BTS Navigation Bar

NTL Menu

Alaska Bicycle And Pedestrian Plan

Click HERE for graphic.

Alaska Bicycle & Pedestrian Plan

"It is the policy of the State of Alaska to promote the 
increased use and safety of bicycling and walking as year-
round transportation choices by giving them full 
consideration in the planning, design, construction and 
maintenance of transportation facilities. "

	Michael A. Barton

	Alaska DOT&PF
	November 1994

"It is Federal transportation policy to promote increased 
use of bicycling, and encourage planners and engineers to 
accommodate bicycle and pedestrian needs in designing 
transportation facilities for urban and suburban areas. "

"It is Federal transportation policy to increase 
pedestrian safety through public information and improved 
crosswalk design, signaling, school crossings, and 

	Moving America
	New Directions, New Opportunities
	A Statement of National Transportation Policy
	Strategies for Action
	February 1990

"The policies of encouraging the increased use and safety 
of bicycling and walking have been endorsed by the 
Secretary (of Transportation.)  I would like to reiterate 
our enthusiastic support of bicycling and walking as 
legitimate transportation modes, and request our field 
offices' continued assistance in carrying out this policy. 

	Rodney E. Slater
	FHWA Administrator
	May 9, 1994


Chapter						     Page


	THE PEOPLE				  	 2							 2
	  The Cyclists					 2
	  The Pedestrians				 3
	  The Numbers					 3
         Special Needs					 3
	    Winter Travel				 3
	    ATVs, Snowmobiles				 4
	    Rural vs. Urban Needs			 4
	    Handicapped access				 4
	Rights and Responsibilities of Bicyclists and 
        Pedestrians					 5
	  Bicycles					 5
	   Pedestrians					 6

	   Types and Miles of Bike/Ped Facilities	 6



	  GOAL 1. Establish a baseline to measure 
        bicycle and pedestrian use in Alaska.		10
	  GOAL 2. Provide a more bicycle- and 
	  pedestrian-friendly	 transportation network.11
	  GOAL 3. To reduce by ten percent the number 
	  of bicyclists and	pedestrians killed and/
	  or  injured in traffic accidents on public
          roadways by the year 2015.			13
	  GOAL 4. DOT&PF will develop a model program 
          of bicycle and pedestrian-friendly incentives 
          for employers.				15


	  Design Standards				16
	  Road and Trail Planning			16
	  Construction Practice				18
	  Maintenance					18

March 1, 1995				i



	   Design Education				19
	   Safety Education				19

	  Planning and Programming			20
	      Long Range Plan				20
	      Statewide Transportation Improvement 
              Program (STIP)				20
	  Funding Programs				21
		National Highway System (NHS)		21
		Surface Transportation Program (STP)	21
		Transportation Enhancements (TE)	21
		Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality 
                Program (CMAQ)				21
		Federal Lands Highways Program		22
		National Recreational Trails Fund	22
		Scenic Byways				22
		Federal Transit Act			22
		Metropolitan Planning (PL)		23
		Section 402 - Safety			23
		Spot Improvement Program		23

	   Capital Budget				23
		State Funds as Federal Match		24
		Legislative Discretionary Funding	24
		Local Service Roads and Trails (LSR&T)	24
		Trails, Footpaths and Campsites		24
	   Operating Budget				25





	ADDENDUM A  Public Comments	 	      A-1
	ADDENDUM B  Bike/Ped Coordinator Duties	      B-1
	ADDENDUM C  Bike/Ped Laws/Regs	              C-1

March 1, 1995		       ii

		Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan


	The purpose of the Alaska Bicycle & Pedestrian Plan,    
an integral part of Vision 2020: Alaska's Long Range 
Statewide Transportation Plan, is to present a framework 
for a practical, workable Bicycle/Pedestrian program in 
the State of Alaska.  The Intermodal Surface 
Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) requires 
each state to incorporate a long-term bicycle & pedestrian 
plan into its long range transportation plan.  While the 
focus of this plan is on bicycles and pedestrians, we 
recognize that many of the facilities provided for these 
modes are readily usable by other forms of transportation 
such as in-line skating, equestrians, Nordic skiing, and, 
depending on local ordinances and season: snowmobiles or 
all-terrain vehicles.

	By providing safe, well-designed, all-season paths, 
trails, lanes, sidewalks and other facilities, this plan 
is intended to develop practical non-motorized 
transportation alternatives - primarily to the use of 
motorized single-occupant vehicles (SOV).  In conjunction 
with other transportation choices, this can reduce 
congestion on our more heavily-traveled roads, reduce air 
and water pollution, and in general improve the quality of 
life in Alaska.

	Despite Alaska's northern climate, non-motorized 
transportation such as bicycling and walking can be a 
viable transportation choice.  For example, a small group 
of bicyclists in Fairbanks do not allow sub-zero 
temperatures to deter them.  But deep snow berms at the 
edge of the road, where they normally would ride, 
frustrate not only these hardy cyclists but pedestrians as 
well.  Virtually all transportation trips involve, at some 
point, a pedestrian element.  For some, this pedestrian 
element may be in a wheelchair or with some other 
assistive device.  Planning and designing transportation 
systems that allow each individual to make the 
transportation modal choice that best suits them is one of 
the goals of the transportation department.

	By referring to this document, an individual will 
find the goals of the Alaska Bicycle & Pedestrian Program, 
specific steps that will accomplish those goals, and steps 
that lead to selection and funding of a particular bicycle 
or pedestrian project.

March 1, 1995

	Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan



	1. The Cyclists

	The FHWA publication "Selecting Roadway Design 
Treatments to Accommodate Bicycles," January 1994, divides 
bicyclists into three broad groups: Group A - Advanced 

	These are experienced riders who can operate under 
most traffic conditions.  They comprise the majority of 
the current users of collector and arterial streets and 
are best served by the following:

 	direct access to destinations usually via the 
        existing street and highway system; 

	the opportunity to operate at maximum speed with 
 	minimum delays; and

	sufficient operating space on the roadway or shoulder 
	to reduce the need for either the bicyclist or the 
 	motor vehicle operator to change position when passing. 

Group B - Basic Bicyclists:

	These are casual or new adult and teenage riders who 
are less confident of their ability to operate in traffic 
without special provisions for bicycles.  Some will 
develop greater skills and progress to the advanced level, 
but there will always be many millions of basic 
bicyclists.  They prefer:

	comfortable access to destinations, preferably by a 
	direct route, using either low-speed, low traffic-
	volume streets or designated bicycle facilities; and

	well-defined separation of bicycles and motor vehicles 
	on arterial and collector streets (bike lanes or 
	shoulders) or separated paths or trails. 

Group C - Children:

	These are pre-teen riders whose roadway use is 
initially monitored by parents.  Eventually they are 
accorded independent access to the system. They and their 
parents prefer the following:

	access to key destinations surrounding residential 
	areas, including schools, recreation facilities, 
	shopping, or other residential areas; 

	residential streets with low motor vehicle speed limits
	and volumes;

	well-defined separation of bicycles and motor vehicles 
	on arterial and collector streets or separate bike 

March 1, 1995			2

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan

        rural bicycle/pedestrian needs are similar to their 
        urban cousins, but traffic volumes, both of 
        bicyclists and motor vehicles, are lower. Shared 
        roadways may be sufficient on low-volume collectors 
        and local roads within communities, but some sort of 
        separation - bike lane, path, or designated shoulder 
        - is necessary on rural arterials and collectors.

	2. The Pedestrians

	Pedestrians, like bicyclists, vary widely in their 
abilities.  Their descriptions would vary as much as 
descriptions of the general population because all of us 
are pedestrians.  Virtually all travel trips at one point 
or another include a pedestrian element.  It could be as 
little as the walk from the front door to the car in the 
driveway and from the parking place to the office.  For 
others it could be an eight-mile run from home to the 
office.  For most of us, however, it's running errands to 
nearby businesses at lunch or after work, or a trip to a 
shopping center near home.  According to the 1990 National 
Personal Transportation Study the average walking trip 
length is 0.6 mile.  The 1990 Census found that four 
percent of all adult workers commute to work on foot.  
Comparable figures for Alaska are not available.

	In developing plans and programs to meet the needs of 
pedestrians we must keep in mind not only the "typical" or 
"average" person, but nearly any other category one could 
define.  For example, the elderly, the young, the poor, 
and people with disabilities all have different needs and 

	3. The Numbers

	The level of bicycle and pedestrian activity in 
Alaska has not been accurately measured.  We do know, 
according to a 1992 statewide survey conducted by Alaska 
State Parks, that nearly 80% of Alaskan households have 
one or more bicycles. 	 According to the same survey, over 
60% of Alaskans biked or walked for recreation in 1991.  
Walking and biking are among Alaska's more popular 
recreational activities, with participation in each having 
significantly increased since 1979, when a similar survey 
was conducted.

	According to the 1990 National Personal 
Transportation Study, 7.9% of all travel trips nationwide 
are now made by bicycling and walking.  Overall, 7.2% of 
all trips were by walking and 0.7% by bicycling.  We were 
unable to find comparable figures for Alaska.  The size of 
the 1990 survey sample in Alaska was too small to provide 
meaningful numbers for analysis of our situation.  Given 
our climate and the sprawling nature of our largest 
cities, we can assume that the total percentage of trips 
in Alaska made by bicycles and pedestrians now is somewhat 
lower than the national average, probably in the 4-5% 

   4. Special Needs

      a. Winter Travel

        (1) Cyclists in Winter

	Despite Alaska's severe winter weather, a small but 
growing number of individuals continue to use their 
bicycles year-round for commuting, errands and

March 1, 1995	            3

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan

other uses.  According to many winter cyclists, a key 
limiting factor to greater winter bicycle use is not 
necessarily low temperatures or high snowfall, but road 
maintenance practices in which snow plowed from roadways 
is left on shoulders blocking the areas normally used by 
cyclists.  Cyclists are then forced into narrowed traffic 
lanes shared by motor vehicles.  The problem for cyclists 
is compounded when separated trails and paths are not 
cleared of snow - forcing them to use the roads.  In many 
municipalities trails are left unplowed to save on 
maintenance costs and to allow for use by cross-country 
skiers or by ATVs and snowmachines.  Another factor is the 
blind spots created by berms of snow, which render the 
bicyclist invisible to cars crossing a trail or entering 
the roadway.  Winter darkness, often coupled with heavy 
rain or snowfall, reduces visibility - making proper 
lighting, reflectors and reflective clothing even more 
important for cyclists.  Winter darkness also emphasizes 
the need for cyclists to obey traffic laws.  Cyclists are 
less likely to become involved in accidents and receive 
injuries if they follow the rules and ride where motor 
vehicle operators will be looking for other traffic.

		(2) Pedestrians in Winter

	Winter pedestrians face many of the same problems as 
winter cyclists. Winter maintenance practices or road 
designs often leave pedestrians no place to walk except in 
roadways.  Snow piled at crossings makes it difficult, if 
not impossible for some pedestrians, to cross properly.  
Signal buttons are often blocked by snow, as are bus stops 
and sidewalks. Winter darkness makes pedestrians more 
difficult to see, therefore pedestrians must be more alert 
to dangers.  Where the numbers of cyclists will decrease 
significantly in winter, the numbers of pedestrians remain 
relatively constant. People still need to run errands or 
walk from the parking lot to work in winter.

