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Transportation and the Environment: An Annotated Bibliography

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This annotated bibliography is the result of an effort by the

Office of Policy, Federal Railroad Administration, to determine the

extent to which models had been developed that permit comparisons

among transportation options as to environmental impacts.

The bibliography covers recent publications that describe or offer

insights into environmental effects of transportation systems and

how public policies are addressing transportation related

environmental issues.

The citations are organized by specific environmental media. 

However, a single transportation system or event may result in

multiple environmental considerations.  Therefore, the media

boundaries are not exclusive, and the reader should consult

citations under related categories as well.  All articles and

reports have been published in English unless otherwise noted.

The bibliography was compiled by an Environmental Task Force within

the Office of Policy, Office of Economic Analysis, Federal Railroad

Administration.  The Task Force was directed by Marilyn (Mickey)

Klein.  Key contributing staff members were Stephen Grimm,

Alexandra Newcomer, and John Paolella.  Questions or comments may

be directed to Ms. Klein at (202) 366-0358.

Table of Contents

Category                                                        Page

1.   Air Quality Issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2.   Noise Pollution Issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

3.   Oil Pollution Issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16

4.   Hazardous Materials Issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19

5.   Land Use Issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31

6.   Water Pollution and Wetlands Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . .34

7.   Related Environmental Issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35

8.   Energy Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42

9.   International Issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47

1. Air Quality Issues

Transportation is a major contributor to air pollution, with motor

vehicles accounting for a large share of nearly all the major

pollutants found in the atmosphere.  The Clean Air Act Amendments

of 1990 (CAAA) tighten emission standards for motor vehicles and

require increased use of alternative fuels and transportation

control measures to reduce or limit highway vehicle use in the more

serious non-attainment areas, which do not meet national air

quality standards.  The CAAA also require the Environmental

Protection Agency to set emission standards for new locomotives and

new locomotive engines by 1995.

Although the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of

1991 strongly reinforced the CAAA requirements through its planning

requirements and flexible funding provisions, technical

uncertainties, conflicting goals, cost-effectiveness

considerations, and long established behavioral patterns make

achievement of air quality standards a tremendous challenge.

1.   Searching for Solutions.  A Policy Discussion Series,

     Transportation and Air Quality, U.S. Department of

     Transportation, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Office

     of Policy Development, No. 5, Washington, DC, August 1992.

          This report summarizes a 1991 FHWA seminar on key issues

          in air quality and transportation planning, supplemented

          by a paper by Greg Harvey and Elizabeth Deakin, adding

          the perspective introduced by the 1991 Intermodal Surface

          Transportation Efficiency Act, which was in legislative

          proposal at conference time.  The paper concludes that

          significant reductions in mobile source emissions through

          reductions in travel would be hard to achieve without a

          fundamental change in U.S. policy towards transportation

          pricing and land use.

2.   Air Quality Programs and Provisions of the Internodal Surface

     Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ASTEA), a brochure

     prepared by the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal

     Highway Administration, Washington, DC, August 1992.

          The ISTEA complements the CAAA by providing funding and

          the flexibility to use it in ways that will help improve

          air quality through the development of a balanced,

          environmentally sound, intermodal transportation program.

          The introduction, by Federal Highway Administrator T.D.

          Larson, states that ISTEA funding and changes in

          transportation patterns alone cannot solve the problem. 

          Greater mobile source emission reductions, particularly

          in the more serious nonattainment areas, will have to

          come from reducing the use of the automobile for all

          trips, including non-work trips.

3.   The Challenges of Transportation and Clean Air Goals, Dr.

     Arnold M. Howitt and Dr. Alan Altshuler, Associate Director

     and Director, respectively, of the Taubman Center for State

     and Local Government, John F. Kennedy School of Government,

     Harvard University, for the U.S. Department of Transportation,

     June 1992.

          The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and the Intermodal

          Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 are likely

          to bring about significant changes in urban

          transportation planning, spending, and regulatory

          practice over the next few years.  Together, these laws

          require the states to achieve the nation's clean air

          goals according to strict deadlines and to make air

          quality the top priority of transportation policy.  In

          addition, they give states and localities unprecedented

          opportunity to use federal transportation funds flexibly.

