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A Guide for the Decision Maker: Transportation Planning for Your Community





Click HERE for graphic.





                             CONTENTS
                                                               Page

Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

The Importance of Transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Role of Transportation Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Government Roles in Managing Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . 9

The Transportation Planning Team. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11

Financing Transportation Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14

           For sale by the Superintendent of Documents,
      U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402





                  A GUIDE FOR THE DECISION MAKER


            Transportation Planning for Your Community


                 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
                  Federal Highway Administration

                               1980





Introduction

     Transportation is a vital part of the everyday life of every
urban citizen.  Even the very young, the very old, the sick and the
shut-ins are beneficiaries of a good transportation system or
victims of a poor one.
     Efficient transportation stimulates the economy of an urban
area; inadequate or deteriorating transportation will hamper the
economy.  The condition of transportation services and facilities
improves or detracts from living and working conditions, enhances
or harms the environment of the area, and heavily influences the
general desirability of the community.
     Keeping the transportation system in the best possible
condition with the resources available is one of your many
responsibilities as an elected or appointed official.
     To help judge the adequacy of your community's transportation
system and the adequacy of the planning program necessary to
maintain a good transportation system, the following questions are
posed for your consideration.
-    What does the public think about the operation of the street
     and highway system?
-    Do you receive numerous complaints about congestion and
     accidents caused by a poor transportation system?
-    Are industry and commerce concerned about delays in their
     shipments caused by inadequate transportation facilities?
-    Are industry and commerce rejecting your community because of
     a poor transportation system?
-    Is enough being done to take care of transportation problems
     in your community?
-    Is traffic a consideration in comprehensive urban planning?
-    Is your community effectively using available Federal and
     State Transportation improvement and planning funds?
-    And finally, are timely improvements being made?


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     A good transportation system can be a reality with thoughtful
     planning for your specific needs, and it need not be overly
     expensive.  Construction of islands and smoother alignment,
     installation of signals and lights, pavement markings for left
     and right turns and crosswalks, and channelization for turning
     traffic all improve traffic flow and safety and may he
     accomplished in stages within funding constraints or only
     certain items may be needed for your particular problems


     If satisfactory answers to these questions are not available
to you, perhaps your urban transportation planning program is in
need of change.  The material in this Guide is designed to help you
redirect your transportation planning program.
     The Guide discusses the importance of transportation and the
role of transportation planning in helping to define existing
problems and to predict future ones, how to proceed toward
solutions, and where to find the resources needed for planning
improvements.  It also discusses the need for coordination among
the many government entities involved and the residents of the
community in establishing transportation improvement programs.

2





The Importance of Transportation

     As a decisionmakers you share with your neighbors a daily
interest in the pattern and pace of life in your community.  If
your community is like most of the smaller urban areas around the
country, you have probably noticed a steady increase in motor-
vehicle traffic over the past few years.
     A major reason for this growth in travel is that the less
densely populated urban areas are getting the major share of
population increases, while the more densely populated cities are
losing population.
     During this period of growth, your community must be able to
move freight in and out of the area and from point to point within
the area.  Mail must be delivered.  Service vehicles have to move
throughout the area to keep communication, heat and lighting
systems and other equipment of industry, business, and homes in
operation.  Emergency service vehicles, such as police cars, fire
trucks, and ambulances, must move efficiently for public safety.


Click HERE for graphic.


     Perhaps your community is experiencing increasing congestion
     while retaining angle parking You can provide a safer and more
     efficient arrangement by enacting new ordinances for parallel
     parking, providing new pavement markings and signs, and
     creating an additional lane for turning movements, all at a
     relatively low cost.

     At the same time, you are faced with the challenge of
improving-or at least maintaining-the environmental quality of the
community and conserving the limited energy resources, both of
which are heavily influenced by the efficiency of the
transportation system.  Traffic congestion is a major cause of air
pollution and energy consumption.  Potholes and broken pavement
cause braking and acceleration, resulting in more air pollution and
energy consumption than steady driving on smooth pavement.  Poor
traffic control techniques also harm the environment through
increased pollution and result in increased energy consumption.
     These are among the reasons why transportation and
transportation planning are vitally important to you, the
decisionmakers

The National Picture

     The following statistics on the importance of transportation
nationwide may help you put your community into perspective:
-    Approximately 85 percent of urban area households own one or
     more automobiles.  On the average, each household makes four
     automobile trips and travels 30 vehicle-miles each day, with
     about 35 percent of these trips made for the purpose of
     earning a living; 35 percent for family business purposes,
     including shopping; 10 percent for educational or religious
     purposes; and 20 percent for social and recreational purposes.
-    Buses and taxis that make up the public transportation systems
     in small urban areas provide a vital means of mobility for the
     15 percent of the households that do not own