	Most municipalities require adjacent property owners 
to clear sidewalks of snow.  Some property owners skirt 
the ordinances by clearing only a portion of their 
sidewalk, piling snow at the curb.  Others are frustrated 
by clearing their sidewalks only to see road maintenance 
crews come by later and pile snow back on the recently 
cleared sidewalk.  Some municipalities include sidewalk 
clearing as part of their regular winter road maintenance 
of business districts, but often sidewalks are last on the 
list - after the roads are cleared.

		b. ATVs, Snowmobiles

	Alaska is unlike other states in that all-terrain 
vehicles (ATVs) and snowmobiles are used for basic 
transportation in much of the state for a significant part 
of the year.  Generally, ATV use is year-round while 
snowmobile use is seasonal.  These vehicles are prohibited 
from roadways except to cross.  This rule is often 
ignored, however, due to lack of enforcement.  Sometimes 
conflicts arise through the mix of motorized and 
non-motorized vehicles on trails, especially when 
motorized vehicles are driven at high speeds.  Often, 
enforcement is lacking along trails when local police 
officials do not have the proper equipment to use the 

		c. Rural vs. Urban Needs

	While rural traffic volumes are generally lower than 
urban traffic volumes, the percentage of bicycle and 
pedestrian users is often higher. Rural communities 
typically cover relatively small areas; the distances from 
home to work, shopping or

March 1, 1995		   4

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan

school are well within the comfort level and ability of 
most cyclists or pedestrians.  Many communities with 
industries that attract young seasonal workers such as 
fish processing and tourism see a proliferation of 
bicycles in the summer months - more so than the 
year-round population would suggest. With lower motor 
vehicle volumes and speeds in rural areas, cyclists and 
pedestrians are less "intimidated" and more willing to 
walk or cycle. Facilities for cyclists and pedestrians are 
more likely to be shared roadways than separate trails, 
lanes or sidewalks.  Rural roads are less likely to be 
paved than in urban roads.  In rural areas with paved 
highways, the paved shoulders may serve local cyclists and 
pedestrians.  As noted in the previous section, rural 
areas see a greater proportion of ATVs and snowmobiles 
used for basic transportation, although motor vehicle use 
is increasing.

		d. Handicapped Access

	It is the policy of DOT&PF to provide facilities that 
are accessible to the disabled on all projects constructed 
after January 26, 1993.  This doesn't mean that pedestrian 
facilities are required on every project, only that if a 
pedestrian facility is provided, then it must be 
accessible to the disabled.  Even before the passage of 
the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990, Alaska 
had begun improving its transportation system to allow 
smooth access by those with disabilities. For example, 
curb cuts at pedestrian crossings are standard features of 
roadway design and construction.

    The ADA requires that accessible facilities be maintained 
in accessible condition.

	5. Rights and Responsibilities of Bicyclists and 

	   a. Bicycles

	The State of Alaska legally classifies bicycles as 
vehicles. As such, they are allowed to use most roads in 
the state.  The exceptions are controlled access roads 
such as freeways and expressways.  Of the nearly 14,000 
miles of public road in Alaska in 1993, less than 100 
miles are closed to bicycles and pedestrians.

	In addition to the motor vehicle laws, the "rules of 
the road" which all vehicle operators must follow, there 
are some special rules for bicycles:

	Cyclists must ride as near to the right side of the 
	roadway as practical;

	Cyclists may not ride two (or more) abreast except in 
	lanes or paths set aside exclusively for bicycles;

	Cyclists must use the highway shoulder when it is 
	maintained in good condition;

	Cyclists may not ride on the sidewalk in business 

	A list of State laws and regulations affecting 
bicyclists and pedestrians is included in Addendum C.

March 1, 1995		    5

		Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan

	b. Pedestrians

	State law allows pedestrians to use most roads in the 
state with certain restrictions. Like cyclists, they may 
not use controlled access roads such as freeways and 
expressways (except in emergencies).  Pedestrians must use 
the sidewalk if available and its use is practicable.  If 
a sidewalk is not available, then the pedestrian must use 
the shoulder and walk well away from the traffic.  If 
neither a sidewalk or a shoulder is available, pedestrians 
must walk as near as possible to the outside edge; and if 
walking along a two-way road, walk only on the left side 
(facing traffic).  By using a road, pedestrians may not 
act in a manner that creates an unreasonable danger to 
self or interfere with the normal flow of traffic.

	If a pedestrian overcrossing, tunnel, or marked 
crosswalk is accessible and within a reasonable distance, 
pedestrians must use it to cross the road.  If no crossing 
is provided, pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to 
all vehicles.  Unless authorized by a traffic control 
device, pedestrians must cross by the shortest route to 
the opposite side of the roadway, usually right angles to 
the roadway.  In business or residential districts when 
between adjacent intersections with operational traffic 
control devices, pedestrians may not cross except at the 
marked crosswalks. Vehicles must yield to pedestrians in 

	A list of State laws and regulations affecting 
bicyclists and pedestrians is included in Addendum C.


	1. Types and Miles of Bike/Ped Facilities

	Bikeways in Alaska can be divided into four basic types:

	Shared Lane (or Roadway): shared motor 
vehicle/bicycle use of a travel lane. Typical examples 
include low-volume residential streets or rural village 
roads.  A sub-type of the shared lane is the wide outside 
lane, which is an outside travel lane with a width of at 
least 14 feet (4.2 meters).  The wide outside lane is 
generally not used in Alaska. 

	Bicycle (Bike) Lane: a portion of the roadway 
designated by striping, signing, and/or pavement markings 
for preferential or exclusive use of bicycles.  Bike lanes 
are typically found in urban areas with high motor vehicle 
and bicycle traffic. 

	Shoulder: a paved portion of the roadway to the 
outside of the edge stripe.  Shoulder bikeways are more 
common in rural areas; they accommodate cyclists with few 
conflicts with motor vehicles. 

	Separated Path (or Trail): a facility physically 
separated from the roadway and intended for non-motorized 
use.  The trail may be within the right-of-way or adjacent 
to it, or in a greenbelt.  Separated trails usually are 
paved, but they may be unpaved as well.  While 
thin-wheeled bicycles are better accommodated by paved 
bikeways, unpaved trails are suited for wide-tired 
bicycles such as mountain bikes as well as other users 
such as equestrians or walkers. 

March 1, 1995		6

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan

	Pedestrian-oriented transportation facilities are 
common to all parts of our transportation system.  
Generally, we think of these facilities as being limited 
to sidewalks, but they can also include such features as 
public telephones and roadside emergency call stations, 
view points and rest areas, trails and bike paths, and 
tourist information centers.  Other pedestrian-oriented 
facilities include bus stops and shelters, pedestrian 
overpasses and underpasses, and restroom facilities at 
roadside rest areas.

	There does not exist a complete, current inventory of 
bicycle and pedestrian facilities in Alaska.  The larger 
urban communities in the state have, at one time or 
another, inventoried trails, paths and lanes within their 
boundaries, usually with an eye toward recreational use of 
these facilities. 	 In 1992 and 1993 DOT&PF completed 
inventories of state-owned pedestrian facilities to gauge 
compliance with ADA requirements.

	In addition to the bikeways noted above, other 
facilities of interest to cyclists and pedestrians will be 
types and conditions of rail crossings, pedestrian over- 
and under-crossings, crosswalks, boardwalks, parking 
facilities for bikes, and bike and/or ski racks on public 
transit vehicles.


	The Alaska Department of Transportation and Public 
Facilities (DOT&PF) held a series of public meetings in 
Anchorage, Fairbanks and Juneau in May, 1994, as part of 
its effort to develop this plan. An additional meeting 
with Sitka bicyclists was held in September.  DOT&PF also 
solicited comments by phone, fax, mail and personal 
contacts.  A summary of the comments received can be found 
in Addendum A.

	Briefly, the problems raised through the public 
participation process fall into the following broad 


Pedestrians and cyclists are particularly concerned about 
safety; in conflicts with autos or trucks, pedestrians and 
cyclists usually come out on the losing end.  Safety 
concerns underlie many of the problem areas listed below.

Lack of direct facilities

Like motor vehicles, users of muscle-power, pedestrians 
and cyclists, are most efficient when they can travel 
directly to a destination.  Unlike motor vehicles, long 
detours are more likely to discourage cyclists and 
pedestrians, forcing them to use motor vehicles when they 
might otherwise cycle or walk.

Barriers to bicycle or pedestrian use

Barriers come in many forms, including: narrow lanes that 
create conflicts between cyclists and motor vehicles, 
roads with high motor vehicle traffic levels that 
intimidate novice riders, sidewalks that abruptly end, or 
snow blocking sidewalks or crossings.

March 1, 1995		7

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan

Design problems

Design problems were among the most common problems 
mentioned during the public participation.  Comments 
ranged from dangerous drainage grates to lack of 
consideration of bicycle or pedestrian needs during the 
design process.

Winter use designs

Of particular concern among many were designs better 
suited to warm, dry Southern California than cold, snowy 
Alaska.  Specifically, roads are designed with no storage 
space for snow except sidewalks and bikeways.


Maintenance was another area which triggered substantial 
discussion. Pedestrians and cyclists believe their needs 
come last, especially with respect to winter maintenance.  
They complain of blocked sidewalks or pathways, and snow 
piled in crosswalks and at bus stops.


Some participants voiced concern about bike paths and 
walkways visually separated from roads, or with overgrown 
brush offering hiding places for muggers or assailants.


While bicycle use has apparently grown in recent years, 
secure parking has not kept pace.  Cyclists make their way 
to shopping centers or employment centers only to find no 
place to properly and safely park their bikes.


Ignorance of rules, regulations, rights, and 
responsibilities too often results in accidents or 
injuries.  Motorists, cyclists and pedestrians need more 
and better training in the "rules of the road."

Lack of enforcement

Participants in the public participation process suggested 
stronger law enforcement of bicyclists and pedestrians as 
well as motorists will result in safer conditions for all.

Lack of encouragement

Cyclists and pedestrians receive little encouragement to 
cycle or walk. Impediments come in road design, motorists' 
attitudes, maintenance practices, and parking 

March 1, 199S	    	   8

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan

Use conflicts

A few people mentioned use conflicts on trails, such as 
between mountain bikers and hikers.  Others mentioned 
problems of cyclists attempting to mesh with motor vehicle 
traffic on narrow or heavily traveled roads without bike 
lanes, wide shoulders, or bike trails.

Zoning/Land use

Like many western states, Alaskan cities have developed 
around the motor vehicle.  Cities are spread out over 
broad areas, making it difficult not to use a motor 
vehicle to get around.  Better zoning or land use 
decisions at the local level could decrease dependence on 
the auto and make cycling and walking more feasible.


Several participants complained of difficulty in 
contacting the right government agency or person to deal 
with particular problems, and of an inability for local 
citizens to participate in trails and transportation 

March 1, 1995		9

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan



	The mission of the Alaska Bicycle/Pedestrian program 
is to provide a safe, well-designed, well-maintained, 
affordable all-season multimodal transportation system 
that affords users convenient access to neighborhoods, 
schools, recreation, commercial and industrial areas while 
protecting the integrity of communities and the 
environment to the extent practicable.

    This vision of Alaska's transportation system was derived 
from department policy and a series of public meetings in 
the spring of 1994.


Establish a baseline to measure bicycle and pedestrian use 
in Alaska.

	According to the 1994 National Bicycling and Walking 
Study, 7.9% of all travel trips nationwide are now made by 
bicycling and walking.  Overall, 7.2% of all trips were by 
walking and 0.7% by bicycling.  The national goal set by 
the study is to increase the combined rate of the two 
modes to 15.8%.

	We were unable to find comparable figures for Alaska.  
The size of the 1990 Personal Transportation Survey sample 
in Alaska was too small to provide meaningful numbers for 
analysis of our situation.  Given our climate and the 
sprawling nature of our largest cities, we can assume that 
the total percentage of trips in Alaska made by bicycles 
and pedestrians now is somewhat lower than the national 
average, probably in the 4-5% range.

	Essential to achieving the goal of making Alaska more 
bicycle & pedestrian friendly is the construction of 
bicycle- and pedestrian-friendly roads and streets, 
elimination of barriers, and completion of trails and 
connections.  But we must know what we have before we can 
measure our progress.

Objective 1.1

Develop a system to measure the extent and characteristics 
of nonmotorized travel within the state.

  A. Determine sources of travel measurements (such as DOT&PF 
     Division of Planning, Alaska Marine Highway, DCED Division 
     of Tourism, DNR Division of Parks, etc.) and the nature 
     of those measurements.

  B. Determine which measures of bicycle and pedestrian travel 
     give the most accurate picture at a reasonable cost.

  C. Establish baseline data to identify numbers and 
     percentages of total travel trips.

March 1, 1995		10

		Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan

  D. Publish a "report card" biennially explaining our progress 
     on increasing the number of bicycle and pedestrian trips.

Objective 1.2

Inventory the extent and condition of non-motorized 
transportation facilities within the state.

  A. Determine sources of non-motorized transportation 
     facility data.

  B. Develop system to measure length and condition of 
     non-motorized transportation facilities.

  C. Publish a "report card" biennially explaining our 
     progress on improving the non-motorized transportation 
     system, in terms of both quantity and quality of 


Provide a more bicycle- and pedestrian-friendly 
transportation network.

