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Baltimore Region Freight Movement System: Infrastructure Assets




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           BALTIMORE REGION FREIGHT MOVEMENT SYSTEM:
                   INFRASTRUCTURE ASSETS
                 WORKING DRAFT REPORT
                   SEPTEMBER 1995


Baltimore Metropolitan Council  601 North Howard Street  

Baltimore, Maryland 21201









                        BMC Project Staff



        Peter E. Plumeau, Manager of Transportation Planning

                       Policy Development



         Linda Stewart-Clark, Transportation Planner




  The preparation of this document has been financed through 

  funds provided by the BaltimoreMetropolitan Council, the 

  Maryland Department of Transportation, and the U S Department 

  of Transportation



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Introduction



     The efficient movement of freight, intermodal 
connections, and the reliability of the transportation network 
and infrastructure have a profound effect on the Baltimore 
metropolitan region's economy.  Currently, the region has one 
of the nation's most sophisticated freight and goods movement 
systems, consisting of an extensive highway system, three 
Class I and several smaller railroads, pipelines, an 
international airport, a major deepwater seaport, and several 
large intermodal facilities.  Further, there are many firms in 
the Baltimore region engaged in handling and transporting 
freight cargo.

    This working document provides a preliminary description 
of the Baltimore metropolitan region's freight movement 
system.  For the purposes of metropolitan transportation 
planning, the Baltimore region consists of Baltimore City and 
Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Carroll, Harford, and Howard 
counties.  The report includes descriptions of the regional 
freight movement system's surface, air, maritime, and 
intermodal infrastructure components. In addition, important 
aspects of the region's distribution and manufacturing sectors 
are highlighted.  This introduction provides a "snapshot" 
overview of these components; the remaining sections provide 
detailed descriptions of and information on each component.

Overview of the Regional Freight Movement System

    The map below, entitled "Baltimore Region Freight 
Transportation System: Existing Roadway and Non-roadway 
Components," provides an overview of the region's freight 
movement infrastructure.  It includes only those highways and 
roads, rail lines and yards, port areas, cargo airports, and 
intermodal facilities that have thus far been identified as 
being major activity centers or links in the regional freight 
transportation system.  As this is a working document, the map 
and facilities inventory on which it is based will likely be 
revised as further freight transportation planning and 
analysis is conducted.

    As shown in the map, the Baltimore region's freight 
surface transportation system consists of highways, railroads, 
and intermodal facilities.  The region's more than 23,000 
miles of public roads are used extensively for freight 
movement by the trucking industry and for access to major 
freight movement and industrial facilities. Several railroads, 
including Class I, regional, and switching and terminal rail 
companies, serve the region.  Intermodal facilities are 
discussed below.  In addition, an extensive network of 
petroleum pipelines serves the region; however, only limited 
information is currently available on this system.

    The Baltimore region also has a significant presence in 
the nation's air freight movement system.  
Baltimore-Washington International Airport (BWI) is the 
region's major air freight facility, and provides both 
international and domestic air cargo

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        BALTIMORE REGION FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
        EXISTING ROADWAY AND NON-ROADWAY COMPONENTS

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services.  Air cargo handling capabilities are also planned 
for at least one other airport in the region.

    The Port of Baltimore, a large, multi-facility deepwater 
port for seagoing vessel, is the region's major maritime 
freight facility.  The Port includes a total of sixteen public 
and private freight handling facilities as well as several 
truck and rail intermodal facilities.

    The regionally significant intermodal freight 
transportation facilities in the metropolitan area are 
discussed separately in this report; however, most of these 
sites also fall within one or more of the modal areas noted 
above.  Thus, certain of these facilities will be discussed 
both as single mode activity centers and as intermodal 
activity centers.

Surface Transportation System

Highway & Roadway System

    The Baltimore region is at the mid-point of north-south 
Interstate 95, and has a roadway and highway network has 
23,301 miles of public roads, including five different 
functional types of roadways, freeways, principal arterials, 
minor arterials, collectors, and local streets.  The regional 
highway system also includes four major toll facilities, the 
Fort McHenry Tunnel (I-95), the Baltimore Harbor Tunnel 
(I-895), the Francis Scott Key Bridge (I-695), and the 
Chesapeake Bay Bridge (U.S. Routes 50 & 301).