                                                                  3





     an automobile and for those who own vehicles but choose to
     ride public transportation.
-    The U.S. economy is closely related to motorvehicle
     transportation.  Total transportation expenditures in the
     United States, including freight and personal transportation
     by all modes, are 18 percent of the Nation's gross national
     product.  Fourteen million persons, or 22 percent of employed
     persons, are employed in transportation and related
     industries.
-    In 1977, about 11 percent of all personal consumption
     expenditures was for the purchase of new and used automobiles,
     parts, gasoline and oil.  In terms of the consumer dollar,
     more than 14 cents was spent on transportation of all kinds.
-    In 1977, $10.0 billion was spent on streets and highways in
     all municipalities.  The largest expenditure of $4.9 billion
     was for construction, with $3.0 billion going for maintenance,
     $1.0 billion on law enforcement and safety and $1.0 billion
     for other items, such as street and highway administration and
     debt service.

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The Role of Transportation Planning

     As a community leader, you rely on accurate and timely
information upon which to base decisions that will improve the
quality of life in your community.  This information must be
systematically gathered and organized, analyzed and evaluated
before a decision can be made.  In the area of transportation,
that's where transportation planning comes in.
     The transportation planning program determines how effectively
the urban transportation systems are performing their roles; what
problems in system performance exist or are likely to develop; and
what affordable solutions are deemed necessary to correct or
prevent the problems.  Such a planning program is essential to
properly address transportation problems and issues.

Detecting Problems

     Many problems are obvious.  For example, the traffic back-up
at a particular intersection may be a constant cause of frustration
to motorists as well as to homeowners and businesses along the
route.  The number and severity of traffic accidents at another
point in the urban area may be well known to police, rescue squads
and community leaders.  Or certain narrow arterial streets, without
curbs, gutters and sidewalks, may cause problems for school bus
drivers and pedestrians, as well as for the general driving public.
     Other problems may not be so well known because they are more
difficult to appraise.  For example, efficient crosstown travel may
be impossible because no direct route exists, thereby forcing
circuitous and uneconomical travel.  Average travel time along an
arterial route may be unnecessarily long due to substandard traffic
control devices.  An important bridge may be unsafe due to physical
deterioration.  Some citizens without automobiles may have great
difficulty in getting to and from their homes and shops, banks,
medical facilities and other important destinations.  Or a
prospective industry might have rejected the community due to the
lack of an adequate suburban arterial street system, inadequate
downtown parking or other transportation deficiencies.
     Other problems that do not yet exist may be developing.  For
example, rapid growth in population and employment may create
intolerable traffic conditions on some urban arterial streets and
highways.  Or a new shopping center may shift the traffic pattern
and, therefore, substantially reduce travel speed and increase
accident levels on arterial streets and highways.
     A good transportation planning program will monitor the urban
area transportation system and its performance; determine the
existing and potential problems and possible improvements; and
develop and annually update improvement programs.

Establishing Objectives

     Transportation goals and objectives should help you to
pinpoint problems and deficiencies and to judge the adequacy of
transportation system performance.  While it is your responsibility
to establish transportation goals and objectives, you need
technical help in setting realistic, affordable goals against which
the transportation system can be compared.  Safety and efficiency
are key objectives in transportation planning.
     Safety goals are usually stated in terms of accident and
fatality reduction per intersection or per segment of roadway in
measurements of length, such as blocks or miles.  Safety goals may
also be expressed in terms of reducing accidents and fatalities in
relation to traffic volumes or vehicle miles of travel.
     Average speed is one way to establish efficiency goals for
arterial streets and highways.  Because of the difficulty in
measuring actual average speeds, planners and traffic engineers
often compare the actual traffic flow through an intersection or
along a roadway during a given period of time to what the flow
should be for the desired efficiency.
     Some objectives are identified in technical terminology such
as: minimum roadway width and minimum pavement type for the various
classes of urban streets and highways; bus route coverage; and
number of parking spaces per unit of commercial space.  Other
important objectives, such as esthetics, neighborhood integrity,
growth control and mobility for those without automobiles,

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should be considered in your judgments about the transportation
system.  Feasibility of achievement is an important consideration
in establishing any goal or objective.
     Transportation goals and objectives should also be compatible
with communitywide goals and objectives.  As an example, a
communitywide goal calling for increased downtown economic vitality
might influence the priorities of transportation improvements.