Objective 2.1

DOT&PF and local governments will work together to create 
a seamless network of improvements that allow bicyclists 
and pedestrians to reach important destinations easily and 
safely. Where appropriate:

  A. Provide low-volume/low-stress connectors through major 
     travel corridors and to important destinations.

  B. Provide relevant bicycle- and pedestrian-related 
     improvements on urban  rterial and collector network.

  C. Provide relevant bicycle- and pedestrian-related 
     improvements on local streets.

  D. Provide relevant bicycle- and pedestrian-related 
     improvements on rural highway and road network.

  E. Provide relevant bicycle- and pedestrian-related 
     improvements to transit systems.

  F. Create a network of trails using corridors and greenways 
     such as rivers, creeks, lake and ocean shores, and utility
     easements and barrier-breaking structures (bridges, 
     overpasses, tunnels, underpasses, etc.).

March 1, 1995		11

		Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan

Objective 2.2

DOT&PF and local governments will work together to require 
consideration of relevant bicycle and pedestrian elements 
in all surface transportation projects.

  A. Roadway network

 (1) Require each urban street project to include consideration 
     of the width, traffic control, and surface requirements for

 (2) Require each urban street project to include consideration 
     of the sidewalk and crossing needs of pedestrians.

 (3) Require each rural highway project to include consideration
     of bicyclist and pedestrian needs.

B. Transit systems

 (1) Require each transit site project to consider provisions 
     for bicycle parking and improved bicycle and pedestrian 

 (2) Require transit system improvements to consider bicycle 
     and pedestrian elements (e.g., bike racks on buses).

C. General Policies

 (1) Review new developments or major transportation projects to
     minimize the creation of new barriers to non-motorized 

 (2) Adopt and use bicycle-and pedestrian-friendly design 
     standards as part of roadway design standards, subdivision 
     regulations, and other appropriate standards and 

 (3) Create a framework for eliminating small-scale 
     environmental problems that impact bicycling and walking.

(a) Develop a spot-improvement program that allows the public to
    identify small-scale problems and barriers - such as 
    potholes, and lack of curb cuts - and bring them to the 
    attention of the appropriate local agency.

(b) Require bicycle and pedestrian facilities to be fully 
    restored when agencies or private concerns do utility work 
    in the public right of way.

(c) Eliminate major barriers to non-motorized travel.

     (i) Encourage new developments or major projects to break 
     current non-motorized barriers.

     (ii) Create "barrier-breaking" projects where opportunities
      to  piggyback projects do not exist.

March l,l995		12

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan

Objective 2.3

DOT&PF will encourage development patterns more compatible 
with non-motorized travel by providing technical 
assistance to local governments in the following areas.

  A. Encourage compact and mixed land uses

  (1) Encourage neighborhood-oriented commercial uses, parks, 
      and schools in or within safe and easy walking or 
      bicycling distance from residential areas.

  (2) Encourage siting commercial and institutional 
      developments adjacent to the street/sidewalk, rather than 
      centered in (or at the rear of) a large  parking lot.

 B. Business/Employment

  (1) Encourage major developments to include plans for non-
      motorized travel, in terms of internal circulation and 
      external access (including access to transit 

  (2) Encourage new employment centers to include plans for
      bicycle parking, showers, and lockers.

  (3) Encourage well-located, secure bicycle parking in business
      districts and other public sites.

Objective 2.4

Provide institutional encouragement for non-motorized 

  A. Require non-motorized elements in Transportation Demand 
     Management programs, Transportation Management
     Associations, and other air quality and congestion 
     mitigation initiatives.

  B. Encourage the elimination of employee parking subsidies and
     other pro-SOV measures and the creation of incentives for
     using non-motorized modes


To reduce by ten percent the number of bicyclists and 
pedestrians killed and/or injured in traffic accidents on 
public roadways by the year 2015

	According to the DOT&PF report " 1993 Alaska Traffic 
Accidents," 18 pedestrians were killed in 1993 traffic 
accidents, 21 received major injuries, and 158 received 
minor injuries. The number of pedestrian fatalities in 
1993, 18, represents a marked increase compared to a 
seven-year mean of 15 fatalities.

March 1, 1995		13

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan

According to the 1995 Highway Safety Plan, "the ratio, in 
Alaska, of pedestrian deaths to all traffic deaths is 
unpredictable, but it is generally higher than that of the 
rest of the nation."

	Also during 1993, 6 bicyclists were killed, 22 
received major injuries, and 132 received minor injuries.  
On a per-capita basis, Alaska's 1993 bicycle fatality rate 
was the worst in the nation, more than three times the 
national average.  Before too much is read into a single 
year's statistics (Alaska had no bicycle fatalities in 
1992) it should be noted that according to a 1993 Johns 
Hopkins Injury Prevention Center study, the per-capita 
rate of bicycle-related deaths in Alaska increase from 
slightly below the national average in the early 1980s.  
Figures for the late 1 980s and early 1990s were not 
readily available to determine if that trend continues.

	These statistics may be incomplete in that they 
represent only those accidents reported on public 
roadways.  Bicycle and pedestrian accidents occurring on 
private property or on separated paths are not tabulated 
by the present accident data collection system.  Like the 
second goal, a key objective to achieve our third goal 
should be the development of a data collection and 
analysis system to better measure our progress.

Objective 3.1

DOT&PF will work with appropriate agencies to develop a 
system to measure the extent and characteristics of 
non-motorized accidents and injuries within the state.

  A. Review current data collection efforts to determine the 
     relevance and accuracy of information collected regarding 
     bicycle and pedestrian accidents and injuries, and their 

  B. Add bicycle and pedestrian accident data collection to 
     existing procedures where needed.

  C. Collect additional accident data from other agencies as 

  D. Analyze data and report on at least an annual basis.

Objective 3.2

DOT&PF will work with other state and local agencies to 
target and eliminate key behaviors that lead to crashes, 
injuries, and deaths (e.g., wrong-way riding, motorist 
failure-to-yield, jaywalking).

  A. Encourage schools, safety organizations, and law 
     enforcement agencies  to deal with bicycle and pedestrian 
     safety issues and to focus on the most important problems.

  B. Support the development of public awareness campaigns key 
     to the most important causes of accidents, injuries, and 

March 1, 1995		14

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan

Objective 3.3

Encourage the use of safety equipment among bicyclists 
(e.g., lights, horns or bells, helmets, reflectors).

  A. Encourage safety groups to develop programs promoting 
     the purchase and use of both legally required and 
     additional safety equipment among the bicycling public.


DOT&PF will develop a model program of "bicycle- and 
pedestrian-friendly" incentives for employers.

Objective 4.1

Investigate ways to increase non-motorized trips among 
employees, such as:

  A. Incentives for non-motorized commuters.

  B. Providing bicycles for use on agency business.

  C. Providing reimbursement for use of employees' bicycles on 
     agency business where appropriate.

Objective 4.2

Enhance bicycle and pedestrian access to state agency 

  A. Provide secure bicycle parking for employees and visitors 
     at state offices.

  B. Provide safe and convenient ADA-compliant pedestrian access
     to all offices.

Objective 4.3

Reduce the number of bicycle- and pedestrian-related 
accidents, injuries, and deaths among state agency staff.

  A. Provide training and awareness programs for employees.

  B. Encourage staff to use bicycle safety equipment.

March 1, 1995		15

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan


	Alaska State law generally provides that bicycles are 
vehicles and that, with a few exceptions, bicyclists have 
the same general rights and obligations as motorists.  For 
example, like other vehicles, bicyclists are required to 
ride on the right side of the road.  To varying extents, 
bicycles will be ridden on all highways where they are 
permitted.  Bicyclists and pedestrians are prohibited on 
some highways where traffic volume, speed, and makeup 
together or separately create hazardous conditions for 
bicyclists, pedestrians and/or motor vehicles.  All new 
highways, including those being reconstructed or 
rehabilitated but excepting those where bicyclists will be 
legally prohibited, should be designed and constructed 
taking into consideration the needs of bicyclists.

	Virtually all transportation trips involve, at some 
point, a pedestrian element.  With better highway designs, 
better land-use decisions, and encouragement, many trips 
now made by motorized vehicles could be made by foot - 
relieving traffic congestion, improving air quality, 
decreasing fuel use, and generally improving the health 
and well-being of the state.


	1. Design Standards 

	The Alaska Department of Transportation and Public 
Facilities (DOT&PF) has adopted, with minor changes, the 
geometric design elements in the American Association of 
State Highway and Transportation Officials' (AASHTO) 
"Guide for Development of Bicycle Facilities."  As more 
experience is gained with these guidelines, the department 
should re-evaluate their effectiveness in our northern 
climate.  Areas to pay particular attention to include: 
pavement markings, rumble strips, snow storage area, 
signs/signals, drainage, rail crossings, pavement 
structure, and special designs for winter use.

	The Alaska DOT&PF Highway Preconstruction manual 
states that during the development of each project the 
needs of bicyclists and pedestrians shall be addressed in 
the design study report.  Specific mention of 
bicycle/pedestrian facilities in the project scope is not 
needed to consider such facilities in the design study 
report.  The Preconstruction manual sets guidelines for 
the provision of appropriate facilities.  As more 
experience is gained, these guidelines should be reviewed 
to ensure their suitability for Alaska's needs.  Should 
the design process indicate that bicycle and/or pedestrian 
facilities are appropriate, then waivers exempting bicycle 
facilities from projects must be the exception, and then 
only with overriding justification.

2. Road and Trail Planning 

	DOT&PF will work with local governments and other 
agencies to analyze the existing system to identify and 
program improvements through the Needs List and

March 1, 1995		16

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan

STIP process which will provide a more bicycle- and 
pedestrian-friendly transportation system. (See Section 
IV, Paying For It.)

   a. Arterial and collector network: make the major road 
      network compatible with pedestrian and bicycle travel 

     (1) For bicyclists, add width (striped or unstriped) 
     to through lanes  and replace dangerous elements 
     (unsafe grates, insensitive signals).

     (2) For pedestrians, add or improve sidewalks, create 
     safe crossings, add  ADA-compliant ramps, and modify 
     signalization and intersections where  needed.

     (3) Widen and pave shoulders for use of bicyclists 
     and pedestrians where appropriate; provide 
      alternative routes where necessary.

  b. Low-volume connector network: provide a network of low 
     volume streets and roads for through bicycle and pedestrian

    (1) Analyze land use, demographics, existing facilities, and 
    barriers to bicycle and pedestrian travel.

    (2) Improve routes that provide alternatives to use of major 
    arterials; include destination signing and marking, ADA-
    compliant curb ramps, motor traffic diverters.

  c. Local street network: work with local governments to solve 
     traffic problems in neighborhoods.  Install sidewalks, 
     eliminate hazards (e.g., sight distance restrictions), add
     traffic calming measures as needed.

  d. Major barriers to non-motorized travel: eliminate major 
     barriers to bicycling and walking.  Where potential use 
     and/or ADA access needs warrant, provide access through,    
     around, over, or under major barriers.  Pay particular 
     attention to major projects such as bridges and tunnels.

  e. Transit systems: provide for bikes and/or skis on transit 
     systems where appropriate.  Include bike and/or ski racks 
     on buses, special bike pass systems on transit lines, etc.
     Provide appropriate long-term bicycle parking and bicycle/
     pedestrian access at transit stops, including safe lockers 
     and/or supervised and secure parking, adequate sidewalks, 
     curb cuts and crossings, non-motorized access from low-
     volume connectors.

  f. Special bicycle and pedestrian facilities.

     (1) Bicycle lanes and routes shall comply with 
     DOT&PF-approved guidelines.  The department will 
     strive to ensure connectivity through additions on 
     road network as identified above.

     (2) Trails network and independent structures: Paths 
     and structures shall comply with DOT&PF-approved 
     guidelines.  The department will strive to ensure 
     connectivity through addition of missing links.

March 1, 1995		   17

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan

	3. Construction Practices

	In addition to providing for safe detours for motor 
vehicles during construction, DOT&PF crews and contractors 
must ensure that appropriate provisions are made for 
bicycles and pedestrians.  Cones, warning signs, 
equipment, etc. should not be placed so that they block 
bike lanes, trails, sidewalks etc.

