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Land Transportation Access to Ports and Marine Terminals




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Land Transportation 
Access to Ports and 
Marine Terminals

Opportunities and Challenges
for Ports under the
Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991

Land Transportation Access to Ports
and Marine Terminals:
Opportunities and Challenges

On December 18, 1991, then President Bush signed the Intermodal
Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991.  This
landmark legislation provides funding authorizations for highways,
highway safety, and public transportation for the 1992 to 1997 time
period.  The legislation clearly recognizes the importance of an
efficient intermodal transportation system for goods and people in
order for the United States to compete in a global marketplace. 
Ports, as intermodal interfaces, are critical in expediting the
flow of goods in international and domestic trade.  Port
bottlenecks will seriously hamper our efforts to meet the
logistical needs of businesses in the United States.  The ISTEA
explicitly recognizes the need to "improve access to ports and
airports, the Nation's link to world commerce."

The ISTEA, however, relies upon metropolitan and state officials to
implement many of its numerous provisions.  Indeed, the legislation
provides significant latitude to them in accomplishing major policy
goals.  Thus, we urge the port community to work closely with state
and local officials to ensure access solutions/projects are
considered in metropolitan and statewide planning programs.

This brochure is the result of joint cooperation between the
Maritime Administration and the Federal Highway Administration as
embodied in a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) previously signed
by our respective agencies.  It is the purpose of the MOU to
jointly develop mechanisms for effectively incorporating landside
port access considerations into the transportation planning
process.  This brochure is a step in that direction, for it
identifies-for the port community, metropolitan planning
organizations and state transportation planners opportunities
within the ISTEA to address specific port-related policies and
projects.  It also provides a strategic focus for ensuring that
port projects and plans are considered through the metropolitan and
statewide planning programs.


Maritime Administrator                 Federal Highway Administrator


INTRODUCTION

A fundamental tenet of the Intermodal Surface Transportation
Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991 stresses that an efficient highway
and intermodal transportation system for goods and people movement
is critical if the United States is to be an effective competitor
in the global economy.  The ISTEA envisions a National Intermodal
Transportation System that includes the National System of
Interstate and Defense Highways, as well as principal arterial
roads "which are essential for interstate and regional commerce and
travel, intermodal transfer facilities, an international commerce
and border crossings."

The concept of a National Intermodal Transportation System, as
incorporated in the ISTEA, is broader than just the physical
transportation infrastructure.  It encompasses "all forms of
transportation in a unified, interconnected manner, including the
transportation systems of the future, to reduce energy consumption
and air pollution, while promoting economic development and
supporting the Nation's preeminent position in international
commerce."

The ISTEA explicitly recognizes that ports, functioning
as intermodal interfaces, performs a strategic function in ensuring
that the United States remains competitive in the international
marketplace.  In that connection, the ISTEA stipulates that the
National Intermodal Transportation System "provide improved access
to ports and airports, the Nation's link to world commerce" through
both the infrastructure and the systems operating on the physical
rights-of-way.  The ability of the Unite States to effectively
compete in the global economy is enhanced by a National Intermodal
Transportation System that provides improved access to those
facilities.



The ISTEA explicitly
recognizes ports.


The ISTEA's Declaration of Policy emphasizes that the National
Intermodal Transportation System must provide adequate capacity for
efficient movement of persons and goods.  This gives ports an
excellent opportunity to advance their issues/projects for
consideration as project funding decisions are made in the coming
months and years.  In many cases, however, port access
issues/projects will be addressed and affected by broader ISTEA
programs.  Port officials must therefore understand the linkages
between these broader programs and their specific issues and
projects and clarify them for planners and policymakers.

Transportation planning is carried out by metropolitan planning
organizations (MPOS) and state departments of transportation (DOTS)
which evaluate and select projects to meet particular
transportation needs.  The ISTEA gives the MPOs and state DOTs more
latitude and flexibility in deciding how and where to use Federal
transportation funds by making a wider range of activities eligible
for funding.  The MPOs must develop a final set of approved
projects through a process of consensus.  Since highway and transit
projects that provide improved access to ports are eligible, many
ports, as independent government entities, would benefit from a
closer working relationship with their respective MPOs and state
DOTS.

