposite of the usual single use
zoning district found in most suburban areas.


Click HERE for graphic.

Mixed-use development
Source: Burnaby Metrotown, Burnaby Planning Dept., (June, 1977)



7-15





 Chapter 8: Public Transportation - Compatible Site Design

Click HERE for graphic.





 Chapter 8: Public Transportation - Compatible Site Design

Introduction

          With the rapid population growth and increasing traffic
     congestion occurring in urban and suburban areas throughout
     Snohomish County, the responsibility for managing traffic and
     finding alternatives to the private car is shifting from the
     public sector to a partnership of both the public and private
     sectors.

     Local communities and developers have an opportunity and a
responsibility to create an environment supportive of public
transportation as one way to reduce congestion and increase
mobility.

     If commercial and multifamily residential developments are to
add to the solution - be supportive of public transportation use -
they need to be designed with two major considerations in mind:

     -     First, can the public transportation operator bring
           service to the site?

     -     Second, does the site's design encourage the use of those
           services?

 Is the site public transportation compatible?

     While any size development can benefit from carefully planned
access to public transportation, the focus here is on developments
which (a) will substantially add to congestion; and (b) will have
opportunities through their site designs to make public
transportation an attractive alternative to the private car.

     The design concepts in this brochure are intended to be
examples for developers and communities to use to start their
common exploration of public transportation compatibility.  These
examples must be tailored to meet the situation in each community.

     The term "development" means any commercial or multifamily
residential development or redevelopment of a site for uses such as
shopping centers, employment centers, office buildings, retail
complexes, business and technical parks, apartments, townhouses, or
a mixture of these uses.



8-1





Chapter 8: Public Transportation - Compatible Site Design

Compatible Site Designs

          Public transportation can be accommodated easily into
     most developments if it is included at the earliest stages in
     the design process and the public transportation operator is a
     partner in that process.


     Five aspects of site design can have significant impacts on
the public transportation compatibility of a development:

     1.    Site Access to and from a development.

     2.    Building Location within a development.

     3.    Parking, the amount and location, within a development.

     4.    Internal Circulation provided for the pedestrian and
     transit    vehicles.

     5.    Pedestrian and Transit Facilities within a development.

     Some of these design criteria may appear trivial, but their
importance lies with creating development conducive to public
transportation use and foot travel, each of which builds upon the
other and can produce an environment for effective public
transportation use.



8-2





Chapter 8: Public Transportation - Compatible Site Design

Compatible Site Designs, continued

     Goal: Maximize public transportation and pedestrian access to
a site.

1.   Site Access

     Maximizing public transportation access means providing of the
physical requirements of public transportation vehicles an for the
physical and psychological needs of their users.  Since most
developments will only be served by the most common public
transportation vehicles - buses and rideshare cars o vans - those
are the focus here.

     -     For a development to be accessible, most of the following
           criteria must be met:

           -    Public transportation vehicles have to be accommo-
                dated on the road network that serves the develop-
                ment.

           -    Roads must be designed to accommodate heavyweight
                and large vehicle requirements.

           -    Public transportation facilities, such as bus 
                pullouts, must be considered in the initial design
                of a road network.

           -    Bus access to a site can be substantially improved 
                if high occupancy vehicle  (HOV)  lanes and 
                preferential signals are provided.  Developers may
                wish to work with local officials to build these
                facilities into the roads that serve their sites.

Click HERE for graphic.


Large vehicle dimensions
Source: Design Guidelines for Bus and Light Rail Facilities,
Regional Transit, (Sacramento, CA)


Click HERE for graphic.

Design for bus pullout
Source:  Facilities: Design Guidelines, Orange County Transit
District, (1987)



8-3





Chapter 8: Public Transportation - Compatible Site Design

Compatible Site Designs, continued

           -    Ridesharing can substantially reduce traffic 
                volumes by reducing the total number of vehicles
                while carrying larger numbers of people.  Carpools 
                and vanpools use regular streets, but can operate
                more efficiently if they can use HOV lanes.

     -     Equal consideration must be given to pedestrian access.

     The streets adjacent to a development must have sidewalks and
other safe pedestrian facilities such as bus shelters.  Pedestrians
need convenient and safe access between a transit facility, or a
street with a bus stop, and the entrance to a building or cluster
of buildings.

Click HERE for graphic.


Desirable Design - Pedestrian access to bus stop is direct and
convenient.
Source: Guide far Including Public Transit in And Use Planning,
Alameda - Contra Costa
Transit District, (Oakland, CA)



     Developments enclosed by walls and fences need to provide
openings or gates so that walkways can provide direct access
between the development and transit facilities.

Click HERE for graphic.


     Not Desirable                       Desirable
     Walls, beams, or steep slopes       Walkways and gates make
     between bus stops and building      transit accessible
     may prohibit transit use

   Source: Design Guidelines for Bus Facilities, Orange County
   Transit District, (1987)



8-4





Chapter 8: Public Transportation - Compatible Site Design

Compatible Site Designs, continued

        Goal: Orient buildings toward public transportation
   facilities and not parking lots.  Buildings must be as
   conveniently situated to public transportation facilities as they
   are to auto parking.

2.      Building Location

     To locate buildings in a manner that helps create a public
transportation-compatible development, all the following criteria
must be met:

   -    Locate buildings as close to streets with transit facilities
        or to internal transit stops as possible.

Click HERE for graphic.


Typical design concept in which buildings are oriented along
streets with sidewalks.
Source: Planning link Pedestrian Facilities in Suburban and
Developing Areas
Research Report Transportation Research Board, (1987)


   -    Arrange buildings on a site to reduce the walking distance
        between each of the buildings and the nearest transit
        facility.

   -    Cluster buildings together,

     Clustering buildings around a central pedestrian space
provides the best opportunity to encourage pedestrian access to a
site while shortening walking distances and promoting walking
circulation on site to reduce auto driving between buildings in a
development.

     In building clusters, provide an identifiable and dominant
entrance to the cluster that is clearly visible from the nearest
transit facility.  Within clusters, assure that each building's
entrance faces the other entrances or is in close proximity so that
clear pedestrian destinations can be identified.

Click HERE for graphic.

Buildings clustered at an intersection - entrances close to street
with a bus stop, plus close to each other
Source: Planning and implementing Pedestrian Facilities in Suburban
and Developing Areas
Research Report Transportation Research Bard, (1987)

8-5





Chapter 8: Public Transportation - Compatible Site Design

Compatible Site Designs, continued

     Goal: Encourage the use of alternatives to the single occupant
auto by reducing the impacts of parking through the design of
parking at a development.