	4. Maintenance

	Proper maintenance needs to be addressed before 
construction of new bicycle and pedestrian facilities 
begins.  Declining State revenues make it difficult for 
DOT&PF to take on new maintenance responsibilities.  
DOT&PF has adopted the policy of requiring local 
governments or organizations to agree to maintain new 
facilities before they are constructed.  Maintenance needs 
of existing facilities should be examined with the 
following in mind.

  a. Debris removal. By their nature bicycles are more sensitive
     than motor vehicles to gravel, leaves, glass and other 
     debris on the roadway.  Maintenance schedules and practices
     should take into account the need for a smooth, clean, 
     regularly swept path.  The same argument can be made for 
     ADA accessible pedestrian pathways and their use by 

  b. Winter use. Winter maintenance of transportation facilities
     must take into account continual use by pedestrians and, to 
     a lesser extent, bicycles.  Snow removal practices should 
     be examined and revised where needed to ensure continued 
     access and use of pedestrian and bicycle facilities.  Snow 
     must not be stored in bike lanes or on sidewalks. The 
     Americans with Disabilities Act requires that ADA 
     accessible facilities be maintained in accessible 
     condition.  This may be interpreted to include winter 
     accessibility.  Where permitted, use by snowmobiles must 
     also be considered.

  c. Utilities.  Bicycle and pedestrian facilities should be 
     fully restored when agencies or private concerns do utility 
     work in the public right of way.


	During the public participation process DOT&PF 
received numerous suggestions relating to the enforcement 
of traffic laws and regulations affecting bicycles and 
pedestrians.  (See Addendum A for a summary of public 
comments.) DOT&PF does not have primary jurisdiction to 
enforce traffic laws and regulations.  DOT&PF will work 
with Department of Public Safety and local governments to 
improve enforcement of laws and regulations affecting 
bicycles and pedestrians.


	During the public participation process DOT&PF 
received numerous suggestions to encourage walking and 
bicycle use.  (See Addendum A for a summary of public 
comments.)  DOT&PF will work with state agencies and local 
governments to encourage walking and bicycling.

March 1, 1995		18

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan


	During the public participation process DOT&PF 
received numerous suggestions to improve bicycle and 
pedestrian education programs.  (See Addendum A for a 
summary of public comments.)  DOT&PF will work with state 
agencies, local governments and educators to develop and 
improve bicycle and pedestrian education programs.  
Bicycle and pedestrian education programs can be grouped 
into two areas: design and safety.

	1. Design Education

	A 1992 paper prepared for the National Bicycle and 
Walking Study found no college transportation planning and 
engineering program in the United States which offered 
complete courses on non-motorized transportation.  The 
authors of the paper (Case Study No. 2; The Training Needs 
of Transportation Professionals Regarding the Pedestrian 
and Bicyclist) proposed a syllabus to use in the 
development of a course in non-motorized transportation.  
While it is beyond the scope of this plan to develop a 
training course in non-motorized transportation, the 
department should monitor advances in the study of 
non-motorized transportation and make it available to 
transportation professionals in the state.   Other steps 
which can be taken at the state and local level include 
encouraging project planners designers and engineers to 
ride a bike through their completed projects to evaluate 
their bicycle friendliness.  Similarly, they should be 
encouraged to use the pedestrian facilities.

	2. Safety Education

	Nationally, safety education programs have proven 
that they make a significant difference in reducing 
accidents and injuries among bicyclists and pedestrians.  
Bicycle and pedestrian safety programs were added in 1991 
to the federal list of "most effective" or National 
Priority program areas. This permits an expedited 
procedure in their funding by the federal "Section 402" 
program.  (See Section IV, Paying For It.) Observations 
and comments by Alaska bicycle clubs, advocates and 
educators suggest safety education programs should be 
directed not only at cyclists and pedestrians, but motor 
vehicle drivers too.  Drivers need to know that bicycles 
are regarded as vehicles and have the right to use the 
road (with some exceptions). Bicyclists, in particular, 
need programs that deal with legal rights and 
responsibilities, proper equipment, signaling, visibility, 
and safety practices.  Local bicycle clubs in Alaska 
routinely sponsor safety education programs, but their 
reach is limited by lack of funds, and the willingness and 
ability of volunteers. Programs should be directed not 
only to school-aged children, but adults as well.

March 1, 1995			19

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan



	All of the major funding programs created under ISTEA 
include bicycle and walking facilities and programs as 
eligible activities.  Since enactment of ISTEA many of 
these funding programs have been the subject of policy 
memorandum, guidance notes and regulations issued by the 
Federal Highway Administration and Federal Transit 
Administration.  In order to use these federal funds, 
states must develop and use a systematic planning process 
as outlined below.

	1. Planning and Programming

         a. Long Range Plan

	In order to receive federal transportation funds, 
ISTEA requires that each state develop a long-range 
statewide transportation plan.  Briefly, the plan must 
cover at least a 20-year period and encompass all areas of 
the state and all modes of transportation.  The plan must 
be developed in cooperation with metropolitan planning 
organizations.  In addition, ISTEA specifically requires 
the state to develop a long-range plan for bicycle 
transportation and pedestrian walkways for appropriate 
areas of the state. The bicycle/pedestrian element must be 
incorporated into the long-range plan.

	This Alaska Bicycle & Pedestrian Plan is intended to 
meet the federal requirements contained in Title 23, 
Section 135, United States Code.  This plan is an integral 
part of Vision 2020: Alaska's Long-Range Statewide 
Transportation Plan, 1995.

	b. Statewide Transportation Improvement Program (STIP)

	To program the federal funds it is eligible to 
receive, the state must produce a Statewide Transportation 
Improvement Program (STIP).  The STIP must be financially 
constrained, show all projects for which federal ISTEA 
funds are sought, and cover at least a three-year period.  
The STIP must be updated at least every two years.  The 
STIP may contain only projects which are consistent with 
the long-range plan.  DOT&PF includes in the STIP only 
projects that have been identified in the Department's 
"Transportation Needs and Priorities in Alaska," known as 
the "Needs List."  A more complete description of the 
decision-making process is found in Vision: 2020, the 
Alaska Transportation Plan.  To use any of the Federal 
funds listed on the following pages, the state must first 
identify the project in the STIP.  Any person, group or 
community seeking Federal funding for a project must first 
go through DOT&PF's Needs List process.

March 1, 1995		20

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan

	2. Funding Programs

	  a. National Highway System (NHS)

	Alaska has identified 1,610 miles of road plus some 
Alaska Marine Highway System routes to be a part of the 

	Among the list of eligible activities for NHS funds 
are bicycle transportation facilities and pedestrian 
walkways.  Two distinct types of project activity are 
covered by this general statement of eligibility. First, 
bicycle and pedestrian facilities that are an incidental 
part of a larger NHS project, such as trail facilities 
constructed along NHS roads. These facilities usually are 
within the right-of-way of the highway and are constructed 
at the same time as the larger project.  Second, 
facilities that are constructed adjacent to an NHS route, 
but are built as an independent project, are eligible.

	b. Surface Transportation Program (STP)

	At the end of 1993, Alaska had nearly 14,000 miles of 
        public road.

	The STP is the largest single funding program under 
ISTEA.  It gives states broad latitude in the variety of 
transportation activities they may fund with this money.  
Alaska was given even broader latitude than other states; 
these funds may be used on any public road, not just those 
on the federal system.  As with the NHS, bicycle 
transportation facilities and pedestrian walkways are 
specifically listed as eligible activities under STP. In 
addition to bicycle and pedestrian facilities, this 
program may be used to fund education and safety programs.

	c. Transportation Enhancements (TE)

	At least ten percent of STP funds (over the six-year 
life of the ISTEA legislation, 1991-1997) must be 
allocated to a range of 10 specific types of projects 
known as Transportation Enhancements.  Bicycle and 
pedestrian projects and the conversion of abandoned 
railroad corridors to trails are two of the ten 

	d. Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Program (CMAQ)

	The CMAQ program is a completely new category of 
funding created by ISTEA.  The funds are directed toward 
metropolitan areas that have not yet attained clean air 
standards set under the Clean Air Act, as amended.  The 
Federal Highway Administration has issued a number of 
documents related to the implementation of the CMAQ 
program.  The first CMAQ guidance note issued by FHWA in 
1992 specifically listed bicycle and pedestrian projects 
as eligible activities, both in their own right, and as 
part of the list of transportation control measures 
approved by the Clean Air Act as being beneficial to air 
quality.  A subsequent guidance note again listed bicycle 
and pedestrian facilities as eligible activities, and 
notes that they are limited to an 80 percent federal share 
and 20 percent state match, unlike some other eligible 
activities which qualify for a higher federal share.

March 1, 1995		21

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan

	e. Federal Lands Highways Program

	Provision for pedestrians and bicycles is listed as 
an eligible activity for the use of highway funds 
allocated to the Federal land management agencies such as 
the National Park Service, U.S.  Forest Service, Bureau of 
Land Management and Bureau of Indian Affairs.  These 
agencies manage a considerable amount of public land over 
which highways travel.  Of the nearly 14,000 miles of 
public road in Alaska over 2,600 are maintained by these 
federal agencies.  As these funds are allocated to other 
Federal agencies, there is no matching requirement.

	f. National Recreational Trails Fund

	This small funding source was created to earmark 
funds for the development of motorized and non-motorized 
recreational trails, and was made subject to annual 
appropriation by Congress.  In FFY 93, the first year of 
funding, $15 million was appropriated for use nationwide.  
No funds were appropriated in FFY 94 or 95.

	g. Scenic Byways

	A small grant program was created by ISTEA to support 
the development of state and national scenic byways.  
Bicycle and pedestrian facilities developed as part of 
these projects and programs are eligible for the use of 
these funds.  $30 million was authorized for the grant 
program in the first three years of ISTEA, nationwide.

	As of 1994, Alaska has only one state-designated 
scenic byway: the Seward Highway.  In 1993 Alaska applied 
for, and received, a grant for a project at McHugh Creek.  
In late 1994, the state applied for a project at Bird 
Point.  Both projects will enhance pedestrian activities 
at the sites.

	h. Federal Transit Act

	Projects such as shelters, parking, and lockers that 
provide access for bicycles to mass transportation 
facilities, or to install racks or other equipment for 
transporting bicycles on mass transportation vehicles are 
eligible for Federal Transit Administration funding under 
49 U.S.C. 5309 (Capital Program, "Sections 3"); U.S.C. 
5307 (Urbanized Area Formula Program, "Section 9"); U.S.C. 
5310 (Elderly and Persons with Disabilities Program, 
"Section 16"); and U.S.C. 5311 (Nonurbanized Area Formula 
Program, "Section 18") of the Act.  The Federal share for 
such projects is 90 percent.  The remaining 10 percent 
must come from sources other than Federal funds or 
fare-box revenues.

	Capital Program funds (49 U.S.C. 5309) are available 
annually by application from the FTA.  Only State and 
Local governmental agencies are eligible.  Urbanized Area 
Formula Program (U.S.C. 5307) funds are available to the 
Municipality of Anchorage.  Both the Elderly and Persons 
with Disabilities Program (U.S.C. 5310) and the 
Nonurbanized Area Formula Program (U.S.C. 5311) are open 
to applications annually through DOT&PF.

	i. Metropolitan Planning (PL)

	Each state is authorized a small percentage of its 
funds for planning and research.  A set portion of that, 
called Metropolitan Planning funds, is allocated to

March 1, 1995			22

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan

metropolitan areas for their transportation planning.  
With metropolitan defined as places with populations over 
50,000, Anchorage is the only metropolitan area in Alaska.  
Minimum allocation states, like Alaska however, may use 
some of the PL funds for transportation planning outside 
the metropolitan areas.  Alaska has developed a program to 
share its PL funds with other urban areas.  In recent 
years PL funds have been used by Fairbanks and Juneau to 
develop or update Bicycle Plans for each community.

	j. Section 402 - Safety

	The highway safety program is a non-capital safety 
project grant program under which States may apply for 
funds for certain approved safety activities.  There is a 
priority list of projects for which an expedited funding 
mechanism has been developed.  In 1991, bicycle and 
pedestrian safety programs were added to this federal list 
of "most effective" or National Priority program areas.  
The "Section 402" program in Alaska is administered by the 
Highway Safety Planning Agency in the Department of Public 
Safety.  Bicycle and Pedestrian Education and Safety 
programs identified in this plan are eligible to use 
Section 402 funds.