          The paper elaborates on key issues DOT faces under the

          new legislation.


4.   Southern California Accelerated Rail Electrification Program

     Report, Executive Summary and Five Volumes, prepared for the

     Southern California Regional Rail Authority, Los Angeles, CA,

     May 1992.

          This report was prepared to respond to the South Coast

          Air Quality Management Plan, which dictates a 17%

          reduction in rail-related emissions by the year 2000, and

          a 90% reduction by the year 2010.  The report provides

          cost estimates, a projected schedule, and a financial

          plan for reducing rail-related emissions in Southern

          California through electrification.  It also addresses

          technical, policy, and institutional issues that require


5.   Report to Congress on Railroad Emissions: A Study Based On

     Existing Data,

     Environmental Protection Agency, Standards Development and

     Support Branch, Ann Arbor, MI, (prepared in 1990 prior to

     passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, released in

     1991) 1991.

          The report addresses the environmental impact of railroad

          emissions, potential emission reduction techniques and

          their costs and cost-effectiveness, and existing state

          and local regulations.

6.   New Approaches to Urban-Scale Transportation Emissions

     Modeling Under a New Clean Air Act, C.L. Saricks; A.D. Vyas,

     Argonne National Lab., IL, funded by the U.S. Department of

     Energy, Washington, DC, 1991.

          Techniques of estimating (and forecasting) emissions from

          transportation sources in specific urban areas have not

          progressed significantly in ten years.  This paper

          identifies possible ways for state and regional planners

          to improve estimation of mobile source emissions without

          the need for substantially more resources than those

          needed to comply with requirements of the 1990 Clean Air

          Act Amendments, and by using tools and data sources that

          are already "on the shelf."

7.   Energy and Environmental Issues 1991, Transportation Research

     Record, No. 1312, Transportation Research Board, National

     Research Council, Washington, DC, 1991.

          The papers in this Record deal with a variety of

          environmental issues associated with the building and

          operation of transportation facilities.  Papers

          discussing transportation and air quality include:

          Preparation of Highway Vehicle Emissions Inventories;

          Managing Trucks for Air Quality: Current Works in

          Progress; Sensitivity Analysis for Land Use,

          Transportation, and Air Quality; Pricing of Air Pollution

          in the Swedish Transport Policy; Transportation and Urban

          Air Pollution Policies for Developed and Developing

          Countries; and other papers.  Two of these are described


          "Preparation of Highway Vehicle Emission Inventories,"

          John H. Suhrbier, Samuel T. Lawton, and Joseph Moriarty,

          Cambridge Systematics, Inc., pp. 42-49.

          In this paper, existing highway vehicle emission

          inventory practices are assessed in 15 urban areas

          throughout the country, and these existing capabilities

          are compared with recommended EPA guidance.  Existing

          approaches are often deficient in their estimation of

          highway vehicle speeds, and measurements use

          methodological approaches used for national-level

          emissions inventories.  Institutional problems, such as

          funding limitations, institutional fragmentation, lack of

          available technical expertise, and a high level of staff

          turnover, present greater obstacles to satisfactory

          mobile source emission inventories than any technical



          "Managing Trucks for Air Quality: Current Work in

          Progress," Chris Nelson and Sarah Siwek (South Coast Air

          Quality Management District), Randall Guenster

          (California Air Resources Board), and Kelly Michelson

          (Lockheed Information Management Services Co.), pp. 50-


          Although truck traffic constitutes a relatively small

          portion of the total traffic volume, truck operations are

          a significant contributor to mobile source emissions in

          urban areas, particularly nitrogen oxides.  This paper

          reviews the history of truck-related transportation

          control measures and current transportation control

          measures under consideration in California.  The paper

          also reviews the uncertain effects of proposed measures,

          suggesting that emission reduction effects from truck

          traffic control measures are difficult to estimate, given

          the current state of modeling.  The impact that truck

          traffic control measures will have on air quality and the

          economics of goods distribution require @er study.

8.   Transportation Planning Requirements of the Federal Clean Air

     Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990: A Highway Perspective, James M.

     Shrouds, Chief, Noise and Air Quality Branch, U.S. Department

     of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Washington,

     DC, 1991.