    Highway access to the major non-roadway freight movement 
facilities within the Baltimore region, such as the Port and 
BWI Airport, is essential for the efficient flow of inbound 
and outbound freight movement.  Access to Port of Baltimore 
facilities is provided by I-95, I-895, and I-695.  Roadways 
providing internal access to and between Port facilities 
include Broening Highway, Dundalk Avenue, Clinton Street, 
Keith Avenue, Key Highway, Hanover Street, Potee Street and 
Patapsco Avenue.  Direct regional highway access to BWI 
Airport is provided from I-95 and I-695 via I195, and also 
from the Baltimore-Washington Parkway (Maryland Route 295).

    As shown in the accompanying map, there is an extensive 
network of major truck routes in the Baltimore region.  In 
addition, as shown in the map, the state has designated 
several special routes for overweight seaborne container 
movements.

Rail Freight Movement System

    Railroads are vital links in the Baltimore region's 
freight movement system, providing important connections 
between shippers and consignees. Three Class I

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                        BALTIMORE REGION
                    DESIGNATED TRUCK ROUTES

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 railroads, one local railroad, and two switching and terminal 

rail companies serve the region.  As shown in the table below, 
the region's Class I railroads are Consolidated Rail Corp. 
(Conrail), CSX Transportation (CSXT), and CSX Intermodal 
(CSXI).  The Maryland Midland Railroad (MMID) is a small 
regional railroad, while the Canton Railroad and the Patapsco 
& Back River Railroad provide switching service in and around 
the Port of Baltimore area.

Railroads Operating in the Baltimore Region
 
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    Consolidated Rail (Conrail) provides rail freight 
transportation service for business and industry throughout 
the Baltimore region and connects the region with its system 
in 12 northeastern and midwestern states, the District of 
Columbia, Quebec, and other railroads throughout North 
America.  Conrail's major freight facilities in the Baltimore 
region include its Bayview Intermodal yard in the 
Canton/Dundalk area of Baltimore. Conrail also provides 
service to Consolidated Coal Co., Ruckert Terminal, and the 
Dundalk Marine Terminal.

    CSX Transportation (CSXT), the successor to the famous 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad system, has several major freight 
facilities in the Baltimore region, including the Curtis Bay 
Yard, Locust Point Terminal, Bayview Terminal, Pennmary 
Terminal, and Jessup Terminal.  CSXT also operates a 2.6-acre 
automobile shipment facility at the Canton warehouse complex, 
which can handle 60,000 imported and exported automobiles 
annually.  In addition, CSXT provides service to and from Port 
of Baltimore marine terminals through its sister firm, CSX 
Intermodal (CSXI).

    CSXI is a relatively new and unique company.  Founded in 
1988 by the CSX Corporation (parent firm for CSX 
transportation service companies), CSXI operates its own 
intermodal trains to and from intermodal terminals across 
North America over the tracks of CSXT and other rail companies 
through trackage lease agreements.  In Baltimore, CSXI 
operates the Intermodal Container Transfer Facility (ICTF) at 
the Seagirt Marine Terminal (more information is provided in 
the "Regionally Significant Intermodal Facilities" section of 
this report).

    The Maryland Midland Railroad (MMID) is a small regional 
railroad serving Carroll, Frederick, and western Baltimore 
counties over 67 miles of track.  MMID

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serves customers who need coal and raw materials to turn out 
cement and lumber products, with a fleet of 200 cars and over 
67 miles of track.  MMID's major facilities include the Union 
Bridge Yard, the Cedarhurst Yard, and the Highfield and 
Glyndon interchange points with CSXT.

    Two small switching and terminal railroads also serve the 
Baltimore region.  The Canton Railroad serves 33 companies in 
Baltimore City's Canton area and connects with CSXT at the 
Pennmary interchange yard and with Conrail's coal yard.  
Canton Railroad, which is owned by the quasi-public Maryland 
Transportation Authority, operates in the eastern part of 
Baltimore City and Baltimore County from the Seagirt Marine 
Terminal to Eastpoint.  The region's other switching and 
terminal rail company, the Patapsco & Back Rivers Railroad, 
transports raw materials to and from the Bethlehem Steel plant 
at Sparrows Point.