Specifying Solutions

     Because of the many options available, the determination of
affordable, effective, solutions to both existing and potential
transportation problems is a highly technical matter.  Qualified
technicians should present solutions, but you must make the
decision.
     Congestion problems, for example, may be effectively resolved
by relatively low-cost traffic engineering solutions or may require
expensive construction solutions.  And each of these types of
solutions must be carefully weighed, in terms of cost,
effectiveness, community disruption and other factors, before an
improvement is recommended.
     Traffic engineering improvements may be a solution to some
problems.  Connecting traffic signal controls along a route or
within a defined area may be the correct improvement.  Removal of
on-street parking is another possibility, as is establishment of a
one-way street system.  At intersections, left turn controls may be
desirable or perhaps left turns should be eliminated, depending on
the situation.
     Of the construction options available to alleviate congestion,
adding lanes through widening the existing street is usually a
possibility.  Construction of a new route in the corridor, or a
bypass route, are other possibilities.
     Physical deterioration of roads and streets requires a study
of options, because a variety of solutions may be possible.  In the
case of rutted and cracked pavement, patching and other maintenance
procedures may be the answer.  Or resurfacing may be the best
solution.  Or, in extreme cases, it may be necessary to reconstruct
the road by removing the old pavement and its base and providing
new.
     The problems and solution options mentioned are merely
illustrations, for there are many other types of problems and a
host of other improvement possibilities.  But the planning function
is where these studies and determinations are made.


Click HERE for graphic.


     Your community may need some or all of these improvements,
     depending on growth potential or financial constraints: (1)
     pedestrian overpass, (2) channelization, (3) bus passenger
     pickup lanes and shelters, (4) right and left turning lanes,
     (5) improved markings, (6) computerized traffic signals, (7)
     reversible traffic lanes and signals, (8) improved lighting,
     and (9) vehicle underpasses.

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Impact Analysis

     To assist urban elected and appointed officials with decisions
on transportation improvements, the analysis of impacts and
benefits is an important function of urban transportation planning.
     Some improvements will benefit most urban citizens, while
others will only benefit a limited number of citizens.  By the same
token some improvements will have little adverse impact, while
others will have severe adverse impact.
     Unfortunately it is not always possible to resolve
deficiencies without adversely affecting some people.  However, a
complete analysis of impacts and benefits will enable you to make
judgments with a full array of facts.


Click HERE for graphic.


     A fixed-route or dial-a-ride van service nay work well in your
     particular community for those without other means of
     transportation.

Programming Improvements

     The urban transportation improvement program or programs-
depending on whether there is to be one areawide program or
individual city, county and town programs, or both-is developed by
placing the possible improvements in perspective with money and
time constraints and the priority or urgency of each improvement. 
The result is a listing or listings of projects to be implemented
during each year of the desired program period, together with cost
estimates of each improvement and estimates of the type of funds
available to implement each.
     Included in transportation planning is the determination of
the type and amount of local, State and Federal funds available to
finance improvement projects.  With multiple funding sources, and
multiple special categories of usage within each source, and with
varying local, State and Federal matching ratio requirements, the
determination of available funds and the pairing of these funds
with the improvement projects is an increasingly complex task.
     While knowledge of available funds is vital to the development
of transportation improvement programs, the date that each project
could be implemented is also constrained by the time required to
accomplish preimplementation activities, such as design, right-of-
way purchase, environmental impact assessment, and reviews by
citizens and representatives of each government entity responsible
for administering funds that finance the project.  Because of the
possibly large number of government entities involved in
preimplementation activities, the determination of
preimplementation time requirements is often a complex, but essen-
tial, aspect of developing multiyear improvement programs.
     Furthermore, because it is likely that a number of projects
will be competing for limited financial resources, it is also
necessary to determine project priorities within funding
categories.  The transportation planning program will provide
valuable assistance to decisionmakers in establishing priorities by
providing information on how each deficient transportation element
rates in terms of established standards of safety, mobility and
physical deterioration, as well as how the proposed improvement
rates in terms of such factors as environmental, aesthetic and
economic impact.
     Transportation planning melds funding constraints,
preimplementation time constraints, and project priorities to
determine the urban transportation program or programs to be
carried out in years ahead.