	Alaska's Section 402 program received an extra $2.9 
million in FFY 95 than previous years.  That's because 
Alaska does not have a motorcycle helmet law which 
conforms to federal law, as a "penalty" a portion of the 
transportation construction funds is diverted to the 
Section 402 program.  If Alaska does not adopt a 
motorcycle helmet law, the "penalty" will double to $5.8 
million in FFY 96.

	k. Spot Improvement Program

	This would be based on a nationally-recognized 
Seattle program.  DOT&PF will develop a program that meets 
Alaska's needs in which each region is allocated funds 
annually for the identification, design, and construction 
of small scale construction and signing projects to 
enhance bicycle and pedestrian access and safety.  Typical 
improvements would include curb ramps, paved shoulders, 
connector paths, rechannelization, drain grate 
installation, railroad crossing improvements, bike storage 
and parking racks, signing and striping.  Problem areas 
would be identified through cards distributed through 
municipalities, bike/trail clubs, bike shops, advocacy 
groups, and regional offices.


	State funding for bicycle and pedestrian facilities 
falls into two general categories: the capital budget and 
the operating budget.  Before the state can spend any 
funds, including the federal funds it receives, the 
legislature must approve their use in the capital or 
operating budget.

	1. Capital Budget

	The capital budget is used to fund or provide state 
authorization to spend federal funds on all phases of 
construction projects, including the planning, 
environmental and location studies, designing, 
engineering, right-of-way acquisition, utility relocation 
as well as actual construction. This would include 

March 1, 1995		23

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan

rehabilitation, safety and other projects that may take 
place after a capital improvement (road, airport, harbor, 
building, etc.) is first constructed.

	a. State Funds as Federal Match

	Most federal programs require that the state put up a 
portion of the total cost of the project.  This state 
match must be appropriated by the legislature, usually out 
of the state's general fund revenues.  Most federal 
programs prohibit the use of other federal funds for the 

	The ISTEA legislation set the match ratio for most of 
its programs at 80 percent federal, 20 percent state.  
States like Alaska, with high percentages of their lands 
in federal ownership or control, were given a break on the 
required match on many programs.  The ratio varies with 
the amount of land under federal control.  For Alaska in 
FFY 1995 the ratio was 90.97 percent federal, 9.03 percent 
state.  Bicycle and pedestrian projects, however, are 
excepted from receiving the lower state match.  23 U.S.C. 
217 specifically states that bicycle and pedestrian 
projects are to be funded at the 80/20 ratio.

	b. Legislative Discretionary Funding

	In the early 1980's when the State enjoyed high 
revenues from the North Slope oil fields the legislature 
funded many projects solely with state funds.  But in 
recent years as State oil revenues declined, the 
legislature has been less free to commit 100% state funds 
for complete project funding.  When the legislature passed 
the FY 95 budget, it appropriated only enough funds to 
meet the minimum required federal match. Barring any 
unforeseen windfalls, this practice can be expected to 
continue in the coming years.

	c. Local Service Roads and Trails (LSR&T)

	The Local Service Roads and Trails (LSR&T) program is 
not active; it has not been funded by legislature since 
the mid-eighties.  With the enactment of ISTEA, most, if 
not all, of the types of projects formerly funded by the 
LSR&T program can now be funded using Federal Surface 
Transportation Program (STP) funds.  The LSR&T was 
intended to "provide for the acquisition and construction 
of local service roads and trails that are not included in 
the approved federal-aid primary highway systems eligible 
for federal-state matching funds" (AS 19.30.11 1).  As 
noted earlier, in Alaska STP funds now may be used on any 
public road - not just the former federal-aid system.

	d. Trails, Footpaths and Campsites

	This State program, also largely unfunded since the 
mid-eighties, authorizes funding for grants to eligible 
cities and boroughs for "trails, footpaths and shelter 
construction and maintenance," and to the Department of 
Transportation and Public Facilities for the 
"establishment and maintenance of footpaths, bridle paths, 
bicycle paths, ski trails, dog sled trails, motorized 
vehicle trails and other paths, and trails along certain 
designated existing highways, or when a highway, road or 
street is being constructed, reconstructed or relocated" 
(ASS 41.21.866).  Many of the types of projects formerly 
funded by this program can be funded by the

March 1, 1995		24

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan

Transportation Enhancements program of ISTEA, or could be 
funded by the National Recreational Trails Fund if funded 
by Congress.

	2. Operating Budget

	The operating budget is used to fund the day-to-day 
general operating expenses of state government.  As far as 
the bicycle/pedestrian program is concerned, the operating 
budget primarily funds the maintenance and operation of 
the state's transportation system.  With a few exceptions, 
federal funds may not be used to maintain or operate the 
state transportation system. It falls upon the state to 
fully fund maintenance and operation of the facilities 
under its jurisdiction.


	The majority of facilities, provisions, and programs 
for bicyclists and pedestrians are implemented at the city 
and borough level, rather than the State or Federal level.  
Most projects are funded from a mixture of Federal, State 
and local funds, while maintenance is predominantly a 
State and local affair.  Most Federal sources of funding 
require a certain level of State or local matching funds, 
and that project recipients assume the responsibility for 
the maintenance of the facilities constructed with these 

	DOT&PF has adopted the policy of requiring local 
government or organizations to agree to maintain new 
facilities before they are constructed.  Declining State 
revenues make it difficult for DOT&PF to take on new 
maintenance responsibilities.


	Individuals and corporations can promote bicycling 
and walking in a number of ways, many of which will reap 
benefits for the individual or corporation as well as the 
community.  Low-cost bicycle racks in convenient locations 
at retail establishments encourage customers to ride their 
bicycles and reduce the need for parking.  Right-of-way 
donations for bike trails or pedestrian walkways sometimes 
open new access routes to businesses, opening new markets.  
Employee amenities such as showers, lockers and bicycle 
lockers reduce the need for vehicle parking while 
generally improving the employee's health and on the job 
performance.  These and other actions should be encouraged 
and assisted whenever possible.


	Nationally, bicycle rides and walking events are 
among the two greatest sources of funds for charitable 
organizations such as the American Lung Association and 
American Heart Foundation.  A small number of these events 
have been used to generate funds for local programs and 
have been very successful.

	Clubs, groups and volunteers take key roles in an 
effective bicycle and pedestrian program in a number of 
ways.  One very effective area is in safety education.  
For several years Alaska bicycle clubs have sponsored 
safety education

March 1, 1995		25

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan

classes and seminars for their members and the general 
public.  These programs should continue with whatever 
encouragement and assistance the department can provide.

	Another area worth exploring is an Adopt-a-Trail 
program similar to the Adopt-a-Highway program now common 
in Alaska and other states.  Since maintenance of 
trails/paths is a key concern, and state maintenance funds 
are drying up, this is an area where volunteers can help.  
Tasks can include:

  . Litter pickup - collect litter along trails and 
    rights-of-way.  Bag for pickup by DOT&PF and/or local crews.

  . Brushing - trim back bushes, limbs from trails.  Clear brush
    around warning signs.  Improve sight distances, improve 
    safety from collisions, reduce possibility of assault by 
    improving visibility.

  . Sweeping - remove debris from trail. Improve safety by 
    removing loose material that could precipitate skids, falls.
    Improve access for hard-wheeled wheelchairs, strollers.

  . Hazard identification - note hazardous conditions on trail 
    for maintenance crew repair/correction.

  . Landscaping - some volunteers may wish to do minor 
    landscaping around trails. Plant & tend flower beds, hedges,

March 1, 1995		  26

		        ADDENDUM A


	State Bicycle/Pedestrian Coordinator Robert Laurie 
held public meetings in Anchorage May 7, Fairbanks May 9, 
and Juneau May 12, 1994, to develop the Alaska Bicycle and 
Pedestrian Plan, an element of Vision: 2020, Alaska's 
Long-Range Statewide Transportation Plan.  This is a 
summary of the comments received at those meetings, from 
comments received at the Anchorage Bike Day May 22, from 
an informal meeting with Sitka bicyclists September 8, and 
from letters, fax, phone and personal contacts.

	DOT&PF was assisted at the Anchorage meeting by 
independent facilitator Nicole Faghin of Reid Middleton, 
Inc.  Excerpts from her meeting summary are included here.

	A wide variety of interests were represented at the 
meetings.  In addition to strong turnouts by bicyclists 
(including mountain, commuter, and recreational road and 
trail riders) walkers, equestrians, snowmobilers, 
snowshoers, runners, skiers, and the physically challenged 
were represented.

	The following list is a distillation of the comments 
received. We have grouped the comments by general 
categories and edited them for clarity and to reduce 
redundancy.  This material was considered in the 
development of the Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan.

	Problems / Opportunities

	At the meetings in May the participants were asked a 
series of questions intended to get them to identify 
problems now inhibiting bicycle/pedestrian use, and to 
identify opportunities to improve conditions for 
bicyclists and pedestrians.

The questions:

  . Why isn't your community bicycle friendly and walkable?

  . What are the barriers? (both physical and institutional)

  . What is stopping people from bicycling and walking more?

  . What opportunities exist in Anchorage (Fairbanks, Juneau)? 
    In the rest of the state?

1. Safety

  . Narrow roads with narrow lanes & shoulders make it difficult
    for motorists to safely pass cyclists.

  . Planning for bicycle/pedestrian uses should consider 
    different needs of the various users, for example: safety 
    for walkers from high-speed bicyclists.

2. Lack of Direct Facilities

  . Lack of direct routes suitable for bicycles and pedestrians.

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan    Addendum A	   A-1

  . Lack of bikeable shoulders on rural highways.

  . Existing trail systems must be improved to provide 
    continuous links.

3. Barriers to Bicycle or Pedestrian Use 

  . Not enough routes or paths suitable for bicyclists or 

  . Lack of sidewalks, and those that do exist are in poor 

  . Narrow roads with no provisions for bicyclists or 

  . We need more connections between trails, paths and lanes.

  . Poor access to boat harbors and other public facilities 
    for bicyclists & pedestrians.

4. Design 

  . Paths are built too close to road.  In wet weather, 
    pedestrians and bicyclists are splashed by passing motor 

  . Pedestrians/bicyclists often are required to cross protected
    right-sum lanes to get to crossing signal button. Motorists 
    fail to slow down or stop for crossing pedestrians.

  . Poor curb cuts. Some are too narrow, or angled to direct 
    bicyclists into traffic.

  . Some drainage grates are not bicycle friendly, with openings
    that trap narrow wheels, or are not flush with pavement 

  . Poor or non-existent signs along bicycle paths/lanes.

  . Where roads are closed to bicyclists or pedestrians, better 
    signs are needed to direct bicyclists to nearby trails.

  . Lack of signs warning motorists making protected right turns
    to watch for crossing pedestrians.

  . Expressways and freeways designed with no or poor provisions
    for bicyclists.

  . DOT&PF attitude towards bicycles & alternative modes of 
    transportation as an "embellishment" rather than basic, 
    legitimate transportation.

  . Lack of design consideration for bicycle & pedestrian 
    commuter, training and multiple-use recreation needs.

  . Bicycle-& pedestrian-friendly designs missing in road 

  . Design engineers appear to be ignorant of the needs of 
    both pedestrians and bicyclists.

5. Poor Design for Winter Pedestrians 

  . Planning in Alaska should take into account issues 
    pertaining to winter use of trails, streets, or sidewalks.

  . Lack of northern engineering in Alaska road & street design 
    & construction specifically, roads appear to be designed for
    southern California with no place for snow storage except 
    bicycle or pedestrian ways.

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan   Addendum A	     A-2

6. Maintenance

  . Poor shoulder, bike lane, path maintenance.  Snow piled 
    on bike lanes, trails and sidewalks, blocking use.  
    Bike trails and lanes not swept regularly, allowing 
    gravel, broken glass and other debris to create hazards 
    for cyclists.

  . Poor maintenance practices prevent sidewalk use 365 days a 
    year, especially in winter.

  . Loose gravel piles at intersections leftover from winter 
    melt.  Gravel not removed quickly enough after snow melts in

  . Bikeways in disrepair; potholes, paths unrepaired after 
    utility work.

  . Crosswalks not painted routinely.