3.      Parking

     The placement of parking is a key ingredient for successful
pedestrian and public transportation circulation.  Large, free
parking lots reinforce auto dependency in suburban developments. 
In such environments there are no compelling reasons to use public
transportation.

     As developers consider creating developments that are less
reliant on autos and encourage the use of public transportation and
pedestrian access, all the following criteria need to be met:

   -    Reduce the amount of parking required through developing    
        programs to encourage ridesharing, transit usage, and
        walking.

        -    Work with the local transit operator to develop transit
             ridership marketing programs for the development.

        -    Reduce the negative impact on public transportation
             ridership with the designs and locations of parking
             lots.

        -    Provide preferential parking close to building
             entrances for rideshare vehicles. 

   -    Locate parking to the sides and backs of buildings so that
        access from public transportation does not require walking  
        through large parking lots to reach building entrance .

Click HERE for graphic.

        Undesirable                   Desirable
        No pedestrian connection      Parking behind, bus stop close 
        provided, distance between    to entrance, walkways to 
        building and bus is too far   entrance

   Source: Design for Bus Facilities, Orange County Transit
   District, (1987)



8-6





Chapter 8: Public Transportation - Compatible Site Design

Compatible Site Designs, continued

Click HERE for graphic.

Automobile related development
Source: Public Streets for Public Use, Portland's Arterial Street
Classification, Dottemer, (1987)

Click HERE for graphic.

        Undesirable                        Desirable
        Buildings separated from street    Parking behind building
        by parking

Source: Guidelines for Public Transit in Small Communities, Small
Community Systems.
Branch, Urban Transit Authority of British Columbia, (1980)



        -    Locate bus stops and passenger drop-offs at the major
             entrances to buildings rather than across the parking
             lot. Design landscaping and fencing within parking lots
             so that they do not create barriers for pedestrians or
             transit users and especially for disabled pedestrians.

   -    Balance the location of parking with pedestrian and transit
        access and circulation.

        -    Large parking lots become major barriers for 
             pedestrians and public transportation vehicles since 
             they seldom provide clear, direct pathways for safe, 
             easy movement.

        Goal: The ease and safety of pedestrian and public
   transportation circulation is the main design focus in creating a
   public transportation-compatible development.

4.      Internal Circulation

     Successful internal circulation requires that pedestrian and
public transportation be designed together as compatible,
integrated circulation systems.

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 Chapter 8: Public Transportation - Compatible Site Design

Compatible Site Designs, continued

    If a development is designed as if all pedestrian's access and
circulation to, from, and within a development were for persons
with disabilities, the total result would be a very human scale and
public transportation-compatible environment that is good for
everyone.

Public Transportation

     Planning for public transportation vehicle circulation has not
been as common as pedestrian facilities design within developments. 
However, this situation is changing as developers begin to look for
solutions to auto congestion.  For public transportation to provide
on-site service and maintain reasonable schedules, most of the
following criteria need to be met:

   -    Design internal road improvements to handle public
        transportation vehicles.

        -    Roads must be able to accommodate large, heavyweight
             buses and provide extra space for turning, turning-
             around and for stopping for brief periods. Standards
             for transit compatible road design are available
             through the local transit operator.

        -    In development where high level of bus activity are     
             planned, HOV lanes and transit centers may be worth
             designing into the site plan as well.

   -    Design direct streets through a development.

        -    Buses cannot afford the time to weave through a
             development.  Direct routes through developments,
             segregated from congested parking lots, are necessary
             if buses are to keep their schedules.  Buses cannot
             afford to be held up in the congestion common to
             parking lots nor are parking lots usually built to
             support heavy vehicles.  The design of a development
             itself can go a long way to reduce conflicts between
             transit vehicles and autos.

Click HERE for graphic.

Direct pedestrian access from mall to bus stop
Source: L.E. Miller, Community Planning for Public Transit,
 Transit Semices Division,
Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing, 
(Province of British Columbia, 1976)

        -    Work with the transit operators to design the optimum
             number of transit stops and to provide bus bypasses for
             bottlenecks such as congested intersections and parking
             lots.

   -    Design transit use in to he major streets that serve the    
        main entrances of buildings.



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Chapter 8: Public Transportation - Compatible Site Design

Compatible Site Designs, continued

        -    To be effective, on-site transit must serve the main
             entrances of buildings and main entrances to clusters
             of buildings.

Click HERE for graphic.

Desirable
Transit serves main building entrance.
Source: Design for Bus and Light Rail Facilities Reg Transit,
(Sacramento, CA, 1987)

   -    Provide exclusive bus lanes, entrances and exits when
        traffic volumes warrant such facilities.

        -    If a large development has lanes set aside for transit,
             those lanes can also be used for rideshare vehicles. 
             If ridesharing is to be used, priority access and
             parking must be provided.

Pedestrian Circulation

     People will walk 500 to 1,000 feet to a bus stop.  This
distance should be measured using the actual walking route.  Older
people will walk slightly less distance than younger people -
approximately 750 feet.  People can be expected to walk 1,250 feet
to a passenger rail station or to a park-and-ride lot.  Walkways
need to be built according to the following criteria:

   -    Locate walkways so the pedestrian has a short distance to   
        walk between a transit facility, or a street with a transit
        stop, and the entrance to a building. 

Click HERE for graphic.

Desirable
Direct access to bus stop.
Source: Design for Bus and Light Rail Facilities, 
Regional Transit, (Sacramento, CA, 1987)

        -    Provide visual as well a physical pathways to streets
                  with transit facilities.  Integrate transit
             centers or bus stops with other pedestrian areas and
             open spaces.

   -    Connect all buildings on site to abutting land uses with    
        walkways.

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 Chapter 8: Public Transportation - Compatible Site Design

Compatible Site Designs, continued

        -    To stimulate walking all buildings in a development    
             must be connected by paved walkways not only to each
             other but also to adjoining buildings, particularly in
             mixed-use developments.

   -    Separate roads and parking from pedestrian pathways by grade
        separations or other devices.

        -     Minimize opportunities for pedestrian/auto conflict by
             consolidating driveways, creating safe pedestrian
             crossings, and providing continuous sidewalks and
             curbs.

Click HERE for graphic.