The objective of this brochure is to suggest ways in which specific
port access issues/projects can be addressed by the transportation
planning process and to demonstrate how the ISTEA provisions
provide specific mechanisms or approaches to address port needs.


Ports must
understand linkages
between their
specific access issues
and broader ISTEA
programs.




Metropolitan
Planning
Organizations and
state DOTs are
given considerable
latitude and
flexibility in the use
of ISTEA funds.

                                     2
PLANNING

Metropolitan Planning
Section 1024 of the ISTEA addresses the requirements for planning
and programming transportation improvements in urbanized areas with
50,000 population or more.  This section requires the MPOS, in
cooperation with their respective state DOTS, to develop
transportation plans and programs to "provide for the development
of transportation facilities which will function as an intermodal
transportation system for the state, the metropolitan area, and the
Nation."

Both the long-range transportation plan and the transportation
improvement program (TIP) must include a financial plan that
demonstrates that the resources are available to implement them.

In developing financially constrained transportation plans, MPOS,
in cooperation with the state and transit operator, must arrive at
a set of projects to include from a list of eligible projects and
competing needs.  Given the limited resources compared to the needs
in most areas, the process of reaching regional consensus on which
projects have the highest priority for inclusion will require
tradeoffs and difficult decisions.  Ports must make significant
efforts to demonstrate the manner in which their preferred programs
and projects meet the ISTEA goals and objectives as well as meeting
state and local needs.  Furthermore, they must establish close
working relationships with the MPO.

The process of determining which projects in the transportation
plan will be included in the next financially constrained TIP for
implementation over the short-term requires similar tradeoffs and
difficult decisions.  Again, it


Planning and
Communication


Transportation Plan
and Transportation
Improvement
Program


                                     3
will be important for the ports to demonstrate that their preferred
projects that have been included in the transportation plan have a
high priority for implementation in the short term.

The ISTEA directs the MPOs to consider in their planning and
program development at least 15 factors, several of which are
relevant to the needs of the port community.  The considerations
relevant to ports include the following:

     -     The need to relieve congestion and prevent congestion
           from occurring where it does not yet occur.

     -     International border crossings and access to ports,
           airports, intermodal transportation facilities, major
           freight distribution routes, national parks, recreation
           facilities and scenic areas, monuments and historic
           sites, and military installations.

     -     Preservation of rights-of-way for construction of future
           transportation projects, including identification of
           unused fights-of-way which may be needed for future
           transportation corridors and identification of those
           corridors for which action is most needed to prevent
           destruction or loss.

     -     Methods to enhance the efficient movement of freight.

Ports have an opportunity to work with the MPOs to ensure that
among the 15 factors that the MPOs are directed to consider, the
four of direct impact on port activity receive sufficient
attention.

Planning Factors:
Ports
                                     4

State Planning
Section 1025 of the ISTEA instructs state departments of
transportation to develop transportation plans and programs for all
areas of the state.  In carrying out planning under this section,
ISTEA instructs states to coordinate their efforts with those of
the MPOS.

The state plan is required to consider at least 20 specific items. 
Six of these apply directly to the problems and concerns of ports:

     -     International border crossings and access to ports,
           airports, intermodal transportation facilities, major
           freight distribution routes, national parks, recreation
           facilities and scenic areas, monuments and historic
           sites, and military installations.

     -     Transportation system management and investment
           strategies designed to make the most efficient use of
           existing transportation facilities.

     -     Methods to reduce congestion and to prevent traffic
           congestion from developing in areas where it does not yet
           occur.

     -     Where appropriate, the use of innovative mechanisms for
           financing projects, including value capture pricing,      
           rolls, and congestion pricing.



Section 1025: State
DOT Obligations


Planning Factors:
Ports

                                     5
    -     Preservation of rights-of-way for construction of future
           transportation projects, including identification of
           unused rights-of-way which may be needed for future
           transportation corridors.

     -     Methods to enhance the efficient movement of commercial
           motor vehicles.

Again, ports have the opportunity to work with the state DOTs to
emphasize the importance of using these six program strategies to
mitigate port transportation problems.

If ports are to realize the opportunities inherent in ISTEA, they
must work with the MPOs and state DOTs to ensure that their
projects and concerns are considered in developing transportation
plans and programs.