Gaining Public Understanding

     In order to gain cooperation in implementing transportation
improvements, government, industry, commerce and citizens need to
understand what the problems are, what improvements are necessary,
what the effects will be and when each element of the program will
be ready for public use.  Opening transportation planning to the
public through advisory committees and publishing and distributing
the transportation improvement program are ways to inform the
public.
     A land developer is interested in the programs for street and
highway improvement, for this may influence his decision to
purchase and subdivide land.  The configuration of the street
system to serve the subdivided lots may also be influenced by the
programmed improvement.
     Commercial and industrial firms have a vital interest in
transportation improvements,.or the lack of improvements, in the
vicinity of their businesses.  Plans for increasing business
capacity or relocating the business may be influenced by the
program or programs for transportation improvements.
     Local government agencies, such as offices of economic
development, comprehensive planning

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offices, emergency service offices, and school boards, need to be
informed of the current transportation program or programs.  Your
office of economic development is vitally interested in programmed
transportation improvements, for they may influence the decision of
an industry or business to expand or relocate.  Your comprehensive
planning office or zoning office will wish to be pre-  pared for
rezoning applications when a major arterial street or highway is
improved.  Police, fire and other emergency services will want to
anticipate problems caused by street, highway or bridge
construction or reconstruction.


Click HERE for graphic.


     You may have a difficult intersection such as this was before
     it was improved to provide channelization to permit continuous
     right turns, an energy saver. a new traffic signal system
     interconnecting with the existing railroad protection system,
     and new pavement markings.

Continuing Need for Planning

     Just as in any program, stability must be sought, but is
seldom completely realized.  Therefore, transportation planning is
a continuing program whose scale is dependent on a number of urban
area conditions and characteristics.
     Travel and land development patterns change over time.  Basic
elements of the transportation system continue to wear out.  New
transportation deficiencies are detected.  New ideas about how to
solve transportation deficiencies emerge.  Unforeseen delays occur. 
Additional funds become available for improvements.  Improvement
funds are cut back.
     These and many other factors bear on the need to continue the
transportation planning program.  At the least, the improvement
program should be updated annually to omit completed projects, to
add needed projects and to review the entire program implementation
schedule in view of the status of preliminary activities.

8





Government Roles In Managing Transportation

     Two levels of government are involved in managing and
financing urban transportation systems: local government (that is,
city, county and town government) and State government.  A third
level--the Federal government-is a substantial financial partner to
local and State government in the improvement of transportation.


Click HERE for graphic.


     Financing and management of urban transportation systems
     involves all levels of government-Federal, State, local-but
     you will also want to include public transit operators,
     regional planning agencies, land use agencies, etc., all who
     may be affected by or who may have an effect on your
     transportation system.

Local Government

     Cities, counties and towns are responsible for constructing,
maintaining and operating all urban roads and streets within their
respective boundaries, unless, through agreement by law, some or
all of these responsibilities are assigned to another local
government or to the State.  These agreements and legalities are
available to you from your public works department, chief engineer,
or their counterparts in your community.
     Responsibilities for construction and maintenance of streets
and highways are carried out by city, county or town public works
departments, street departments or transportation departments. 
Traffic operations responsibilities fall either within these
departments, or in a separate traffic engineering department, or
within the police department.
     Depending on State law, cities, counties and towns may either
own and operate a bus system or may contract with a private bus
operator to provide bus service, or may only regulate the operation
of private bus and taxi companies.  You should know or find out
what the applicable ordinances are in your community.

State Government

     States, through their highway departments or departments of
transportation, are responsible for the construction, maintenance
and operation of designated State highways in urban areas.  De-
pending on State law, States may provide funds for 1) the
construction, maintenance and operation of city, county and town
roads and 2) the purchase and operation of buses and other public
transportation equipment and facilities.  Local matching funds may
be required.
     State responsibilities are shared by their headquarters staff
and work forces and by district or division staff and work force.

Federal Government

     The Federal government provides funds for planning and
developing transportation improvements.  Federal officials located
in division offices within each State or in regional offices that
cover several States oversee the expenditure of Federal funds to
ensure the expenditures are consistent with current Federal
policies.  These division or regional officials are available to
advise you on the availability and applicability of Federal funds.