Separate the pedestrian from the auto.
Source: Accommodating Pedestrian, Richard Untermann, (New York,
1984)

        -    Adequately lit pathways and transit facilities,
             visitable from buildings, are necessary for pedestrian
             security.

Click HERE for graphic.

Pedestrian lighting
Source: Plan Graphics, Walker, Theodive, (Mesa, AZ, 1985)

   -    Walkways must meet all state and local barrier-free design
        standards to facilitate use by all people.

        -    Each community has adopted barrier-free design    
             standards to assure that developments are accessible
             to, and   safe for use by, people who have
             disabilities.



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 Chapter 8: Public Transportation - Compatible Site Design

Compatible Site Designs, continued

        Goal: Provide a quality environment for pedestrian walkways
   and for transit centers and bus stops.

5.      Pedestrian and Transit Facilities

     Designing quality into the walk to, and the wait at, a transit
facility is as important for design consideration as is the
provision of walkways and bus stops.

Walkways

     People will walk farther in a quality pedestrian environment
People may use the bus if the walk to the destination is not only
convenient, but is also a pleasant experience.  The Northwest
weather can also have a marked effect on the extent people wi use
public transit and must be considered in designs.  The following
criteria need to be followed:

   -    Pave all walkways

        -    All walkways must be paved.Paving material should be
             safe under wet weather conditions.

   -    Buffer walkways with landscaping

        -    Enhance walkways with partial screen in from parking   
             lots in streets with earth beams, trees and other      
             vegetation.  Small trees are no substitute for large
             ones in a suburban/suburban landscape.  However for
             pedestrian safety, landscaping must not interfere with
             visibility.  Landscaping should be an integral part of
             early design studies.

Click HERE for graphic.

Landscaping walkways
Source: Site Planning for Cluster Housing, Richard Untermann, &
Robert Smatt, (Van Nostrand Co., NY, 1977)

        -    Create a minimum of a four to six-foot planting strip  
             with trees to buffer sidewalks from the street and, if
             feasible, provide another row of street trees between
             the sidewalk and the property.



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 Chapter 8: Public Transportation - Compatible Site Design

Compatible Site Designs, continued

        -    Plan walkways to capture landmarks and views where
             available.

   -    Scale the size of facilities to correspond to pedestrian    
        volumes.

        -    Provide an eight-foot minimum width sidewalk adjacent
             to a transit stop and increase the width if the number
             of users warrants additional circulation space. The
             minimum width of walkway is six feet.  Provide
             pedestrian facilities such as signs, benches, trash
             cans, etc., as the volume and need requires.

   -    Shelter the pedestrian from the weather.

        -    In the Pacific Northwest, protection from the rain is
             an important design factor.  Provide covered, colon-
             naded walkways or arcades.  Canopied, tree-lined
             walkways can also provide some protection from the
             weather.

Click HERE for graphic.

Shelter the pedestrian from the weather
Source: Accommodating the Pedestrian, Richard Untermann, 
(New York, 1987)

Click HERE for graphic.

Shelter the pedestrian from the weather
Source: Design Guidelines for Bus and Light Rail Facilities,
Sacramento Regional Transit

Transit Facilities

     Special attention needs to be given to pedestrian facilities
near bus stops and transit centers.  All transit facilities
considered forasite,must be developed with,and approved by,the
transit operator.  Locating bus stop or other facilities without
operator participation will not assure transit service.



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 Chapter 8: Public Transportation - Compatible Site Design

Compatible Site Designs, continued

     The following criteria will help make transit stops work
effectively:

   -    Provide shelters to protect patrons from the weather.

        -    Transit operators usually have adopted a standard bus
             shelter design which provides shelter while remaining
             safe,easy to maintain,and relatively vandal proof.
             Designers should consult their local operators on
             shelter design.

   -    Consider a bus stop as a significant destination and an
        important part of the design of any development.

        -    The transit stop - whether it is a simple bus stop or a
             transfer center  -  can be a great opportunity to
             create a dominant entrance to a development.  Since a
             transit stop can serve as an introduction or farewell
             to a development, it can create the first or last
             impression people have of the site.

        -    Consider combining a transit facility with a shared
             plaza placed between neighboring buildings or at the
             main entrance to the development.
   
   -    Separate waiting places for transit patrons out of the
        walking path can improve pedestrian circulation.

Click HERE for graphic.

Separate transit patrons from pedestrian circulation
Source: Streets For Pedestrians and Transit: An Evaluation of Three
Transit Malls in the U.S.
      Crains & Associates, Menlo Park, CA DOT UMTA (February, 1979)

   -    Provide pedestrian facilities at transit stops.

        -    All facilities must be approved by the local transit
             operators and the local jurisdiction.

             -    Benches with back rests (both sheltered and non   
                  sheltered).
             -    Attractive, well maintained landscaping.
             -    Trash containers with lids.
             -    Walkway lighting between transit stops and
                  buildings and at transit waiting areas.
             -    Community information displays and guides.



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Chapter 8: Public Transportation - Compatible Site Design

Responsibilities for Compatible Design

     These design criteria are of no use unless they are placed
into practice.  The following people play key roles in determining
whether the design criteria are used and, ultimately, whether
public transportation is incorporated into a development:

   -    Developers - ultimately decide whether or not to use   these
        design criteria and other concepts.  It is the    developer
        who will balance the various costs, such as the market, the
        demand for various needs, public regulations along with
        environmental mitigation. Developers can work with local
        governments to develop flexible design guidelines to permit
        public transportation supportive developments.  In addition,
        developers can look for opportunities to create
        public/private partnerships.

   -    Public Officials - adopt and support plans and policies  
        and implement public transportation-compatible design
        regulations.  Public officials must remain open to new 
        ideas and different solutions.  By their actions, public
        officials can educate the community to the benefits of, and
        the need for, public transportation-compatible design.

     In addition, public officials and developers need to consider
the suitability of land uses that generate high traffic volumes in
non urban locations where alternatives to the auto do not exist and
may be difficult to develop.  As congestion spreads, restricting
traffic-generating land uses to areas with transit services may be
required.

   -    Public Agencies  -  work with developers and the  local
        transit operators to understand their needs and incorporate
        them as design guidelines are developed. It is crucial that
        public staffs be receptive to new ideas and flexible
        solutions. Finally, it is the job of public agencies to
        review all development applications to enforce the
        regulations.

   -    Public Transportation Operators  -   educate and work  with
        the private developers and agencies on both  designing
        development standards and applying those standards to
        individual developments.  Ultimately, they can supply or
        withhold transit service to a site or area.