Management Systems

The ISTEA Section 1034 directs states to develop, establish, and
implement systems for managing each of the following:

     (1)   Highway pavement of Federal-aid highways.

     (2)   Bridges on and off Federal-aid highways.

     (3)   Highway safety.

     (4)   Traffic congestion.

     (5)   Public transportation facilities and equipment.

     (6)   Intermodal transportation facilities and systems.



Cooperation with
State DOTs


Section 1034:
Management
Systems
                                     6

Section 1024 requires that congestion management systems in
transportation management areas be developed as part of the
metropolitan transportation planning process.

The primary purpose of these management systems is to improve the
efficiency of, and protect the investment in, the Nation's existing
and future transportation infrastructure.  The management systems
are not end products.  Rather, the ISTEA requires that states and
MPOs use the results of these systems in the planning and program
selection process to ensure optimum use of limited resources.

Two systems are particularly relevant to ports: those dealing with
congestion and with intermodal transportation facilities and
systems.  As states and MPOs develop their management systems to
address traffic congestion, ports must work with planners to ensure
that port-related congestion problems are considered.  Ports must
combat the tendency to view port access issues as only a local
problem without larger implications for the state, region, or
nation.  Port access bottlenecks have to be acknowledged as a
critical impediment to the economic health and international
competitiveness of the United States.

The intermodal management system "provide(s) for (the) improvement
and integration of all of a state's transportation systems and
shall include methods of achieving the optimum yield from such
systems, methods of increasing productivity in the state, methods
for increasing use of advanced technologies, and methods to
encourage the use of innovative marketing techniques, such as just-
in-time deliveries." Again, this system must recognize that
adequate consideration of port transportation needs will help
achieve this "optimum yield."



Congestion and
Intermodal
Management
Systems


                                     7

FUNDING

To restructure the overall program, the ISTEA restructured the
Federal-aid Primary, Secondary, and Urban Systems and their
associated funding categories.  In their place is a network of
Federal-aid routes consisting of (1) the National Highway System
(NHS) and the Interstate System, a component of the NHS, and (2)
other Federal-aid roads.  In addition, there are three funding
categories that have major implications for ports: the National
Highway System (NHS), the Surface Transportation Program (STP), and
the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program
(CMAQ).

Over ISTEA's six-year period, $38 billion is authorized for the
NHS, including $17 billion for the Interstate Maintenance Program. 
In addition, ISTEA authorizes more than $37 billion (counting
special equity adjustment funds) for STP, and $6 billion for CMAQ.

National Highway System
The NHS is the centerpiece of the newly structured Federal-aid
Highway Program and will be the program's central focus well into
the next century.  ISTEA directs the Secretary of Transportation to
develop the NHS in cooperation with the states and local areas.  It
will include the Interstate System and various roads including
"other urban and rural principal arterials and highways (including
toll facilities) which provide motor vehicle access between such an
arterial and a major port, airport, public transportation facility,
or other intermodal transportation facility."

The NHS will be developed by the states in cooperation with local
and regional officials, based on guidelines established by the
Secretary of Transportation.  The states, MPOS, and other local


ISTEA Funding
Categories


The National
Highway System


                                     8

officials have the flexibility to propose routes consistent with
the objectives of the NHS.  This cooperative designation process is
well under way.  As of August, 1993, the Federal Highway
Administration (FHWA) will have received individual state proposals
on the proposed NHS in each respective state.  FHWA will submit a
proposed NHS to Congress by December of 1993.  Congress will then
have until September, 1995 to approve or change FHWA's proposal.

ISTEA requires the states to seek, encourage, and provide
cooperative involvement opportunities in the development of the
NHS.  The port community should take a pro-active role in this
process.  Clearly, port access roads fall within the scope of roads
eligible for NHS inclusion.  The port community must work closely
with state, MPO, and local officials to ensure that their access
roads are integrated into this network.

Surface Transportation Program

The Surface Transportation Program funds may be used on either NHS
or other Federal-aid roads other than those serving local travel. 
A state must distribute 50 percent of its STP apportionment to
urbanized areas with over 200,000 population and to other areas of
the state based on population.  Rural areas of the state (less than
5,000 population) are guaranteed an amount based on previous
Secondary Program funding.