  . Traffic signal pedestrian crossing buttons in disrepair 
    or missing.  Signs indicating button location or button 
    direction (which button controls which crossing) missing or 
    poorly placed.

  . Snow berms block access to signal buttons, pedestrian 

  . Pedestrians forced into streets because of lack of snow 

7. Security

  . Separated trails offer hiding places for potential 

  . Poorly brushed trails hide warning signs, restrict views 
    around corners.

8. Parking

  . Lack of secure parking or storage places to leave bikes 
    while shopping or working.

  . No bike lockers available in wet or snowy climates.

9. Lack of Education

  . Uneducated bicyclists & motorists.

  . Ignorance of rules and regulations, rights and 

  . Bicyclists often ride on wrong side of road.

10. Lack of Enforcement

  . Motorists fail to stop at pedestrian crossings.

  . Bicyclists often ride on wrong side of road.

11. Lack of Encouragement

  . Lack of Park & Ride lots with secure parking areas for 

  . Lack of bike racks on buses.

  . DOT&PF fails to provide alternative routes/paths for 
    bicyclists/pedestrians during road construction.

  . Bicycles/pedestrians have low priority when planning, 
    designing and constructing transportation systems.  Any 
    discussion of bicycle/pedestrian

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan    Addendum A   A-3

    issues should recognize that many people rely upon 
    bicycles/walking for their form of commuting to work.

  . Trails and facilities for bicycles/pedestrians should 
    not be planned/designed only for recreational purposes 
    but should consider these uses as legitimate forms of 

12. Use Conflicts

  . Hikers vs. mountain biker conflicts on some back country 

  . Snow machines running at excessive speeds or in packs 
    create unsafe conditions for winter users of trails, 
    (but also pack down paths so they can be used by 

  . Paved paths limit use by other users such as horses, 
    joggers. Firmly-packed gravel paths could be used by 
    bicyclists and other users.

  . The many different types of trail users, such as 
    snowmobilers, equestrians, dog sledders, pedestrians, bikes,
    joggers, in-line skaters, etc., should be considered when 
    designing trails and developing signage systems for those 
    trails and bicycle/pedestrian facilities.

13. Zoning / Land Use

  . Residential/retail/commercial areas spread out - local 
    zoning is designed for cars, not non-motorized 
    transportation or transit.

14. Bureaucracy

  . It's difficult to find out who to contact about problems.

  . Money is not allocated to bicycle/pedestrian facilities. 
    Legislative barriers to greater allocation of resources to 
    non-motorized transportation.

  . More input needed into local trails planning.

  . More emphasis needs to be placed upon ensuring that 
    bicycle/pedestrian facilities that are planned or 
    designed are actually constructed.

15. Specific Problems

  . Auke Recreation area danger mile - narrow highway with 
    no shoulders.

  . Brotherhood Bridge, narrow lanes, sidewalk.

  . Narrow, dangerous path above Channel Marine.

  . Heavy traffic along Tongass Avenue creates numerous 
    hazards for bicyclists.

  . No bike path/lane from Main St. to Douglas bridge.

  . No crossings on Douglas side of Juneau-Douglas bridge.

  . Bikeways in disrepair; potholes, paths unrepaired after 
    utility work, in particular: College Road path near 
    Beaver Sports.

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan     Addendum A	A-4

Strategies and Actions

Another question was designed to develop a list of 
possible strategies or actions to overcome the problems or 
take advantage of any opportunities in order to realize 
the vision.

The question:

  What needs to change to make Anchorage (Fairbanks, 
Juneau) and the rest of the state more bicycle 
friendly and walkable?

1. Planning, Design, Engineering 

  . When planning transportation systems and land use 
    development, include consideration of non-motorized 
    vehicles and pedestrians.  Non-motorized transportation 
    should receive full consideration as a legitimate form 
    of transportation.  Develop convenient, safe routes to 
    all places (schools, retail, office, harbors, etc.).

  . Remove hurdles or barriers to non-motorized transportation, 
    e.g. narrow bridges, dead-end bike lanes/trails, lack of 
    convenient pedestrian crossings on wide thoroughfares.

  . Include provisions for bicycles and pedestrians along every 

  . If bicycle/pedestrian facilities are not constructed 
    concurrent with a municipal street project, sufficient 
    right-of-way should be acquired and dedicated for later 

  . Identify highest use corridors and prioritize bicycle/
    pedestrian/multi-use projects.

  . Establish task force of state & local individuals to 
    establish bicycle/pedestrian commuter routes & standards.

  . Identify and preserve existing & future corridors for 
     non-motorized transportation.

  . Bike lanes should be given priority over separated bike 
    trails, but provision of bike lanes on the roadway 
    should not preclude construction of separated bike 
    trails if warranted.  Conversely, the existence of a 
    separated bike trail should not preclude addition of 
    bike lanes along adjacent roadways if warranted.

  . Separated bike trails generally serve more than just 
    bikes; consider referring to separated trails as 
    "multi-purpose side paths" to recognize other users.

  . Plan, design and build separate facilities for 
    high-speed bicyclists and pedestrians.

  . Design and build facilities that are low maintenance.

  . Require six foot paved shoulders on paved rural highways.

  . Design for community desires.

2. Pavement Markings 

  . Clearly mark with pavement paint and signs all pedestrian 
    and bicycle crossings.

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan    Addendum A    A-5

3. Signs / Signals 

  . Set traffic lights for cyclists.

  . Make spot improvements (bike sensors at intersections, 
    lights, signs, controlled access, etc.).

4. Special Designs for Winter Use 

  . Plan and design for ever-increasing winter use of bicycles.

  . Revise design standards to set-back sidewalks from 
    roadways, allow ditch for winter snow collection, keep 
    sidewalks clear of snow.

  . Develop & implement a local transportation plan that 
    includes all modes of transportation, include winter city 
    design criteria.

5. Enforcement 

  . Enforce all violations, by motorists, bicyclists, 
    pedestrians and other users, as well as those who block or    
    damage bicycle or pedestrian ways (illegal parking, 
    construction equipment, gravel or debris in ways).

  . Review and amend local ordinances to ensure they consider 
    bicyclists & pedestrians.

  . Make cyclists accountable by citing them for infractions of
    traffic laws.

  . Make a portion of ISTEA funds available to municipalities to
    hire bicycle cops.

6. Encouragement 

  . Provide safe, covered bicycle parking at public buildings 
    such as city parking garages, state buildings, etc.

  . Convenience - Directness & Connection.  

  . Encourage bicycle/pedestrian use.  Encourage bicycle 
    tourism.  Maximize use of recreational/tourist loops 
    for summer & winter use.

  . Conduct continual public relations campaigns to keep 
    safe cycling in the public eye, including frequent 
    editorials, radio & TV PSAs.  Develop public information 
    campaign for tolerance and safe use of trails.

  . Promote safe cycling at times when air quality is diminished
    - to encourage people not to use motor vehicles.

  . Improve maintenance. Sweep, pack or plow trails & sidewalks 
    concurrently with roads. Clear paths in winter for 
    pedestrian use.

  . Add racks for bikes on public transit buses.

  . All public facilities should be designed to accommodate 
    bikes and other nonmotorized users. Transit stations, rail, 
    airport and ferry terminals should provide bike storage.

  . Encourage Bicycle/Transit combo's by providing parking 
    racks or storage lockers for bikes at park & ride areas, as 
    well as bike racks on buses.

  . Provide park & ride lots on outskirts of central business 
    district to encourage alternative transportation choices, 
    avoid destruction of historic downtown structures.

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan     Addendum A	A-6

7. Education

  . A campaign to educate the public about safe bicycling 
    practices should begin now.  Enclose a safe cycling 
    pamphlet with motor vehicle renewals or permanent fund 
    dividends.  Hand out material to school children, 
    purchase safe cycling spots on radio and TV and use 
    PSAs.  Place ads in newspapers. Include signage as part 
    of public information campaign.

  . Review existing public service "spots" for appropriateness.

  .  Approach user groups to brainstorm "educational wish 
     list" for future public service announcements.

  . Bicycle safety programs for schools should be developed.  
    Make available to teachers a list of resources available to 
    educate kids on bicycle/pedestrian safety.

  . Cyclists should make every effort to be visible to 
    motorists and to use good sense in their choice of routes.

  . Educate DOT&PF and local planning/design/construction 
    personnel regarding non-motorized transportation use & 
    safety; e.g. tour of bad trails, bike to a BBQ, bike to 

  . Train engineers to design facilities for pedestrians, 
     bicyclists and other alternative transportation.

8. Funding 

  . Register cyclists (or bicycles), increase the state tax 
    on fuels.

  . Provide federal funds to local agencies.

  . Amend ISTEA to allow Federal funds to be used for 

  . Distribute federal funds in accordance with Borough 
    Transportation Program plan, share more federal funds with 
    local agencies.

  . Pursue all available funding.

  . Develop fair system to allocate funding between communities.

  . Use maximum possible amounts of state and federal moneys to 
    promote, develop and maintain bicycling facilities, both 
    off-road (separated trails, paths) and on-road (bike lanes, 
    wide shoulders).  Both are necessary for different uses and 

  . Ensure that designated non-motorized funds are used on 
    non-motorized projects/facilities; if a problem develops on 
    original project, use alternative nonmotorized selections.

  . Tax fuels to represent the true cost of driving.

  . Don't subsidize motor-vehicle use by providing free car 

  . Develop system to charge uniform user fees (real costs 
    for all).

9. Bicycle / Pedestrian Coordinator 

  . Improve walker/bicyclist input to transportation planning 
    and project development by appointing a full-time Bicycle/
    Pedestrian Coordinator at the Statewide level.  In addition,
    identify a contact person, a bicycle/pedestrian

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan      Addendum A      A-7

    coordinator, at each of the department's regions and at 
    the local (municipal) level.

  . Coordinate trail development between all agencies; 
    federal, state, local, and non-profit.

  . Bicycle/Pedestrian coordinator (or some other position) 
    should review all transportation projects to ensure 
    they include safe, well-designed bicycle/pedestrian 

  . Coordinate existing bicycle facilities with future plans so
    a bicycle map of usable trails can be published.

  . Survey bicycle/pedestrian use.

  . Survey visiting cyclists to determine needs, impressions of 
    local facilities, ideas, suggestions for improvements.

  . Classify bike routes, systems & signage.

  . Existing and potential pedestrian corridors should be 
    identified and facilities constructed to meet demand.

  . Contact local bike clubs for resources on current riding 
    conditions and trouble spots.

10. Legislative / Local Ordinances

  . Develop a trip reduction ordinance for DOT&PF and municipal 
    transportation planning/design staff.

  . Close downtown Juneau to motorized traffic.

  . Change ordinances to protect bicyclists.

  . Change zoning/land use to encourage like uses - human power
    transportation (HPT)

  . Disallow design exemptions unfavorable to bicycle/
    pedestrians, etc.

  . Regulate conduct on roads.

  . Designated seats on Planning & Zoning, etc. for bike/peds.

  . Mandatory helmet law for those under 18 - use Arizona's 
    new law as a model - parents fined $50.00 per 
  . Change state laws & regulations to require every 
    transportation project to include non-motorized 
    multi-user routes.

  . Require DOT&PF to follow local trail plans and pedestrian 
    standards (i.e. improve coordination with local plans).

  . Adopt legislation that prohibits operators or occupants 
    of motor vehicles from harassing bicyclists.

  . Pass legislation requiring that when planning, 
    designing and constructing highways, provide for the safe 
    use of those highways by bicycles as a basic means 
    of transportation.

  . Pass legislation requiring that DOT&PF develop facilities 
    and programs that encourage the safe use of bicycles as a 
     basic means of transportation.

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan   Addendum A	         A-8

11. Controlled Access Use 

  . Allow bicycle use of controlled access roads.

  . Pass legislation to open all highways, including those 
    presently closed to bicycles, to bicycle use.

  . Open Egan Expressway to bicycle commuters.

  . Review current signage on bicycle-prohibited highways to 
    ensure adjacent bike routes are clearly marked for visiting 

12. Action 

  . Improve downtown Fairbanks to University connection.

  . Construct clear, unobstructed pedestrian walkway along with 
    Ketchikan Tongass Ave. project.

  . Impose moratorium on road construction not meeting HPT 

  . Move ferry terminal closer than 15 miles from Juneau 
    city center.