   -    Existing or Prospective Tenants - can work with developers  
        to bring bus or rideshare services to the development to
        help relieve congestion and enhance the visibility of the
        site.



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Chapter 9: Public Transportation Compatibility Worksheets

Click HERE for graphic.





 Chapter 9:  Public compatibility worksheets

Introduction

     Public transportation works most effectively in settings that
are public transportation compatible.

     If community planners, developers or public transportation
agencies want to know whether public transportation will work at a
site, they need to look at various compatibility indicators.  Key
among the indicators are the presence of compatible land uses, high
levels of activity, compatible site design, parking management, and
rider incentive programs. Public transportation works most
effectively in settings that are public transportation compatible.

     The conditions that make up public transportation
compatibility are summarized in the two worksheets that make up
this chapter.  The worksheets are guides for evaluating the
compatibility of a development as one part of an overall project
evaluation process.  The worksheets can be used for private
developments such as shopping centers or residential subdivisions
and for public projects such as civic centers, housing complexes,
and recreation facilities.

     The worksheets can be used to bring compatibility information
into the project review processes.  They can also be used to assess
options if a site proves to be incompatible to one mode of public
transportation or if a site cannot be served in the short term,
due, to resource constraints or ridership demand levels that are
not yet adequate to warrant service.



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chapter 9: public transportation worksheets

Using the Worksheets

The two worksheets are proposed for use during:

   -    The initial planning phase prior to the development or
        redevelopment of a site;

   -    The SEPA review process; and

   -    Subsequent assessments to determine if public transportation
        services can be brought to an already developed site to
        mitigate increased congestion or meet transportation needs
        that were not identified earlier.

     It is important that the public transportation operators be
involved during the entire design and review process,particularly
for large projects that will generate substantial traffic and could
be made public transportation compatible.

     The first worksheet is for the site developer or property
owner to fill out.  It established as information that is needed 
to determine whether the site and its land uses are public
transportation compatible.

     The second worksheet is for the public transportation agency
to use once the first worksheet has been completed.  The agency win
use the two worksheets to make its evaluation of the operational
compatibility of the site.

     Both worksheets are designed in the same format so that the
operator can easily take information from Worksheet 1 as worksheet
2 is developed.  The operator's worksheet assumes that the operator
will (a) review the development proposal and site plans and (b) if
needed, pay a visit to the site.

     The concept of public transportation compatibility is the
subject of the eight chapters that precede this one.  Users of
these worksheets are directed to the following chapters for
supporting information:

Chapter 3: Public Transportation-Compatible Land Uses

Chapter 7: Public Transportation-Compatible Subdivision Design

Chapter 8: Public Transportation-Compatible Site Design

Appendix A: Public Transportation Terms

     While these worksheets will help assess the public
transportation compatibility of a project, they will not assure
that service will be provided to the site.  Only the appropriate
public transportation agency, working with the people responsible
for the project, can determine whether service can be provided
effectively now or at some time in the future, or whether resources
are available to provide the new service.


     Public Transportation Compatibility (PTC) Indicators are
provided throughout the worksheet to help users assess the degree
of compatibility a project achieves.



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Chapter 9: public transportation worksheets

Worksheet #1 - For Use by Developers, Property Owners and Local
Jurisdictions

Click HERE for graphic.

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Chapter 9: Public transportation worksheets
Worksheet #1 - For Use by Developers,, Property Owners and Local
Jurisdictions, cont.

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Chapter 9: Public transportation worksheets

Worksheet #1 - For the by Developers, Property Owners and Local
Jurisdictions, cont.

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 9-5





Chapter 9: Public transportation worksheets

Worksheet #1 - For Use by Developers, Property Owners and Local
Jurisdictions, cont.

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Chapter 9: Public transportation worksheets

Worksheet #1 - For Use by Developers, Property Owners and Local
Jurisdictions, cont.

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9-7





Chapter 9: Public transportation worksheets

Worksheet #1 - For Use by Developers, property Owners and Local
Jurisdictions, cont.

Click HERE for graphic.

9-8





Chapter 9: Public transportation worksheets

Worksheet #1 - For Use by Developers, Property Owners and Local
Jurisdictions, cont.

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Chapter 9: Public transportation worksheets

Worksheet #1 - For Use by Developers, Property Owners and Local
Jurisdictions, cont.

Click HERE for graphic.

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Chapter 9: Public transportation worksheets

Worksheet #2 - For too by Me Public Transportation Agency

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Chapter 9: Public transportation worksheets

Worksheet #2 - For Use by the public Transportation Agency, 
continued

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Chapter 9: Public transportation worksheets

Worksheet #2 - For Use by the Public Transportation Agency,
continued

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Chapter 9: Public transportation worksheets

Worksheet #2 - For Use by the Public Transportation Agency, 
continued

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Chapter 9: Public transportation worksheets
 
Worksheet #2 - For Use by the Public Transportation Agency ,  
continued

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Chapter 9: Public transportation worksheets

Worksheet #2 - For Use by the public Transportation Agency,  
continued

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Chapter 9: Public transportation worksheets

Worksheet #2 - For Use by the Public Transportation Agency, 
continued                                                           

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Chapter 9: Public transportation worksheets

Worksheet #2 - For Use by the Public Transportation Agency,
continued

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Appendix

Appendix A: Public Transportation Terms



   Alternatives Analysis  To be eligible for UMTA capital funding
   for a major urban mass transportation investment (such as busways
   or rail), local officials must perform a corridor-level analysis
   of mode and alignment alternatives.

   Articulated Bus  Generally a 72-seat,60-foot long bus designed to
   bend in the middle.

   Automated People Mover  (APM) APM refers to a class of small
   automated vehicles that operate without drivers on their own
   exclusive guideways.

   Buspools  Buses that operate like car or vanpools where the
   driver is an employee at the buspool's destination and all
   operating costs are borne by the users.  They can also be called
   "worker/driver buses."

   Busway  A right-of-way for express bus operations completely
   separated from general purpose lanes.

   CarVanpool  A group of people who share the use and cost of a van
   or car for transportation to and from a destination on a regular
   basis.

   Charter Service  Transportation service provided in vehicles
   licensed to provide that service and engaged at a specific price
   for a specific period of time, usually on a contractual basis. 
   Public transit agencies usually cannot provide charter services.