Coordinated Transportation Planning

     It is important to you that transportation planning be a
coordinated effort of all urban area government entities.  There
are a number of reasons why you should strive for coordinated
planning.
     First, changes in the transportation system in your community
could affect development in a city, county or town outside your
own.  Conversely, the projects of other agencies can affect your
community.
     For example, a proposed bypass highway planned to be built in
a county, outside a city, might have an economic impact on the
city.  On the one

                                                                  9





hand, new commerce and industry might be attracted to sites in the
vicinity of the bypass, thereby enhancing the economy of the urban
area.  On the other hand, commerce and industry now located in the
city might relocate along the new bypass and create economic
problems for the city.
You should be aware of this double-edge transportation sword.  The
transportation planning team should keep you and your counterparts
in surrounding jurisdictions informed of all transportation
impacts.
     Also, to ensure efficient movement of traffic, there is a need
for route continuity on streets an highways that cross from one
urban area jurisdiction to another.  For example, a new four-lane
arterial should not abruptly become two lanes at the city line. 
Intercity jurisdictional coordination is essential to avoid
bottlenecks.
     Bus service across  jurisdictional boundaries also might be
improved through an areawide transportation planning program.
     State highway improvements through an urban area should be
reviewed in terms of their benefits to the statewide, as well as
local, movement of people and goods and for their impact on urban
area development.  Of course, you must protect your community-but
you must consider statewide mobility at the same time.
     Finally, there may be opportunities for a more efficient
transportation planning program with all jurisdictions in your
region cooperating.  Pooling of funds and technical resources can
achieve remarkable efficiencies.

10





The Transportation Planning Team

     Your background may be in public administration, political
science, or poetry, but it really doesn't matter.  You are in your
position as a decisionmaker because you have the trust and
confidence of the people and other officials.  You are depended
upon to make fair judgments in the best interests of your
community.  To make these decisions intelligently, you depend upon
the expertise, knowledge and talents of others.  When it comes to
moving people and goods in your community, the most efficient way
to gain the expertise required is through your urban area
transportation planning team.
     The primary purpose of the urban transportation planning team
is to bring together those people who have responsibilities for
various segments of the transportation system and those who will be
vitally affected by transportation service so that the best
possible solutions to problems can be worked out in advance.
     Such a planning organization brings together technical
disciplines, economic expertise, and responsible "man-in-the-
street" attitudes and recommendations.  The team provides an
effective forum for analyzing the transportation system, discussing
the issues, and programming the most desirable actions.

The Organization

     Since some States have laws that specify the objectives of
urban transportation planning, the establishment of an urban
transportation planning organization and its function should be
consistent with such laws.  For communities of over 50,000
population, current Federal regulations require that a metropolitan
planning organization be designated to carry out transportation
planning.
     Many forms or patterns of urban area transportation planning
organizations exist and others are possible.  No single
organizational structure will fit the needs of all urban areas. 
Your organization should be tailored to your community.


Click HERE for graphic.


     You have the responsibility that your planning team represents
     the entire community - the elderly, the handicapped, the
     disadvantaged, as well as the conservationists,
     environmentalists, social and recreational elements, etc.

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     Some urban transportation planning programs are highly
structured with several formal committees.  Others are more loosely
structured to the point where the focus of the transportation plan-
ning program is centered on one or two persons.
     Four categories of people participate in urban transportation
planning-government decisionmakers like you; technical staff of
city, county, town and State government; citizens; and staff of
officially designed transportation planning organizations.  The
role of each is outlined below.

Your Role

     To give official status to transportation plans and
recommendations, urban transportation planning should be recognized
by both State and local government decisionmakers.  Consistent with
local and State laws, these officials should:
-    Designate agencies or persons to carry out urban
     transportation planning responsibilities.
-    Administer or delegate the administration of the urban
     planning program.
-    Review and adopt the transportation planning program.
-    Provide funding for the urban transportation planning program
-    Adopt urban transportation policy, goals and objectives.
-    Receive advice from citizens and technical staff on urban area
     transportation issues.
-    Review and endorse plans, programs and other recommendations
-    Inform the public well in advance of important transportation
     issues, policies and plans.

     County supervisors, county executives, city councilmen, city
managers, mayors, and town selectmen are appropriate
representatives of the local governments.  Each jurisdiction in
your urban area should be represented.