Pipeline Facilities

    The pipeline is a very efficient means of transporting 
petroleum products, as reflected in the typical pipeline oil 
transport cost of about one cent per ton-mile.  Nationwide, 
almost 90 percent of petroleum products are transported this 
way.  At least three pipeline companies operate major 
facilities in the Baltimore region: Colonial Pipeline Company, 
Locot, Inc., and Northeast Pipeliners Company 1.  These firms 
transport both crude and refined petroleum products.  In 
addition, the Maryland Department of Transportation has 
identified two pipeline facilities in the region (Baltimore 
City), one each operated by Shell Oil and Exxon Oil, with 
significant daily truck movements.

    Further work is planned to more precisely identify, 
locate, and analyze the significance of pipeline facilities in 
the region.  Future drafts of this report will include this 
information as it becomes available.

Air Freight Movement System

    The Baltimore region's major air freight facility is 
Baltimore-Washington International Airport (BWI), located just 
south of Baltimore City in Anne Arundel County.  BWI is owned 
and operated by the Maryland Aviation Administration, a modal 
agency of the Maryland Department of Transportation.  By 
virtue of BWI's central east coast location, the freight 
movement industry located there focuses primarily on the 
mid-Atlantic, midwestern, and northeastern United States.  Air 
carriers operating through BWI provide both international and 
domestic air cargo services and handle such specialized cargo 
as seafood, flowers, and other time sensitive, high value 
shipments.

1 Source: Dun & Bradstreet Marketplace, 1995.

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	As shown in the accompanying diagram, BWI's air cargo 
handling complex includes 330,000 square feet of warehouse 
space, divided into eight separate buildings, and 17 acres of 
ramp with 24-hour cold storage, a designated U.S. Fish & 
Wildlife Administration port of entry, and a 3,000 square-foot 
Foreign Trade Zone, which is expandable to 176,565 square 
feet.

    As shown in the table below, eight all-cargo airlines 
serve BWI, and an additional six passenger airlines also 
provide freight movement services ("bellyfreight").  Firms 
such as Federal Express, DHL Worldwide Express, and Emery 
Worldwide handle specialized shipments, mail and parcels.  
These carriers provide direct air service to over 75 
international destinations, including Europe, the Caribbean 
and South America.

Click HERE for graphic.

    Two other general aviation airports serve the Baltimore 
region. Carroll County Airport, which is located near 
Westminster, and Martin State Airport, located in Baltimore 
County, currently provide a very limited amount of air cargo 
service to the region.  Expanded freight handling capability, 
however, is planned for future development at Carroll County 
Airport.

Maritime and Port Facilities

    The Port of Baltimore is the region's major maritime 
facility.  The Port is located on the Patapsco River near the 
northern end of the Chesapeake Bay and is accessible from the 
Atlantic Ocean sea routes through Hampton Roads at the south 
end of the Chesapeake Bay and through the Chesapeake and 
Delaware Canal (C&D Canal).  The Port's principal inland 
market areas are middle Atlantic and midwestern states.  About 
81 steamship lines currently call at the Port

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Click HERE for graphic.

Building A	       Building C		Building #1


Airschott	       American Airlines	USAir
All Cargo Expediting   U.S. Postal Service	British Airways
Foreign Trade Zone #73                              Service

Building B	       Building D		Building #2

Air Aruba	       Emery Worldwide		Ogden Aviation-
America West Airlines  United Parcel Service	Representing:		
American International USAir Catering		Air Canada
Baltimore/wash. Air 	                        Air Jamacia
   Cargo  Assn.			                Continental 		
BWI Cargo Development 		                  Airlines
   Office					Icelandair
Cargo Specialist, Inc.	Building E		Ladeco Airlines			
CJ international	Burlington Air Express	Southwest 	
Delta Airlines,	        Federal Express           Airlines
Express One   	        Miami Aircraft Support
John S. Conner, Inc.			        Building #3
Northwest Airlines			        TWA
Samuel Shapiro & Co.			        United Airlines
World Wide Refrigerated 
    Cargo, Inc
U.S. Customs

        Source: Maryland Aviation Administration, August 1995

     The marine terminals at the Port of Baltimore include 
both publicly and privately owned and operated facilities.  
The Port has 64 general cargo berths and 18 public cargo berths.  
The Maryland Port Administration (MPA) is responsible 
for the overall management, safety, operation and marketing of 
the Port's facilities.  As shown in the accompanying overview 
map, the Port of Baltimore has seven public marine terminals 
and 11 private terminals.  The Port's publicly owned and 
operated facilities include Clinton Street, Dundalk, Fairfield 
Auto/Toyota terminal, North Locust Point, South Locust Point, 
and Seagirt Marine Terminal.  Masonville was purchased by the 
MPA for future development as a container terminal; however, 
Masonville's short term use will likely be storage of 
automobiles.  The Port's privately owned and operated 
container and general cargo facilities include 
Atlantic/Hobelmann Port Services, Canton Pier, Chesapeake 
Terminal, and Pennwood Wharf, owned by Bethlehem Steel.