The ISTEA lists 11 categories of eligibility under the STP.  The
eligibility categories that are of direct relevance to the port
community include the following:

     -     Construction, reconstruction, rehabilitation,
           resurfacing, restoration and operational improvements for
           highways and bridges, including any such



The Surface
Transportation
Program


STP Eligibility:



- Highways and
  Bridges

                                     9


           construction or reconstruction necessary to accommodate
           other transportation modes.

          Highway and transit safety improvements and programs,
           hazard eliminations, projects to mitigate hazards caused
           by wildlife, and railway-highway grade crossings.

          Capital and operating costs for traffic monitoring,
           management, and control facilities and programs.

          In accordance with all applicable Federal law and
           regulations, participation in wetlands mitigation efforts
           related to projects funded under this title, which may
           include participation in wetlands mitigation banks;
           contributions to statewide and regional efforts to
           conserve, restore, enhance, and create wetlands; and the
           development of statewide and regional wetlands
           conservation and mitigation plans, including any such
           banks, efforts and plans authorized pursuant to the Water
           Resources Development Act of 1990.

Ports must work systematically at the state level to discuss the
eligibility of their projects under the STP.  The three project
eligibility categories represent an explicit recognition that STP
funds are available to address specific port access needs.  Indeed,
railway-highway grade crossing inadequacies have been cited as a
significant traffic impediment in port terminal areas.  The ISTEA
stipulates that 10 percent of the STP funds must be set aside for
safety programs including elimination of rail-highway grade
crossing hazards.  Furthermore, previous research has identified
traffic management techniques as a viable way to address some port
congestion problems.  Finally, mitigation planning has been
identified as an important mechanism


- Grade Crossings



- Management
  Programs

- Wetlands
  Mitigation and
  Conservation

Port/State
Coordination

                                    10


for land to be secured for future transportation improvement
projects that will benefit ports.

Under the STP, if improvements are planned to an existing highway
facility that presently constrains operations of an existing rail
line, adjustments to the rail line, including relocation of the
line and purchase of rights-of-way, would be an allowable use of
funds.  This action must be more cost-effective than adjustments to
the highway facility alone.  For example, during bridge replacement
or reconstruction, funding could be used to eliminate highway
height limitations that prevent double-stack operations.  STP funds
may be used to make other adjustments to the highway facility to
accommodate rail lines by adjusting drainage facilities, lighting,
signing, or utilities or making minor adjustments to highway
alignments.

Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program
Section 1008 of the ISTEA establishes a congestion mitigation and
air quality improvement program directed towards states with non-
attainment areas for ozone or carbon monoxide under the Clean Air
Act.  It provides funding for projects or programs "likely to
contribute to the attainment of a national ambient air quality
standard, whether through reduction in vehicle miles traveled, fuel
consumption, or through other factors."

Ports in non-attainment areas must make a determined effort to
identify the eligibility of their congestion-reducing projects for
funding under this section, since they will be competing for
limited resources.  The ports must demonstrate that their projects
will reduce congestion by removing trucks from the roads or
minimizing delays by improving terminal operations.  They must
further show that the congestion-reduction aspects of the projects
will have a positive impact on air quality.  Rail projects are
potentially eligible for funding under this program if they


Rail Facilities

Section 1008:
Congestion
Mitigation and
Air Quality

Non-attainment
Area Projects


                                    11

contribute to the attainment of air quality standards by making
significant reductions in the pollutants for which the area is in
non-attainment.

OTHER OPPORTUNITIES

A number of additional provisions of the ISTEA apply to port issues
and projects, and although many do not specifically mention port
access or intermodal terminals, they address specific access
impediments or traffic management systems that are relevant to
ports.  Again, ports need to justify their project requests to
transportation planning agencies based on the specific linkages
between these general provisions of the ISTEA and the particular
port situation.  Although possible, the following sections offer
only limited opportunities for transportation projects that will be
of direct benefit to ports.  Rather than diluting their efforts,
ports would be well advised to concentrate their involvement and
project justification in the previously cited program areas.