  . Don't bother paving lightly traveled rural roads (e.g. 
    McCarthy Road, Petersville Road, Denali Highway, Elliott, 
    Steese, Taylor and Denali Park road), use the funds on high
    use urban roads and major highways.

  . Convert old Copper River Railroad bed to trail, not highway.

  . Construct separated bike path along College Road between 
    Beaver Sports and Fish & Game.

  . Use funds that would go to Chena River bike path for higher 
    use transportation corridors such as University Avenue and 
    College Road.

  . Construct bike lane for University Avenue Bridge in 

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan    Addendum A	A-9

			      ADDENDUM B

	The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act 
of 1991 (ISTEA) broadly described the duties of State 
Bicycle and Pedestrian Coordinators. This job description 
is found in 23 U.S.C. Section 217(d):

	Each State receiving an apportionment 
	under sections 104(b)(2)and 104(b)(3) 
	of this title shall use such amount of 
	the apportionment as may be necessary 
	to fund in the State department of 
	transportation a position of bicycle 
	and pedestrian coordinator for 
	promoting and facilitating the 
	increased use of non-motorized modes 
	of transportation, including 
	developing facilities for the use of 
	pedestrians and bicyclists and public 
	education, promotional, and safety 
	programs for using such facilities.
The full text of 23 U.S.C. 217 in included in Addendum C.

	The Bicycle/Pedestrian Coordinator is a relatively 
new position in the Alaska Department of Transportation 
and Public Facilities.  The position was appointed after 
enactment of the Intermodal Surface Transportation 
Efficiency Act of 1991.  Initially, the position was 
located in the Division of Engineering and Operations 
Standards at DOT&PF Headquarters in Juneau. One of the 
first actions of the position was to update the Alaska 
Highway Preconstruction Manual to include provisions for 
design of bicycle facilities in road projects. The 
department adopted, with minor changes, the AASHTO bicycle 
facility design guidelines.

	Little more was done with the position in 1992 and 
1993 as it was assigned to different personnel first in 
the Commissioner's Office of Strategic Management, Policy 
and Planning, then through several departmental 
reorganizations to the Division of Plans, Programs and 
Budget, later re-named the Division of Statewide Planning.  
In the Spring of 1994 work began in earnest on the Alaska 
Bicycle/Pedestrian Plan.

	The individual assigned as the Alaska 
Bicycle/Pedestrian Coordinator is currently expected to 
devote about one-quarter of his/her time to 
bicycle/pedestrian duties.  ISTEA requires only that each 
state assign an individual to the position, it sets no 
minimum allocation of resources.  The States may use STP 
funds to fund the position and its programs on an 80/20 

	Shortly after enactment of ISTEA in late 1991, the 
FHWA distributed the following guidance suggesting the 
typical duties of state bicycle & pedestrian coordinators, 
prepared by the Bicycle Institute of America.

   A. Plan and manage new programs in the areas of 
      non-motorized accommodations, safety, educational
      materials, enforcement materials, courses and recreation.

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan	Addendum B	B- 1

   B. Assist in development of State and MPO level bicycle 
      and pedestrian facility plans.

   C. Develop safety and promotional information through 
      printed materials, videos, TV spots, press releases, 
      interviews, and promotional  activities.

   D. Develop guidelines to assist all metropolitan areas 
      in developing a comprehensive pedestrian/bicycle plan and
      provide assistance to local jurisdictions in the 
      development of plans and programs.

   E. Develop (or prepare) printed materials such as quarterly 
      newsletters,  maps showing bicycle and pedestrian routes, 
      safety information, and  answer inquiries from citizens.

   F. Arrange for special displays and events, including 
      conferences,  workshops, and other public and technical 
      information presentations.

   G. Develop (if necessary), review, and update State's 
      Comprehensive Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation Plan.

   H. Serve as principal contact with Federal, state and local 
      agencies, the  press, citizen organizations, and 
      individuals on matters relating to bicycles and 

   I. Coordinate and maintain budget and forecast budgetary 

   J. Review projects for conformity with design standards 
      and the state's  comprehensive plan as it relates to 
      bicycle and pedestrian  facilities.

   K. Identify legislative requirements and recommend 
      appropriate changes in state law to facilitate maximum 
      utilization of the bicycle and  pedestrian modes for 
      transportation purposes.

   L. Maintain current knowledge of sources of funding for 
      program.  Work  with appropriate offices to fully 
      integrate bicycle and pedestrian projects in programming 

   M. Serve as bicycle and pedestrian advisory committee 
      member (if applicable).

   N. Develop priorities for special studies in areas such as:

     1. cause of accidents
     2. locations of accidents
     3. effectiveness of new facility designs
     4. needs analysis
     5. barrier removal analysis
    6. origin and destination surveys

   O. Monitor pedestrian and bicycle use, provide 
      recommendations for system improvement and develop usage 

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan      Addendum B	B-2

		         ADDENDUM C


		     Federal Statutes
		Title 23 United States Code

Sec. 217. Bicycle transportation and pedestrian walkways

FUNDS.--Subject to project approval by the Secretary, a 
State may obligate funds apportioned to it under sections 
l04(b)(2) and l04(b)(3) of this title for construction of 
pedestrian walkways and bicycle transportation facilities 
and for carrying out non-construction projects related to 
safe bicycle use

project approval by the Secretary, a State may obligate 
funds apportioned to it under section l04(b)(l) of this 
title for construction of bicycle transportation 
facilities on land adjacent to any highway on the National 
Highway System (other than the Interstate System).

for forest highways, forest development roads and trails, 
public lands development roads and trails, park roads, 
parkways, Indian reservation roads, and public lands 
highways shall be available, at the discretion of the 
department charged with the administration of such funds, 
for the construction of pedestrian walkways and bicycle 
transportation facilities in conjunction with such trails, 
roads, highways, and parkways.

State receiving an apportionment under sections l04(b)(2) 
and l04(b)(3) of this title shall use such amount of the 
apportionment as may be necessary to fund in the State 
department of transportation a position of bicycle and 
pedestrian coordinator for promoting and facilitating the 
increased use of non-motorized modes of transportation, 
including developing facilities for the use of pedestrians 
and bicyclists and public education, promotional, and 
safety programs for using such facilities

(e) BRIDGES.-- In any case where a highway bridge deck 
being replaced or rehabilitated with Federal financial 
participation is located on a highway, other than a 
highway access to which is fully controlled, on which 
bicycles are permitted to operate at each end of such 
bridge, and the Secretary determines that the safe 
accommodation of bicycles can be provided at reasonable 
cost as part of such replacement or rehabilitation, then 
such bridge shall be so replaced or rehabilitated as to 
provide such safe accommodations.

(f) FEDERAL SHARE.-- For all purposes of this title, 
construction of a pedestrian walkway and a bicycle 
transportation facility shall be deemed to be a

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan    Addendum C	C- l

highway project and the Federal share payable on account 
of such construction shall be 80 percent.

(g) PLANNING.-- Pedestrian walkways and bicycle 
transportation facilities to be constructed under this 
section shall be located and designed pursuant to an 
overall plan to be developed by each metropolitan planning 
organization and State and incorporated into their 
comprehensive annual long-range plans in accordance with 
sections l 34 and 135 of this title, respectively.  Such 
plans shall provide due consideration for safety and 
contiguous routes.

(h) USE OF MOTORIZED VEHICLES.-- No motorized vehicles 
shall be permitted on trails and pedestrian walkways under 
this section, except for-

    (l) maintenance purposes;

    (2) when snow conditions and State or local regulations 
        permit, snowmobiles;

    (3) when State and local regulations permit, motorized 
        wheelchairs;  and

    (4) such other circumstances as the Secretary deems 

(i) TRANSPORTATION PURPOSE.-- No bicycle project may be 
carried out under this section unless the Secretary has 
determined that such bicycle project will be principally 
for transportation, rather than recreation, purposes.

purposes of this section, a "bicycle transportation 
facility" means new or improved lanes, paths, or shoulders 
for use by bicyclists, traffic control devices, shelters, 
and parking facilities for bicycles.

		Alaska Bicycle Statutes

Sec. 28.10.011. Vehicles subject to registration.

Every vehicle driven, moved, or parked upon a highway or 
other public parking place in the state shall be 
registered under this chapter except when the vehicle is

(5) moved by human or animal power;

Sec. 28.40.100. Definition for title.

(a) Unless otherwise specifically defined or unless the 
context otherwise requires' in this title and in 
regulations adopted under this title

   (4) "driver" means a person who drives or is in 
   actual physical control of a vehicle;

   (6) "highway" means the entire width between the 
   boundary lines of every way that is publicly 
   maintained when a part of it is open to the public 
   for purposes of vehicular travel, including but not 
   limited to every street and the Alaska state marine 
   highway system but not vehicular ways or areas;

   (7) "motor vehicle" means a vehicle which is 
   self-propelled except a vehicle moved by human or 
   animal power;

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan  Addendum C	   C-2

   (11) "owner" means a person, other than a lien 
   holder, having the property in or title to a vehicle, 
   including but not limited to a person entitled to the 
   use and possession of a vehicle subject to a security 
   interest in another person, but exclusive of a lessee 
   under a lease not intended as security;

   (13) "roadway" means that portion of a highway 
   designed or ordinarily used for vehicular travel, 
   exclusive of the sidewalk, berm, or shoulder, even 
   though the sidewalk, berm, or shoulder is used by 
   persons riding bicycles or other human powered 
   vehicles; and in the event that a highway includes 
   two or more separate roadways, the term refers to 
   each roadway separately but not to all such roadways 

   (15) "traffic" means pedestrians, ridden or herded 
   animals, vehicles, and other conveyances either 
   singly or together while using a highway or vehicular 
   way or area that is open to public use for purposes 
   of travel;

   (17) "vehicle" means a device in, upon, or by which a 
   person or property may be transported or drawn upon 
   or immediately over a highway or vehicular way or 
   area except devices used exclusively upon stationary 
   rails or tracks; and

   (18) "vehicular way or area" means a way, path, or 
   area, other than a highway or private property, that 
   is designated by official traffic control devices or 
   customary usage and that is open to the public for 
   purposes of pedestrian or vehicular travel, and which 
   way or area may be restricted in use to pedestrians, 
   bicycles, or other specific types of vehicles as 
   determined by the department or other agency having 
   jurisdiction over the way, path, or area.

	Alaska Bicycle & Pedestrian Regulations


(b) When the Department of Transportation and Public 
Facilities or a municipality, with respect to a 
controlled-access highway under its jurisdiction, 
prohibits or limits the use of the highway to certain 
types of vehicles or traffic, it must erect and maintain 
signs on the highway notifying drivers of the limitations.


(a) Pedestrians must comply with traffic and 
pedestrian-control signals as provided in sees. 10 and 15 
of this chapter and are subject to the applicable 
restrictions in this chapter.

(b) No pedestrian may enter or remain upon a bridge or its 
approach beyond the bridge signal, gate, or barrier after 
a bridge-operations signal indication has been given; nor 
may a pedestrian pass through, around, over, or under a 
crossing gate or barrier at a railroad grade crossing or 
bridge while the gate or barrier is closed or is being 
opened or closed.

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan    Addendum C	C-3


(a) Except as provided in sec. 195 of this chapter, when 
traffic-control signals are not in place or not in 
operation, the driver of a vehicle shall yield the 
right-of-way to a pedestrian who is on a sidewalk, 
vehicular way or area, or who is crossing a roadway within 
a crosswalk when the pedestrian is upon the half of the 
roadway as to be in danger.

(b) No pedestrian may leave a curb or other place of 
safety and walk or run into the path of a vehicle which is 
so close as to constitute an immediate hazard.

(c) When a vehicle is stopped at a marked crosswalk or at 
an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection to permit a 
pedestrian to cross the roadway, no driver of another 
vehicle approaching from the rear may overtake and pass 
the stopped vehicle.

(d) Pedestrians shall move, whenever practicable, upon the 
right half of the crosswalk.

(e) No vehicle may be driven through or within a safety 


(a) A pedestrian crossing a roadway at a point other than 
within a marked crosswalk or within an unmarked crosswalk 
at an intersection shall yield the right-of-way to all 
vehicles upon the roadway, except as provided in sec. 
260(d) of this chapter.