     The Port's two largest marine terminals are Dundalk and 
Seagirt. Dundalk Marine Terminal is the second largest marine 
terminal on the north Atlantic coast and the largest general 
cargo facility in the port.  Dundalk is located on the north 
side of the Patapsco River and has 13 berths, spanning 570 
acres.  The primary cargo handled at Dundalk includes 
container freight, automobiles and other roll-on/roll-off 
equipment, wood pulp, steel and paper, and liquid bulk 
cargoes.

     Seagirt Marine Terminal, which opened in 1990, is the 
newest and most modern container terminal at the Port.  
Located on the north side of the Patapsco River, Seagirt has 
three berths and covers 265 acres.  Seagirt serves as the hub 
of the Port's intermodal container cargo, with some of the 
world's most modern container cranes and technology.  
Seagirt's "ACCESS" (Automated Container Control and Equipment 
Support System) computer system allows it to operate a 
paperless data processing system through Electronic Data 
Interchange (EDI) and electronic tracking systems.  Other 
special freight handling capabilities at Seagirt include 
single hoist and doublehoist 50-ton post-Panamax container 
cranes as well as tower and revolving gantry cranes.

     Adjacent to Seagirt's 70-acre facility is the Intermodal 
Container Transfer Facility (ICTF) rail yard which brings 
trains within 1,000 feet of the berths.  The ICTF, operated by 
CSXI, offers double-stack capacity and can handle 200,000 
units annually.  The ICTF features over 4.5 miles of track, 
including four loading tracks of 3,750 feet, each capable of 
handling 38 standard intermodal rail cars.  The ICTF is 
discussed further in the "Regionally Significant Intermodal 
Facilities" section.

     While Seagirt handles containerized cargo exclusively, 
the Port's other stateowned terminals are multi-use 
facilities.  North Locust Point, which covers 90 acres and 11 
berths, handles break bulk, liquid bulk, roll-on/roll-off, and 
containerized cargoes.  South Locust Point, which has 79 acres 
and 4 berths, is also a multi-use facility handling 
containers, break bulk, and roll-on/roll-off cargoes.  
Fairfield Automobile Terminal is leased to Toyota Motor Sales 
and has 50 acres for auto storage

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PORT OF BALTIMORE-MAJOR FACILITIES

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and processing.  Fairfield has two usable berths and 
specializes in importing, exporting, and processing of 
automobiles.

     The commodities shipped through the Port of Baltimore 
within the last five years include containerized cargo, 
automobiles and other roll-on/roll-off equipment, steel 
plates, coils and ingots, paper and wood pulp, other break 
bulk cargo, coal, grain, iron ore, dry bulk, petroleum and 
other liquid bulk.  Bulk cargo represents the largest single 
tonnage volume throughout all of the Port's terminals.

Regionally Significant Intermodal Facilities

     There are nine regionally significant intermodal freight 
transportation centers, encompassing a variety of facilities, 
in the Baltimore metropolitan area.  Most of these facilities 
have been discussed elsewhere as single mode activity centers; 
in this section, they are discussed as intermodal activity 
centers.  The region's deepwater sea port, international 
airport, and major railroads all serve as intermodal 
connection points for freight movement in the metropolitan 
area.

Port of Baltimore Intermodal Facilities

     As shown in the table below, the Port of Baltimore 
includes six major intermodal facilities, including the Port's 
state owned marine terminals which serve as facilities for the 
intermodal transfer of freight from ship-to-rail, 
ship-to-truck, and rail-to-truck.

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Major Intermodal Facilities at the Port of Baltimore

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Source: Maryland Port Administration.