Toll Roads, Bridges, and Tunnels

Section 1012 of the ISTEA authorizes Federal participation in the
following projects: (a) initial construction, except on the
Interstate System, of a toll highway, bridge, or tunnel or approach
thereto; (b) reconstructing, resurfacing, restoring, and
rehabilitating a toll highway, bridge or tunnel; and (c)
reconstruction or replacement of a toll-free bridge or tunnel and
conversion of the bridge or tunnel to a toll facility.  The Federal
share payable for construction of a new bridge, tunnel, or approach
thereto or for reconstruction or replacement of a bridge, tunnel,
or approach thereto is



Other ISTEA
Opportunities:

Toll Roads, Bridges
and Tunnels


                                    12

80 percent.  The Federal share for most other toll activities is 50
percent.

For ports with existing toll roads, bridges, and tunnels, this
section provides a new source of funding for reconstruction,
resurfacing, restoring, or rehabilitation.  The ISTEA also provides
a new funding source for port communities to convert existing
bridges or tunnels to toll facilities.

Ports can potentially take advantage of funding opportunities under
this provision.  Direct truck access to some ports is only by
bridge or tunnel.  As a consequence, truck delays due to congestion
on those critical accesses negatively impact port efficiency. 
Additionally, some ports have drawbridges as mal connecting
arterials.  These facilities can directly impede the efficiency of
truck movements to and from the port.  The ports must show the
connection between their access problem and the funding opportunity
under this section of the ISTEA.

New Information Technologies
Section 6015 directs the Secretary of Transportation, in
cooperation with other appropriate Federal agencies, to identify
existing and emerging trade corridors and transportation subsystems
that facilitate trade between the United States, Canada, and
Mexico.  Specifically, the Secretary is required to make
recommendations providing "for improvement and integration of
transportation corridor subsystems, methods for achieving the
optimum yield from such subsystems, methods for increasing
productivity, methods for increasing the use of advanced
technologies, and methods to encourage the use of innovative
marketing techniques, such as just-in-time deliveries."



New Information
Technologies

                                    13


This section of the ISTEA provides ports with challenging
opportunities for participation.  Port participation in the
programs contemplated in this section of the ISTEA depends upon
their establishing port access routes and facilities as corridors
facilitating trade among the United States, Canada, and Mexico. 
Additionally, ports need to demonstrate that improved information
technologies can be used effectively to speed the flow of
international cargoes through their facilities.  Up to this point,
United States ports are somewhat behind the "most sophisticated
ports in Europe and Asia in applying information technologies to
traffic and cargo management.  These ports are already investing in
the software, computer links, fiber optic networks, and mobile
radio terminals that will allow the terminal managers to better
control inventories and manage the flow of containers across the
terminal."*

Acquisition of Rights-of-Way
Section 1017 of the ISTEA provides for reimbursement of "costs
incurred by the state for acquisition of rights-of-way, acquired in
advance of any Federal approval or authorization, if the rights-of-
way are subsequently incorporated into a project eligible for
surface transportation funds." Such early acquisition must have
occurred subsequent to December 18, 1991, the effective date of
ISTEA.  Qualifying acquisitions will have to be certified as being
consistent with long range transportation plans and also with other
land use and environmental planning processes.  Acquisition
activity must comply with the regulations contained in 49 CFR, Part
24 implementing the Uniform Acquisition and Relocation Assistance
and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970, as amended, and
also comply with the provisions of title VI of the Civil Rights Act
of 1964.



Port participation
in programs


Section 1017: Costs 
incurred by the state
for the acquisition of 
tights-of-way



* Transportation Research Board Special Report No. 238, Landside
Access to U.S. Ports.


                                    14

Since many ports consider dedicated freight corridors as viable
options for congestion mitigation and improved port efficiency, the
port community should work closely with the metropolitan and state
planners to ensure that long range transportation plans include
prospective freight corridors and other port access provisions. 
Also, the port community should assure that prospective port access
corridors are compatible with land use planning initiatives and
will not adversely impact environmentally sensitive resources. 
Once a port access corridor is incorporated in the long range
transportation plan, the use of various preservation strategies
using either regulatory methods or early acquisition would be
available.

Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS)
Title VI, Part B of the ISTEA is the "Intelligent Vehicle Highway
Systems (IVHS) Act of 1991." This Act establishes goals and
objectives of a national IVHS program, and requires the Secretary
of Transportation to develop and submit to Congress a Strategic
Plan for the program.  Funding for research and development,
operational testing, and deployment support is provided to the FHWA
for implementing the IVHS program.  While the FHWA is the lead U.S.
DOT agency for the IVHS program, the multimodal aspects of
transportation are fully integrated into the objectives of the
program, and a number of other agencies participate in the IVHS
program.