The Role of Technical Advisers

     The technical staff or urban area cities and counties, or of a
regional planning agency, or of a separately designated
transportation planning agency, or of any combination of the above
are candidates to carry out the technical activities of the urban
transportation planning program along with appropriate staff from
the State highway agency.  County engineers, traffic engineers,
directors of public works, city engineers, town managers, directors
of offices of comprehensive planning, and regional planning
directors are among the city, county and town staff that have the
background and experience for transportation planning.
     City, county or town planning boards or other officially
designated bodies that pass judgment on transportation or
transportation-related problems and issues should have a role in
transportation planning activities.
     The managers of the public transportation systems, whether
they be private companies or public agencies, should also be called
in for technical information and advice.
     State technical advisers should include the State district or
regional engineer or administrator and the State urban
transportation planning director or their designated
representative.
     Advice should be sought from Federal agencies that administer
Federal transportation grants.
     Usually the transportation planning program can be carried out
by engineers' or planners already on the staff of local, city or
county government or by engineers or planners on the staff of a
regional planning agency.  Technical assistance is also available
from the State.  Typically, an effective transportation planning
program can be carried on with less than full time attention from
one engineer or planner in urban areas of 25,000 population and
from two to four engineers or planners in urban areas of 200,000
population.
     The numbers of persons and the type of skills needed to carry
out your transportation planning program is dependent on the
complexity of transportation problems, the availability of
transportation and transportation-related information, the
availability of transportation planning funds and the availability
of present technical staff.
Technical advisers should:
-    Develop the transportation planning program with assistance
     from officials and designated citizen advisers.
-    Carry out those portions of the transportation planning
     program not allocated to other agencies or to consultants.
-    Coordinate the accomplishment of the transportation planning
     program.
-    Develop reports of urban transportation planning progress.

     Where it is deemed appropriate for these technical experts to
be organized as a committee, it is usually termed Technical
Advisory Committee.

The Role of Citizen Advisers

     Citizens, as users of the urban transportation systems or as
persons affected by urban transportation, should be included in
urban transportation planning.  Leaders of community or
neighborhood associations, chambers of commerce, civic groups,
women's clubs, large industries and others should be sought to act
as urban transportation planning advisers.
     Where it is deemed appropriate to establish a separate
committee of citizens, it is usually termed Citizen's Advisory
Committee.

12





Financing Transportation Planning

     Depending on the complexity of your transportation problems
and a number of other conditions and characteristics that are
described in the companion document, The Manager's Guide for
Developing a Planning Program, the urban transportation planning
program will usually cost in the range of $0.50 and $1.25 per
capita, based on 1980 costs.
     Transportation planning funds are available from the State and
Federal governments.  Some Federal funds are made available
directly to designated urban transportation planning agencies, and
some are administered by the State highway department or department
of transportation.  State and Federal regulations specify in broad
terms the use of State and Federal transportation planning funds. 
State and Federal officials can advise you on the amount, and
intended use, of funds currently available to each urban area.


Click HERE for graphic.


     A relatively inexpensive solution to downtown congestion that
     might suit your community is fringe parking with protective
     shelters for public transit customers.  Carpooling/vanpooling
     is another effective means, with cost benefits for everyone.

     Federal transportation planning funds require matching funds. 
In some States, State funds are used as the matching requirement
for Federal funds.  In other States, local governments must
contribute a portion of the money used to finance urban
transportation planning.
     One of the methods of providing local matching resources is to
specify that certain urban transportation tasks be performed by
engineers, planners and technicians on the staffs of urban area
cities, counties, towns or regional planning agencies.  Many of the
urban transportation planning activities may not be new, but may be
on-going, such as traffic counting, land use mapping and recording
of traffic accidents.  These activities may be included in the
urban transportation planning program along with other activities
deemed essential to meet the objective of solving your community's
transportation problems.
     Part or all of the State contribution is often the provision
of specialized services that can be uniformly used by each urban
area in the State.  For example, the estimation of future traffic
demand through the use of mathematical models is a transportation
planning service that is provided to urban transportation planning
programs by some State highway departments or State transportation
departments.  Check with officials in your State capital for
details.

                                                                 13






Summary

     Urban transportation planning is becoming highly complex and
must take into account not only the street and highway system
itself, but public transportation, present and proposed land
development, and the working and living patterns of residents. 
While you need not be a transportation expert, you must provide the
leadership which will seek out the help of those who are
technically qualified.  As a community leader, you must provide the
systematic direction required to solve transportation problems or
to prevent anticipated problems from reducing mobility.
     The techniques for approaching transportation planning in
small urban areas will vary from location to location-what works in
one place may have to be modified to work in another.  Neverthe-
less, the basic elements for urban transportation planning are well
established and assistance is always available.  Elected and
appointed officials-the decisionmakers in the small urban area-have
a major responsibility to the citizenry in vigorously managing
transportation planning activities.


Click HERE for graphic.


     Transportation system management benefits your entire
     community.  You the decisionmakers must provide the leadership
     necessary for a healthy and prosperous community.

14



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