   Commuter Rail  A rail service usually using heavy rail vehicles,
   connecting the outlying suburbs and a central business district. 
   Service is generally 10 limited to longer distances (15 to 25
   miles) and peak period, home-based work trips.

   Commuter Service  Peak-period bus or rail transportation provided
   on a regularly scheduled basis for work and school trips.
   Commuter services can be offered as express services.

   County Transportation  Authorities In Washington, county
   transportation authorities are authorized by state law (RCW 36-
   57).  CTAs have been established in two Washington counties:
   Snohomish and Grays Harbor.  SNO-TRAN is a CTA.

   Demand Management  A new concept of reducing auto trips through
   the management and pricing of parking, access, and congestion
   while providing alternatives.

   Demand-Responsive Service  Transportation service designed to
   carry passengers from their origins to specific destinations
   (often door-to-door) by immediate request or by prior
   reservation.

   Development Impact Fees   Fees collected for new development
   which are used to construct traffic improvements to accommodate
   the additional vehicular traffic generated by new development.

   Dual-Mode Bus  Buses that can operate with electrical and diesel
   power; e.g. METRO's tunnel buses.

   Express Service  Higher speed transit service designed to make a
   limited number of stops along a route and generally provided
   during peak hours by express buses or trains.

   Feeder Service  Bus services providing connections with other bus
   or rail transit services.



A-1





Appendix

Appendix A: Public Transportation Terms, continued


   "Ferry Fast Lanes"  Priority loading lanes for car/vanpools at
   ferry docks, designed to encourage HOV use on the ferries.  Users
   must have a permit to use this service.

   Fixed-Route Service  Transportation service operated over a set
   route on a regular schedule.

   Grade-Separated  Rights-of-way that are separated from general
   purpose rights-of-way by a level change, often on an elevated
   structure or in a tunnel.

   Guideway  An exclusive travel-way used by various modes of public
   transportation.

   Headway  The frequency of transit service along a given route.

   Heavy Rail  A rail system that operates on a completely grade -
   separated right-of-way. Generally trains operate longer dis-
   tances, with limited stops, and in heavily-populated urban 
   corridors.

   "Hero Program"  A program promoting proper use of HOV lanes.

   High Capacity Transit(HCT)  Transportation systems designed to
   carry large numbers of riders at faster than average speeds. 
   Examples include express bus, passenger-only ferries, and rail.

   High Occupancy Vehicles (HOV)  Vehicles that carry multiple
   occupants.  HOVs include buses, vanpools, and carpools.  HOV
   vehicles can use HOV Lanes which are reserved for buses,
   carpools, and vanpools on freeways, highways, and city arterials

   Integrated Transportation System   A concept to expand mobility
   and provide transportation choices by integrating transportation
   facilities and services appropriate to the land uses in an area;
   e.g. putting HOV lanes on transit accessible roads serving high
   density developments.

   Level of Service (LOS)  A qualitative measure describing
   operational conditions within a traffic stream in terms of speed
   and travel time, freedom to maneuver, traffic interruptions,
   comfort and convenience, and safety.  Level A denotes the best
   traffic conditions while Level F indicates gridlock.

   Light Rail Transit (LRT)  A rail system that can operate on a
   variety of rights-of-way, ranging from on-street to grade
   separated.  Vehicles run on rails and consist of shorter train
   units than heavy rail.

   Local Bus Service  Community-based transit services provided to
   the residents of a defined area.

   Local Transportation Act (LTA)  LTA was created in 1987 by House
   Bill 817 and established tools to collect and distribute
   development impact fees along with public funds to pay for
   roadway improvements.

   Mass Transit  The general term used to identify bus, rail, or
   other types of transportation service which move large numbers of
   people at one time.

   Metered/Bypass Ramp  Entrance ramps metered to allow traffic to
   merge onto the freeway, but designed to allow HOVs to bypass the
   ramp meters.  In Washington, the ramp meter program is called the
   "FLOW program."



A-2


Appendix

Appendix A: Public Transportation Terms, continued


   Mini Bus  Buses smaller than the standard 40-foot long coach with
   varying seating capacities.

   Modal Split  The proportion of total person trips on various
   types of modes.

   Mode  The types of transportation available for use such as rail,
   bus, vanpool, single-occupant auto, or bicycle.

   Multi-Modal  A term referring to facilities designed for and used
   by more than one type of mode.

   Paratransit  Flexible transportation services which are operated
   publicly or privately, and generally are distinct from con-
   ventional transit.  Vans and mini-buses are the usual paratransit
   vehicles.

   Park-and-Ride  Facility A designated parking rotator near a
   transit facility used by transit patrons to park their cars.

   Parking Management  Actions taken to alter the supply, operation,
   and/or parking demand in an area.

   Peak Periods  The hours when traffic is greatest.  Generally,
   there is a morning peak (6:30-9:00 am) and an afternoon peak
   period (3:30-6:30 pm) during the work week.

   Preferential Parking  Parking spaces reserved exclusively for
   car/ vanpools in parking lots.  These parking spaces are gener-
   ally located closer to building entrances or have other positive
   features which make them very desirable.  Such parking spaces may
   be used as an incentive to encourage ridesharing.

   Preferential Signals  Traffic signals designed to give an
   advantage to HOVS.

   Primary Corridors  The major travel routes identified for
   additional development to increase the carrying capacity of those
   corridors.

   Public Transportation  A wide variety of passenger transportation
   services available to the public including buses, ferries,
   rideshare, and rail transit.  In Washington, public
   transportation is provided by PTBAS, CTAS, cities, the State, and
   METRO.

   Public Transportation Benefit Authority (PTBA)  Public
   Transportation Benefit Authorities are authorized by RCW36.57A to
   provide public transportation to areas which vote to create them. 
   Sixteen PTBAs operate transit services in Washington.  Community
   Transit is a PTBA.

   Rail-Compatible Facilities  designed for buses or other uses that
   are, or can be made, compatible with rail facilities; e.g. park--
   and-ride lots.

   Rail-Convertible  Facilities designed for buses or other uses
   that can be converted to rail facilities at a later time; e.g.
   the METRO bus tunnel can be converted to a rail facility.

   Rail Transit  Any of a variety of passenger rail modes used for
   multi-purpose trips.  Rail transit usually operates all day and
   serves more than the commuter market.

   Regional Rail System  The term given to the approximately 101-
   mile rail transit system proposed for King, Pierce and Snohomish
   counties.  This system would be part of the larger, high capacity
   transportation system being developed for this region.