Port operations have an especially important role in improving com-
mercial vehicle operations, which is a major component of the IVHS
program.  Through overall improvements to traffic flow which
significantly reduce congestion, IVHS will increase the overall
efficiency and reliability of truck travel.  In addition, IVHS
initiatives



Intelligent Vehicle
Highway Systems


                                    15

directed specifically toward freight issues may focus on
streamlining all aspects of goods movement through the port system. 
Elements of such an integrated approach could include automated
container identification and management, advanced dispatching
systems, pre-clearing of trucks for regulatory requirements prior
to entering the highway, automated data interfaces with freight
customers, and customized, up-to-date travel information for
drivers.

Many state DOTS, in cooperation with MPOS, have initiated IVHS
planning studies using funds provided by the FHWA to determine
which transportation service improvements are needed that IVHS
technologies could provide.  The port community should become
involved in these studies to ensure that intermodal linkages are
also well served by IVHS technologies.

Intermodal Planning Activities
Sections 5002 through 5005 of the ISTEA establish a series of
organizations and planning activities all designed to implement the
policy established in Section 5001 to "encourage and promote
development of a national intermodal transportation system in the
United States" to "move people and goods in an energy-efficient
manner, provide the foundation for improved productivity growth,
strengthen the Nation's ability to compete in the global economy,
and obtain the optimum yield from the Nation's transportation
resources."

In Section 5002, the legislation establishes an Office of
Intermodalism within the Office of the Secretary, Department of
Transportation.  The Director of the Office of Intermodalism has
the responsibility to "develop, maintain, and disseminate
intermodal transportation data through the Bureau of Transportation
Statistics." This data, compiled in coordination




Sections 5002 -       
5005: Activities
implementing
intermodal
transport policy


Office of
Intermodalism

                                    16


with the states and the metropolitan planning organizations, will
include the following:

    Information on the volume of goods and number of people
     carried in intermodal transportation by relevant
     classification.

    Information on patterns of movement of goods and people
     carried in intermodal transportation by relevant
     classification in terms of origin and destination.

    Information on public and private investment in intermodal
     transportation facilities and services.

Section 5003 directs the Secretary of Transportation to make grants
to states for the purpose of developing model state intermodal
plans.  In September, 1992, The Secretary of Transportation
announced that the following states were awarded intermodal
planning grants: Alaska, Florida, Louisiana, New Mexico, Ohio and a
consortium of six New England states.

In Section 5004, ISTEA instructs the Secretary of Transportation to
enter into an agreement with the National Academy of Public
Administration to "continue a study of options for organizing the
Department of Transportation to increase the effectiveness of
program delivery, reduce costs, and improve intermodal coordination
among surface transportation-related agencies."

Section 5005 establishes a National Commission on Intermodal
Transportation and directs it to evaluate the status of domestic
and international intermodal transportation and to recommend a
policy to facilitate the development of intermodal opportunities



Intermodal Planning
Grants

Intermodal
Transportation
Commission

                                    17


in the United States.  The Commission will also investigate and
study the following items relevant to port matters:

     -     Intermodal Impacts on Public Works Infrastructure-
           The Commission shall examine current and projected
           intermodal traffic flows, including the current and
           projected market for intermodal transportation, and how
           such traffic flows affect infrastructure needs.

     -     Legal Impediments to Efficient Intermodal Transportation-
           The Commission shall identify legal impediments to
           efficient intermodal transportation.

     -     Financial Issues-The Commission shall examine existing
           impediments to the efficient financing of intermodal
           transportation improvements.

The set of planning organizations and activities created in these
sections of the legislation presents ports with an opportunity to
raise issues of port accessibility in very visible settings.  The
port community must show the vital role of ports in achieving an
efficient intermodal transportation system capable of keeping our
nation competitive in the world economy.  Thus, the port community
must keep abreast of the many individual studies commissioned as
part of the overall package of intermodal planning activities.  It
is up to the port community to ensure that the port issues are
raised in a systematic and prominent fashion.