Other Significant Intermodal Facilities

     Several other significant intermodal freight facilities 
serve the region, including the Bayview Intermodal Container 
Facility, the Conrail Flexi-Flow Rail-Truck Transfer Center, 
and the Maryland Wholesale Produce Distribution Center.  The 
facilities for which detailed information has been collected 
are described below.

     Conrail's Bayview Intermodal Container Terminal facility 
is located three miles from the Port of Baltimore.  Conrail's 
ICTF yard has direct access to I-95, I-70, and

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Baltimore's Harbor Tunnel (I-895).  This facility covers 30 
acres, and has a trailer capacity of 600 units.  Bayview has 
five tracks which are also used as loading pads.  In addition, 
Bayview has the capacity to hold 60 conventional cars, 
equivalent to 89 feet.  This facility handles trailer loads, 
which are equivalent to 40, 45, 48 and 53 footers, 
refrigerated (Reefer) units, trailers on flat cars (TOFC), 
containers on flat cars (COFC), hazardous material, and high 
value products.

     Conrail's Flexi-Flow Rail Truck Transfer is a five acre 
facility, located in Baltimore City, adjacent to the Jones 
Falls Expressway (Interstate 83) and North Avenue.  Flexi-Flow 
provides intermodal transfer of liquid and dry chemicals, 
oils, corrosive and hazardous materials.  The Flexi-Flow 
facility loads and unloads hopper style rail cars onto trucks, 
which ship to a 150 mile market radius.  Flexi-Flow's market 
area consists of the Northeast Corridor and midwestern states.

     The Maryland Wholesale Produce Distribution Center, 
located in Howard County, at MD 175 (Waterloo Road) and US 
Route 1, in Jessup, is a major distribution center for the 
shipment of wholesale produce.  Opened in 1975, the Wholesale 
Produce Market's hours of operation are between 3:00 am and 
9:00 am. Major trucking companies and CSX Transportation 
provide intermodal transfer of fresh produce from around the 
state.  Approximately 30 tenants rent space within this 
facility.  The Maryland Wholesale Seafood market and Giant 
Food Distribution warehouse are also located at this 
intersection.

     Other significant intermodal facilities in the region, 
for which data are currently incomplete, include the following 
sites:

  . Crossroads Industrial Center, located near Wilkens Avenue 
    and Dukeland Street, and I-95 at Gwynns Falls in Baltimore 
    City, provides access to both Conrail and CSX 
    Transportation.
 
  . Steelnet, located at 4132 Beachwood Road in Baltimore 
    County, provides intermodal rail and truck activity for 
    finished steel products.
 
  . Auto Distribution Center, is located in Jessup, Howard 
    County, on Dorsey Run Road, adjacent to MD 175.  Major 
    trucking companies and CSX Transportation provide 
    automobile distribution for Ford, Chrysler, Chevrolet and 
    Mitsubishi.  CSX contracts this facility out to Total 
    Distribution Services, who subcontracts to Maryland Auto 
    Ramp.
 
  . Riverside Industrial Park, located in Harford County, near 
    US 40 and I-95, provides rail and truck transfer facilities 
    through Conrail and major trucking firms.
 
  . Chesapeake Industrial Park, also located in Harford County, 
    near US 40, outside of Havre de Grace, provides intermodal 
    rail and truck transfer through Conrail.

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  . BWI Airport, discussed in the "Air Freight Movement System" 
    section of this report, primarily handles aircraft to truck 
    and truck to aircraft freight movements.

In addition to the above, the Carroll County Airport, near 
Westminster, has been proposed for significant near-term 
development of intermodal freight handling capabilities.  As 
more data about these and other facilities are collected, this 
document will be revised accordingly.

Distribution & Manufacturing

     Distribution and manufacturing are vital to the Baltimore 
region's economy, with shippers and consignees providing about 
45 percent of the region's jobs.  The region's freight 
transportation infrastructure is a critical lifeline to many 
of the fums in these sectors.  It is therefore important to 
understand where and how manufacturing and distribution 
facilities interact with the transportation system.  The 
tables below describe (1) major regional freight movement and 
distribution centers and (2) major manufacturing facilities.  
Future study and analysis will be conducted to assess the 
freight movement characteristics and needs associated with 
these facilities.

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Major Distribution/Freight Movement Centers in the Baltimore 
Region 

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Major Manufacturing Firms in the Baltimore Region

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