   Reverse Commute  Travel during the peak period that flows in the
   direction opposite the peak direction.



A-3

Appendix

Appendix A: Public Transportation Terms, continued

   Ridership  The number of persons using a transportation system. 
   Can be expressed in any number of measurements.

   Ridesharing Programs  Any programs sponsored by public agencies
   or the private sector to promote the use of carpools, vanpools,
   or buspools.

   Right-of-Way  A general term denoting land or an interest
   therein, usually in a strip, devoted to transportation purposes.

   Route  An established geographical course of travel followed by a
   vehicle from start to finish for a given trip.

   Section 9  The major federal funding source for public
   transportation which is one section of the Surface Transportation
   Act.

   Section 13(C)  Labor regulations, mandated by the U.S. Department
   of Labor, designed to protect transit employees working in
   federally funded systems.

   Section 15  U.S. Department of Transportation reporting
   requirements for transit operators.  These reports are the basis
   for the national allocation of Section 9 funds.

   Section 5O4  Federal regulations that mandate levels of service
   to physically disabled people that are to be provided by transit.

   Service Area  A geographic locale or region where transit service
   is provided.

   Shared-Ride Taxi   A demand-responsive mode in which taxis carry
   several unrelated passengers with different, but similar, origins
   and destinations.

   Single-Occupant Vehicle (SOV)  Vehicles carrying one occupant,
   usually a private auto.

   Special Transportation  Publicly or privately provided
   transportation services to elderly and/or disabled people or
   other "special" populations.

   Station Area  An area surrounding an HCT station containing
   transit related activities and designed to accommodate large
   numbers of people using the HCT service.  Station areas are
   generally defined as the area within a 1/4 mile radius of the
   station.

   Subscription Bus  A bus service in which routes and schedules are
   prearranged to meet the travel needs of specific riders usually
   workers at a single destination.  The level of service is
   generally higher than that of regular passenger bus service, and
   the service is obtained by contractual arrangements.  Passenger
   fares generally cover all operating costs.  Also called "custom
   bus."

   Subsidized Taxi  A service which lowers taxi fares to the general
   public or to special groups.  The taxi company is reimbursed for
   the difference between the total taxi fare and the reduced amount
   paid by the rider.

   Surface Transportation Act of 1987  The law (Pub L.100-17)
   updating the federal financing program for public transportation
   planning, capital programs, and transit operations.  Key sections
   include 9 (categorical transit grants), 3 (discretionary grants)
   and 8 (research and development).



A-4

Appendix

Appendix A: Public Transportation Terms, continued


   Timed Transfer Concept  A set of bus routes and schedules
   coordinated so that transfers between all lines, destined for a
   particular transit center, are synchronized to save passengers'
   time.

   Transit  A general term applied to passenger rail and bus service
   available for use by the public and generally operated on fixed-
   routes with fixed-schedules.

   Transit Center  A facility providing connections between buses
   serving different routes or between different transportation
   modes such as between ferries and buses.

   Transit-Compatible/Supportive Land Use  A general term applying
   to higher density and/or intensity land uses and activities,
   usually urban, that are designed and located to encourage
   ridership on public transportation.

   Transit Corridor  A major right-of-way that carries high volumes
   of transit and other HOV vehicles.

   Transit Dependent  People for whom public transit is the only
   transportation mode available.

   Transit Freeway Stations  Special bus stops designed into the
   freeway right-of-way that allow buses to pick up and deliver
   passengers without leaving the freeway, thus saving travel time. 
   These are also called "flyer stops."

   Transit/Vanpool Ramps  Ramps exclusively used by buses, carpools
   and vanpools to enter the freeway.

   Transportation Brokerage  The coordination of a variety of
   transportation services by a broker.  Generally the broker is a
   private business often under contract with transit agencies.

   Transportation Demand Management (TDM)  Transportation System
   Management (TSM) These techniques increase the efficiency of the
   existing transportation system through lower cost programs like
   ride sharing, bus fare subsidy programs, parking management and
   flextime.

   Transportation Improvement Board (TIB)  The TIB was created by
   House Bill 1857 in 1988 to replace the Urban Arterial Board.  TIB
   will oversee planning, funding, and the coordination of
   transportation projects between jurisdictions.

   UMTA  The Urban Mass Transportation Administration, the division
   of the U.S. Department of Transportation responsible for the
   funding and regulation of public transportation.  UMTA
   administers the Surface Transportation Act of 1987 which is a
   major transit funding source (see Surface Transportation Act).

   WSDOT  The Washington State Department of Transportation
   responsible for planning, building, and maintaining the state
   highways and ferry system.



A-5

Appendix

Appendix B:  Sources

Chapter 1:   Introduction to the Relationship Between Community
             Planning and Public Transportation
Chapter 2:   How Public Transportation Works
             Burnaby Planning Department. Burnaby Metrotown: A
                  Development Plan. Burnaby, B.C. June, 1977).
             HOV Task Force. Preliminary Report on High Occupancy
                  Vehicle (HOV) Facilities and Activities.
                  Washington State Department of Transportation,
                  Olympia, (January, 1989).
             Orange County Transit District. Design Guidelines for
                  Bus Facilities. 2nd Edition. Los Angeles,
                  California (November, 1987).
Chapter 3:   Public Transportation - Compatible Land Uses
             Canadian Urban Transit Association and the Roads and
                  Transportation Association of Canada. Canadian
                  Transit Handbook. University of Toronto-York,
                  (1985).
             Cervero, Robert. "Land-Use Mixing and Suburban 
                  Mobility."  Transportation Quarterly, July, 
                  1988).
             Cervero, Robert.  "Unlocking Suburban Gridlock." 
                  American Transportation Journal (Autumn, 1986).
             City of Gresham. Comprehensive Plan Amendments.
                  Planning Department, Gresham, Oregon, (1984).
             Maryland Transportation Authority. Access By Design:
                  Transit's Role in Land Development.  Baltimore,
                  (September, 1988). 
             Orski, Kenneth. The Politics of Congestion. (1989).
             Pushkarev, B.S. & Zupan, J.M. Public Transportation and
                  Land Use Policy A Regional Plan Association Book,
                  Indiana University Press, Bloomington, (1977).
             Seattle Metro. Encouraging Public Transportation
                  Through Effective Land Use. Reprinted by the U.S.
                  DOT Technology Sharing Reprint Series, (May,
                  1987).
             Tri-Met. Encouraging Public Transportation Through
                  Effective Land Use Considerations, Portland,
                  Oregon, (May, 1987). 
             Tri-State Regional Planning Commission. Where Transit
                  Works. New York, (August, 1976).
Chapter 4:   Model Public Transportation - Compatible Land Use Goals
                  and Policies for Community Plans
             City of Arlington. Final Comprehensive Plan. Arlington,
                  Washington, July, 1985).
             City of Edmonds. Edmonds Community Development Code.
                  Planning Department, Edmonds, Washington.(1985-8).
             City of Everett. Everett Central City Development Plan.
                  Everett, Washington, July, 1987).
             City of Everett. Everett General Plan. Planning
                  Department, Everett, Washington, (1988).
             City of Fort Collins. Planning Department, Fort
                  Collins, Colorado, (1978).
             City of Gresham. 1988 Proposed Comprehensive Plan
                  Amendment. Planning Department, Gresham, Oregon,
                  (December, 1988). 
             City of Lake Stevens. Comprehensive Plan. Lake Stevens,
                  Washington, (March, 1978).
             City of Lynnwood. Lynnwood Policy Plan. Planning
                  Department, Lynnwood, Washington, (1988).
             City of Monroe. Comprehensive Plan. Monroe, Washington,
                  (August, 1980).
             City of Mountlake Terrace. Mountlake Terrace
                  Comprehensive Policy Plan. Planning Department,
                  Mountlake Terrace, Washington, (1983).
             City of Mukilteo.  Comprehensive Plan.  Planning 
                  Department, Mukilteo, Washington, March, 1988).
             City of Phoenix.  General Plan for Phoenix  1985-2000. 
                  Planning Department, Phoenix, Arizona, (October,
                  1985).