(b) No pedestrian may cross a roadway at a point where a 
pedestrian tunnel or overhead pedestrian crossing has been 
provided and which is accessible at road level at or near 
the point of crossing, unless a marked crosswalk is also 
provided at that point.  If a pedestrian overpass or 
tunnel is not accessible and if no marked crosswalk is 
provided, a pedestrian crossing the roadway must yield the 
right-of-way to all vehicles on the roadway which are so 
close as to constitute a hazard.

(c) Between adjacent intersections in a business or 
residence district in which traffic-control signals are in 
operation, no pedestrian may cross except in a marked 

(d) No pedestrian may cross a roadway intersection 
diagonally or otherwise than at a right angle unless 
authorized by an official traffic-control device.  When 
authorized to cross diagonally, pedestrians must cross in 
accordance with the official traffic-control device.

(e) No pedestrian may cross a roadway where an official 
traffic control device specifically prohibits the 

(f) Except as provided in (d) of this section, a 
pedestrian must cross a roadway at a right angle to the 
roadway or by the shortest route to the opposite side of 
the roadway.

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan    Addendum C	C-4


(a) Where a sidewalk is provided and its use is 
practicable, a pedestrian may not walk upon an adjacent 
roadway except when crossing the roadway.

(b) Where a sidewalk is not available, a pedestrian 
walking upon a highway shall walk on a shoulder as far as 
practicable from the edge of the roadway. Where neither a 
sidewalk nor a shoulder is available, a pedestrian walking 
on a highway shall walk as near as practicable to the 
outside edge of the highway and, if walking along a 
two-way roadway, shall walk only on the left side of the 
roadway.  No pedestrian may walk on a controlled-access 
highway except in an emergency.

(c) Repealed 6/28/79

(d) No pedestrian may be upon or along a roadway in such a 
manner as to create an unreasonable risk of danger to 
himself or interfere with the normal flow of traffic.

(e) No pedestrian may sleep or loiter upon a highway or, 
without lawful permit, obstruct free passage upon a 


No person may solicit a ride in a manner which distracts a 
driver's attention, nor may a pedestrian upon a highway 
solicit employment, business, or contributions from the 
occupant of a vehicle.


(a) Every driver of a vehicle shall yield the right-of-way 
to a blind pedestrian carrying a visible white cane or 
accompanied by a guide dog.

(b) A person who is not legally blind may not use a white 
cane or a guide dog for the purpose of securing the 
right-of-way provided by this section.


(a) A pedestrian shall yield the right-of-way upon the 
approach of an authorized emergency vehicle making use of 
an audible signal as provided in 13 AAC 1)4.210(d), or a 
visual signal as provided in 13 AAC 04.090 or upon the 
approach of a vehicle making use of a flashing blue light 
as provided in 13 AAC 04.100.

(b) This section does not relieve the driver of an 
authorized emergency vehicle or a vehicle displaying a 
flashing blue light from the duty to exercise care to 
avoid colliding with a pedestrian.

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan   Addendum C	       C-5


(a) Except as provided in 13 AAC 02.195, when a 
traffic-control signal is not in place or not in 
operation, the driver of a commercial motor vehicle shall 
yield the right-of-way to a pedestrian who is on a 
sidewalk, in a vehicular way or area, or who is crossing a 
roadway within a crosswalk and who is upon the same half 
of the roadway upon which the commercial motor vehicle is 
traveling or is approaching so closely from the opposite 
half of the roadway as to be in danger.

(b) A pedestrian may not leave a curb or other place of 
safety and walk or run into the path of a commercial motor 
vehicle that is so close as to constitute an immediate 

(c) When a motor vehicle is stopped at a marked crosswalk 
or at an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection to permit a 
pedestrian to cross the roadway, the driver of a 
commercial motor vehicle approaching from the rear may not 
overtake and pass the stopped vehicle.

(d) A pedestrian shall move, whenever practicable, upon 
the right half of the crosswalk.

(e) A commercial motor vehicle may not be driven through 
or within a safety zone.


(a) Every person operating a bicycle upon a roadway has 
all the rights and is subject to all the duties applicable 
to the driver of any other vehicle as set out in this 
chapter, in addition to special regulation in secs. 385 - 
420 of this chapter, except as to those provisions of this 
chapter which by their nature have no application.

(b) No person may violate the provisions of sees.  385-420 
of this chapter. The parent or guardian of a child may not 
authorize or knowingly permit a child to violate a 
provision of this chapter.

(c) When signs are erected indicating that no right, left, 
or U-turn is permitted, no person operating a bicycle may 
disobey the direction of the sign unless first pulling to 
the extreme right or shoulder of the road, dismounting and 
making the turn as a pedestrian.


(a) Repealed 6/28/79. 

(b) No person operating a bicycle upon a highway may carry 
a person other than the operator, unless the bicycle is 
equipped with a seat for the passenger, except that an 
adult rider may carry a child securely attached to his 
person in a backpack or sling.

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan     Addendum C	C-6

(c) No person operating a bicycle or other non-motorized 
conveyance may attach, hold on by hand or otherwise secure 
the bicycle or conveyance or himself to another vehicle so 
as to be towed or pulled.

(d) A person operating a bicycle upon a highway shall 
maintain control of the bicycle and shall at all times 
keep at least one hand upon the handlebars of the bicycle.

(e) No person may operate a unicycle, coaster, roller 
skates, or a similar device on a roadway.

(f) This section does not apply upon a roadway closed to 
motorized vehicle traffic.


(a) A person operating a bicycle upon a roadway shall ride 
as near to the right as practicable and shall give way to 
the right as far as practicable to a motor vehicle 
proceeding in the same direction when the driver of the 
motor vehicle gives audible signal.

(b) Persons riding bicycles on a roadway may not ride more 
than two abreast except on paths or parts of roadways set 
aside for the exclusive use of bicycles. Persons riding 
bicycles two abreast may not impede traffic and, in laned 
roadway, shall ride within the farthest right lane.

(c) When a shoulder of the highway is maintained in good 
condition, an operator of a bicycle shall use the shoulder 
of the roadway.

(d) A person operating a bicycle on a trail, path, 
sidewalk, or sidewalk area shall 

   (l) exercise care to avoid colliding with other persons 
       or vehicles; 
   (2) give an audible signal before overtaking and passing a 
       pedestrian;   and 
   (3) yield the right-of-way to any pedestrian.

(e) Repealed 6/28/79 (Mandatory side path rule.)

(f) A person riding a bicycle intending to turn left 
shall, unless he dismounts and crosses as a pedestrian, 
comply with the provisions of sec. 200 of this chapter.  
The operator of a bicycle must give a signal by hand and 
arm continuously during the last 100 feet traveled unless 
the hand is needed in the control or operation of the 
bicycle.  When stopped to await an opportunity to turn, a 
hand and arm signal must be given continuously by the 

(g) No person may ride a bicycle upon a sidewalk in a 
business district or where prohibited by an official 
traffic-control device.

(h) No bicycle race may be conducted upon a roadway, 
except as provided under AS 05.35.

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan    Addendum C	C-7


(a) No person may park a bicycle on a street or sidewalk 
in a manner which obstructs pedestrian traffic or the 
parking and driving of motor vehicles.

(b) No person may secure a bicycle to any of the following 
publicly owned facilities:

  (l) fire hydrants;

  (2) police and fire callboxes;

  (3) electric traffic signal poles;

  (4) stanchions or poles located within bus zones or stands;

  (5) stanchions or poles located within 25 feet of an 
      intersection; or

  (6) trees under 10 inches in diameter.

(c) A bicycle parked on a highway must comply with the 
provisions of this chapter regulating the parking of 

No person may drive a vehicle on a sidewalk or sidewalk 
area other than upon a permanent or temporary driveway, 
except as a municipality allows the riding of bicycles on 
sidewalks outside of a business district.

The traffic regulations apply exclusively to the 
equipping, condition, movement or operation of a vehicle, 
bicycle, motorcycle, motor-driven cycle, person or animal 
upon a highway or a state-operated and maintained ferry 
facility except where a limited application or a different 
place is specifically referred to in a section.

(a) No pedestrian, rider of a bicycle, or driver of a 
vehicle may travel on a vehicular way or area as defined 
in 13 AAC 40.010 when it is designated for use by a 
different mode of travel than that used by the pedestrian, 
rider of a bicycle, or driver of a vehicle.

(b) A driver of a non-motorized vehicle traveling upon a 
vehicular way or area shall, regardless of whether an 
official traffic-control device is present, yield the 
right-of-way in the manner specified in sec. 130(c) of 
this chapter to any traffic using a roadway, driveway, or 
vehicular way or area on which motor vehicle traffic is 

(c) No person engaged in the business of selling bicycles 
at retail may sell a bicycle unless the bicycle has an 
identifying number permanently stamped or cast on its 

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan    Addendum C	C-8

13 AAC 04.320. HEADLIGHTS. 

(c) A bicycle, when ridden at the times when lights are 
required under 13 AAC 04.010, must be equipped with at 
least one light in front of the bicycle, emitting white 
light visible from a distance of at least 500 feet in 
front of the bicycle under normal atmospheric conditions.

13 AAC 04.325. TAILLIGHTS.

(a) A bicycle must be equipped with a taillight which 
displays a red light visible 500 feet to the rear of the 

13 AAC 04.335. REFLECTORS.

(b) Every bicycle, when ridden at the time when lights are 
required under 13 AAC 04.010, must be equipped with a red 
reflector on the rear of the bicycle and reflective 
material visible from the sides of the bicycle meeting the 
visibility requirements of 13 AAC 04.030(a).  Nothing in 
this subsection prohibits the use of additional reflectors 
or reflective materials upon a bicycle.

13 AAC 04.340. BRAKES.

(b) Every bicycle must be equipped with a brake system, 
maintained in good working condition, which will enable 
its driver to stop the bicycle within 25 feet from a speed 
of 10 miles per hour on dry, level, clean pavement.

13 AAC 40.010. DEFINITIONS. (Selected excerpts)

In chapters 02,04, 06, and 08 of this title, and in AS 28, 
unless otherwise provided

(l) "alley" means a street or highway intended to provide 
access to the rear or side of lots or buildings in urban 
districts and not intended for use by through vehicular 

(2) "arterial street" means a U.S. or state numbered 
route, controlled-access highway, or other major radial or 
circumferential street or highway designated by a 
municipality within its respective jurisdiction as part of 
an interlocking system of streets or highways;

(5) "bicycle" means a vehicle propelled exclusively by 
human power upon which a person may ride, having two 
tandem wheels or three wheels in contact with the ground, 
except scooters and similar devices;

(9) "controlled-access highway" means every highway, 
street, or roadway where access to or from the highway is 
determined by the public authority having jurisdiction 
over the highway, street or roadway;

 (11) "crosswalk" means that portion of a roadway at an 
intersection which is between an extension of a sidewalk 
which ends on the opposite side of the roadway or, in the 
absence of a sidewalk, that portion of the roadway which 
is an extension of the edge of the roadway to the opposite 
side of the roadway and between a

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan  Addendum C   	C-9

parallel line 10 feet from that extension in a direction 
away from the intersection, except as modified by a marked 
crosswalk on a portion of a roadway at an intersection or 
elsewhere which is distinctly indicated by lines or other 
markings on the surface of the roadway;

(33) "pedestrian" means any person afoot; it includes a 
person on skis or snowshoes;

(45) "safety zone" means the area of space officially set 
apart within a roadway for the exclusive use of 
pedestrians, and which is protected or marked by signs 
which are plainly visible at the time it is used as a 
safety zone;

(48) "sidewalk" means that portion of a street between the 
curblines or the lateral lines of a roadway and the 
adjacent property lines, and intended for use by 

(55) "street" means a highway as defined in AS 28;

(56) "through highway" means a highway or portion of 
highway on which vehicular traffic has preferential 
right-of-way, the entrances to which vehicular traffic 
from intersecting highways is required by law to yield the 
right-of-way to vehicles on the highway in obedience to a 
stop sign, yield sign, or other official traffic-control 

11A AAC 20.490. BICYCLES.

The use of a bicycle in the Chena River State Recreational 
Area is allowed only in campgrounds and in the following 

(1) Chena Hot Springs Road;

(2) picnic areas; and

(3) trails designated as open to off-highway vehicles.

Alaska Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan   Addendum C  	C-10

Jump To Top