Port opportunities
to raise issues of
accessibility

Port role in
achieving an
efficient intermodal
transportation
system


                                    18


Research, Education, and Statistics
The ISTEA created a series of new research, education, and
statistics gathering initiatives of relevance to the port
community.

Section 6002 broadens the responsibilities of FHWA's National
Highway Institute to providing training to state and local highway
department employees.  The Institute now has authority to provide
training to state and local police, public safety and motor vehicle
employees as well as to United States citizens and foreign
nationals engaged in highway work of interest to the United States. 
It would be both educational and beneficial for port personnel to
attend these courses.  Section 6004 authorizes the Secretary of
Transportation to make grants and enter into contracts for
education and training, technical assistance, and related support
services designed to assist local agencies in "developing and
expanding their ability to deal effectively with road related
problems."

Section 6005 directs the Secretary of Transportation to establish
and implement an applied research and technology program for the
purpose of "accelerating testing, evaluation, and implementation of
technologies which are designed to improve the durability,
efficiency, environmental impact, productivity, and safety of
highway, transit, and intermodal transportation systems." Section
6006 establishes within the Department of Transportation a Bureau
of Transportation Statistics.  This Bureau is directed to compile,
analyze, and publish a "comprehensive set of transportation
statistics to provide timely summaries and totals ... of
transportation-related information." Section 6007 sets up the
Advisory Council on Transportation Statistics to advise the
Director of the Bureau of Transportation Statistics and evaluate
the data coming out of the Bureau.



Research, Education
and Statistics:
Initiatives relevant
to port community
interests

                                    19

Section 6008 provides that the Secretary of Transportation will
enter into an agreement with the National Academy of Sciences to
conduct a study on the adequacy of data collection procedures and
capabilities of the Department of Transportation.  Section 6009
directs the Secretary of Transportation to develop an integrated
national surface transportation research and development plan to
outline and direct surface transportation research over the next
decade.  Section 6010 of the legislation establishes a National
Council on Surface Transportation Research to evaluate
independently the significance of current surface transportation
research and to make recommendations about the type and level of
future work in this area.  Finally, Section 6011 establishes a
surface transportation research advisory committee to provide
ongoing advice and recommendations to the Secretary of
Transportation.

In addition, the Department of Transportation's Office of
Intermodalism has produced a report titled, "Intermodal Technical
Assistance Activities for Transportation Planner." This compendium
of training courses, resource documents, data models, and other
technical tools should be of great value and assistance to those in
the port industry.

CONCLUSIONS

Success for the ports in achieving their fair share of ISTEA
resources for port access issues will require a close partnership
between ports and the planning agencies.  Unfortunately, the record
of that relationship is spotty at best.  The strategic focus of
ports in getting the access issue to the forefront must be twofold. 
First, ports must work creatively to gain more access to and better
coordination with these state and local planning groups.  Second,
ports must work to ensure that their port landside access issues
are



Educating
planners about port 
interests in inter-
modal development

                                    20

recognized as critical links in this nation's goods transportation
system.

Ports, as intermodal interfaces, hold the key to this nation's
ability to compete in the global marketplace.  Without an efficient
port system, this nation's ability to compete globally will be
significantly threatened.  The port community must work
aggressively to inform planners and decision-makers that its access
solutions/projects are integral to the economic well-being of the
nation and to dispel the notion that they represent a narrow,
special interest.  A direct, compelling argument must also be made
that port access issues have to be encompassed in major provisions
of future legislation.  Hopefully, the new working partnerships
forged between ports, state DOTs and local metropolitan planning
organizations will provide a foundation for landside access issues
to be fully addressed within the context of ISTEA's intermodal
philosophy and serve as a benchmark for measuring future progress
in this area.

                                    21

For additional information please contact:



John M. Pisani, Director
Office of Port and Intermodal Development 
Maritime Administration 
MAR-830, Room 7201 
400 Seventh Street, SW 
Washington, DC 20590
(202) 366-4357 (Office)
(202) 366-5522 (Fax)




George Schoener, Chief
Intermodal Division
Federal Highway Administration
HEP-50, Room 3222
400 Seventh Street, SW
Washington, DC 20590
   (202) 366-4071 (Office)
(202) 366-7600 (Fax)




_________________________________
U.S. G.P.O. 1993-301-717:80402

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