A-6


Appendix

Appendix B: Sources, continued

             Regional Public Transportation Authority, Building
                  Mobility: Transit 2020.  Phoenix, Arizona, (1987).
             SNO-TRAN.  The Public Transportation Plan for Snohomish
                  County.  Planning Section, Lynnwood, Washington,
                  July, 1989).  
             Snohomish County. 13 Subarea Plans that comprise the
                  Snohomish County Comprehensive Plan.  Everett,
                  Washington, (1975 - 1986).
             Thurston County.  Comprehensive Plan.  Planning
                  Department, Olympia, Washington, (June, 1988).
             Tri-Met.  Regional Transportation Plan.  Portland,
                  Oregon, (July, 1982).
             Washington State Department of Transportation. 1990
                  Transportation Policy Plan for Washington State.
                  (Draft) Olympia, Washington. (September, 1989).
Chapter 5:   Public Transportation - Compatible Zoning
             City of Bremerton.  Zoning Ordinance.  Planning
                  Department, Bremerton, Washington, (1987).
             City of Fort Collins., Land Development Guidance
                  System.  Planning Department, Fort Collins,
                  Colorado, (1982).
             City of Gresham.  City Zoning Code: Section 2.0430 -
                  Transit Development Districts.  Planning
                  Department, Gresham, Oregon. (1988).
             City of Portland.  City Zoning Code: Commercial Zones -
                  Chapter 430, Discussion Draft.  Planning
                  Department, Portland, Oregon, (March, 1988).
             City of Portland.  City Zoning Ordinance: Transit Zone,
                  Chapter 520, Discussion Draft.  Planning
                  Department, Portland, Oregon, (March, 1988).
             City of Seattle.  City Zoning Code: Section 24.38.040
                  RM-MD Multiple Residence-Mixed Density Zone. 
                  Seattle, WA.  
             City of Seattle.  "Mayor's Recommended Revisions to the
                  Multifamily Land Use Policies." Seattle,
                  Washington, (1989).  
             Fairfax County.  County Zoning Code: Article 6 -
                  Planned Development Transit District (Draft). 
                  Community Development Department, Fairfax County,
                  Virginia, (1988).
             International City Managers Association.  Principles
                  and Practices of Urban Planning, Washington, D.C.,
                  (1968).
             Regional Transit.  Design Guidelines for Bus and Light
                  Rail Facilities.  Sacramento, California,
                  (October, 1987).
             Seattle Metro.  Encouraging Public Transportation
                  Through Effective Land Use Actions, Seattle,
                  Washington,(May, 1987).  
             Stanton-Masten Associates, HCT Suburban Station Area
                  Planning and Development, Lynnwood, Washington,
                  (November, 1989)
             Tri-Met.  Planning with Transit - Land Use &
                  Transportation Planning Coordination. 
                  Portland,,Oregon, (May, 1979).
Chapter 6:   Model Transportation System Management (TSM) Ordinance
             Brittle, Chris, et al.  Traffic Mitigation Reference
                  Guide. Metropolitan Transportation Commission,
                  Oakland, California, (December, 1984).
             City of Hartford.  "Ordinance Amending section 35-6,
                  Subsection 35-6.21 of the Municipal Code
                  Concerning Transportation Management Plan."
                  Hartford, Connecticut, (Adopted September
                  26,1983).
             City of Pleasanton.  Ordinance Code of the City of
                  Pleasanton: Ordinance No. 1154 (Transportation
                  Systems Management).  Pleasanton, California
                  (Adopted November 19,1985).

A-7





Appendix

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             Crain & Associates, Inc.  Summary and Evaluation of
                  Transportation Management Program Options, Los
                  Altos, California, (April, 1986).
             Pultz, Susan.  "Key Considerations for Developing Local
                  Government TSM Programs." Paper prepared for the
                  Metropolitan Transportation Commission, Oakland,
                  California, (March, 1988).
             Seattle Metro. Transportation Demand Management Policy
                  Guidelines. Seattle, Washington, (April, 1989).
             Seattle Metro. Transportation Demand Management
                  Strategy Cost Estimates. Seattle, Washington,
                  July, 1989).
             Seattle Metro and the Puget Sound Council of
                  Governments. Model Transportation System
                  Management Ordinance for Local Jurisdictions. 
                  Seattle, Washington.  July, 1986).
             Southern California Association of Governments &
                  Commuter Transportation Services, Inc.  TMA
                  Handbook: A Guide for Forming Transportation
                  Management Associations.  Los Angeles (August,
                  1989).
Chapter 7:   Public Transportation - Compatible Subdivision Design
             Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District.  Guide For
                  Including Public Transit In Land Use Planning. 
                  Oakland, California, (1983).
             Canadian Urban Transit Association.  Canadian Transit
                  Handbook. (1982).
             City of Burnaby.  Burnaby Metrotown: Development Plan. 
                  Planning Department, Burnaby, British Columbia,
                  (June, 1977).  
             Dotterrer, Steve.  "Portland's Arterial Street
                  Classification Policy" in Public Streets for
                  Public Use.  Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.,New York,
                  (1987).
             Institute of Transportation Engineers.  Guidelines for
                  Urban Major Street Design.  Washington, D.C.,
                  (1984).  
             Jensen, David R./HOH Associates.  Zero Lot Line
                  Housing.  The Urban Land Institute, Washington
                  D.C. (1981).
             Kelbaugh, Doug, Editor.  The Pedestrian Pocket Book: A
                  New Suburban Design Strategy, Princeton
                  Architectural Press, New York, (1989).
             Langdon, Philip.  "A Good Place to Live." The Atlantic
                  Monthly, (March, 1988).
             Lavahn, Inc.  Subdivision Design Guideline to
                  Facilitate Transit Services.  Ministry of State
                  for Urban Affairs, Ottawa, (March, 1979).
             Orange County Transit District. Design Guidelines for
                  Bus Facilities. Garden Grove, California, (1987).
             Rabinowitz, Harvey Z., et al., Market Based Transit
                  Facility Design, University of Wisconsin -
                  Milwaukee, (February, 1989)
             Regional Transit. Design Guidelines for Bus and Light
                  Rail Facilities. Sacramento, California (1987).
             Transportation Research Board. Planning and
                  Implementing Pedestrian Facilities in Suburban and
                  Developing Rural Areas.  Special Report 294a,
                  Washington, D.C. (1987).
             Two Wheel Transit Authority.  Bicycle Commuting
                  Resource and Information Guide, Fountain Valley,
                  California.  
             Untermann, Richard.  Accommodating the Pedestrian:
                  Adapting Towns and Neighborhoods for Walking and
                  Bicycling.  Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York,
                  (1984).
             Untermann, Richard and Small, Robert.  Site Planning
                  for Cluster Housing.  Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.,
                  New York, (1977).  
             Urban Transit Authority of British Columbia. 
                  Guidelines for Public Transit in Small
                  Communities.  UTA Small Community Systems Branch,
                  Victoria, British Columbia, (September, 1980).

A-8





Appendix

Appendix B: Sources, continued

Chapter 8:   Public Transportation - Compatible Site-Planning Design
             Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District.  Transit
                  Facilities Standard Manual.  Oakland, California,
                  (1974).
             Canadian Urban Transit Association and Roads and
                  Transportation Association of Canada.  Canadian
                  Transit Handbook.  University of Toronto-York,
                  Canada (1985).
             Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority.  Transit
                  Facility Design Guide. Austin, Texas, (June,
                  1988).
             Cappe, Lome.  "Including Transit." In Public Streets
                  for Public Use.  Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New
                  York, (1987).
             Crain and Associates.  Streets for Pedestrian and
                  Transit: An Evaluation of Three Transit Malls in
                  the U.S.  U.S. Department of Transportation, UMTA,
                  Menlo Park, California, (1979).
             Kelbaugh, Doug Editor.  The Pedestrian Pocket Book:  A 
                  New Suburban Design Strategy.  Princeton
                  Architectural Press, New York, (1989).
             Langdon, Philip.  "A Good Place to Live." Atlantic
                  Monthly.  (March, 1988).
             Levinson, Herbert S. "Streets for People and Transit."
                  Transportation Quarterly, (1986).
             Miles, Don C. and Hinshaw, Mark L. "Bellevue's New
                  Approach to Pedestrian Planning and Design."  in 
                  Public Streets for Public Use, Van Nostrand
                  Reinhold Co., New York, (1987).
             Moudon, Anne Vemez.  Public Streets for Public Use. 
                  Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, (1987).
             Partners for Livable Places.  Way To Go: The Benefits
                  of Quality Design in Transportation.  Washington
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                  Rail Facilities.  Sacramento, California, (1987).
             Robinette, Gary O.  Parking Lot Landscaping
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                  for Landscape Architectural Education and
                  Research, Reston, Virginia, (1976).
             Seattle Metro.  Transportation - Facility Design
                  Guidelines, Seattle, Washington, (April, 1985).
             Transportation Research Board.  Planning and
                  Implementing Pedestrian Facilities in Suburban and
                  Developing Rural Area.  Special Report 94A,
                  Washington, D.C. (1987).
             Tri-Met.  Planning with Transit: Land Use
                  Considerations.  Tri-Met Planning Section,
                  Portland, Oregon (May, 1976).  
             Untermann, Richard.  Accommodating the Pedestrian:
                  Adapting Towns and Neighborhoods for Walking and
                  Bicycling.  Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York,
                  (1984).
             Untermann, Richard and Small, Robert.  Site Planning
                  for Cluster Housing. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. New
                  York, (1977).  
             Urban Land Institute.  Shopping Center Development
                  Handbook Community Builders Handbook Series,
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Chapter 9:   Public Transportation - Compatibility Worksheet
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                  Impacts of Land Development: An Initial Approach. 
                  The Urban Institute, Washington, D.C. (November,
                  1974).
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                  Through Effective Land Use Actions.  Seattle,
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             Tri-Met, Planning with Transit - Land Use and
                  Transportation Planning Coordination.  Portland,
                  Oregon (May, 1979).


A-9





Appendix

Appendix B: Sources, continued

Appendix A:  Public Transportation Terms
             Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District.  Transit
                  Facilities Standards Manual.  Oakland, California,
                  (March 1983).
             HOV Task Force.  Preliminary Report on High Occupancy
                  Vehicle (HOV) Facilities and Activities,
                  Washington State Department of Transportation,
                  Olympia, Washington, January, 1989).
             Maryland Department of Transportation.  Access By
                  Design: Transit's Role in Land Development. 
                  Baltimore, Maryland (September, 1988).
             Orange County Transit District.  Design Guidelines for
                  Bus Facilities. 2nd edition, Garden Grove, CA
                  (November, 1987).
             Puget Sound Council of Governments.  "Transit Modes and
                  Markets" prepared for the Report on High Capacity
                  Transit.  Seattle, Washington, January, 1989).
             SNO-TRAN.  The Public Transportation Plan for Snohomish
                  County.  Planning Section, Lynnwood, Washington,
                  July, 1989).
             Thurston Regional Planning Council.  Transit Facilities
                  Standards.  Olympia, Washington, (1983).

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