          This paper provides a highway perspective on, and an

          overview of, the key transportation planning requirements

          of the CAAA of 1990 that transportation planners must


9.   Steering a New Course, Transportation, Energy, and the

     Environment, Deborah Gordon, Union of Concerned Scientists,

     Washington, DC, 1991.

          Worsening congestion will soon make transportation an

          even more tedious, aggravating exercise than it already

          often is; dependence on foreign oil will make supplies

          increasingly unreliable and expensive.  Without

          innovative strategies to reduce the number of miles

          driven, cars and trucks will continue to pollute air,

          water, and land.  The book surveys policy options and

          provides a master list of policy recommendations for each

          level of government.

10.  Energy and Environmental Factors in Freight Transportation,

     Dr. A. M. Khan, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, prepared

     for Transport Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, July 1991.

          This study produces energy efficiency and environmental

          impact estimates for the freight transportation system in

          Canada.  The effects of likely future traffic growth and

          the implications of selected scenarios for energy and

          environmental impacts are also assessed.  The study found

          that in the year 2010, if 10% of ton-kilometers were to

          be shifted to rail, a total of 864 million liters of

          diesel fuel would be saved (6.0% of petroleum-based fuels

          required for 2010 in freight transportation).  Reduction

          in emissions would parallel fuel savings.

11.  Energy and Environment 1990: Transportation-Induced Noise and

     Air Pollution, Transportation Research Record, No. 1255,

     Transportation Research Board, National Research Council,

     Washington, DC, 1990.

          Includes essays on Transportation Noise (see Noise

          section), as well as papers on Comparisons of Emissions

          of Transit Buses Using Methanol and Diesel Fuel; Energy-

          Related, Environmental, and Economic Benefits of

          Florida's High-Speed Rail and Maglev Systems Proposals;

          as well as several other papers.


12.  Alternatives to the Automobile, Transport for Livable Cities,

     Marcia D. Lowe, Worldwatch Paper 90, Worldwatch Institute,

     Washington, DC, 1990.

          Traffic congestion and air pollution plague all major

          cities, and oil dependence makes economies vulnerable.  A

          new, more rational approach to transportation is needed,

          one that puts the automobile in its rightful place as one

          among many options for travel.

13.  Traffic Congestion, Trends, Measures, and Effects, Report to

     the Chairman, Subcommittee on Transportation and Related

     Agencies, Committee on Appropriations, U.S. Senate, U.S.

     General Accounting Office, Washington, DC, 1989.

          In this overview of the traffic congestion problem, GAO

          found that there has been little empirical investigation

          of the effects of traffic congestion, although some

          relationships between congestion and higher business

          costs, poorer air quality, and behavior change are

          generally thought to hold.  GAO suggests that while FHWA

          is taking aggressive steps to assess the present and

          future magnitude of traffic congestion, additional

          attention to this area is warranted.


2. Noise Pollution Issues

The Noise Control Act of 1972 established the Environmental

Protection Agency's noise program, of which transportation was a

major focus.  The Act's goal was to promote an environment free

from noise pollution and its adverse effects on public health and


The Noise Control Act required EPA to identify, and prescribe noise

sources in commerce; to submit to the Federal Aviation

Administration regulatory proposals for controlling airport and

aircraft noise; and to issue regulations limiting noise from

interstate rail and motor carriers for Department of Transportation

enforcement.  The Act also required EPA to finance research and to

provide technical assistance to state and local governments on

noise abatement methods.

The EPA's noise control program has been unfunded since 1982,

leaving the statute and regulations intact, but signifying a

decreased level of enforcement, technical assistance, and noise

research.  However, noise pollution continues to be an issue in

airport expansion and highway construction, and will be a

consideration as the technology for high speed rail is developed.

1.   Recommendations for Acoustical Test Facility for Maglev

     Research, Carl Hanson, Harris Miller Miller Miller Miller &

     Hanson Inc., prepared for U.S. Department of Transportation,

     Federal Railroad Administration, Washington, DC, (Final report

     pending), Task 4, Draft Report, September 1992.

          Concludes that a comprehensive acoustical test program

          should be an integral part of any full scale testing

          program undertaken as part of U.S. Maglev development. 

          Benefits of an acoustical testing program would be a

          quieter Maglev system and an enhanced understanding of

          aeroacoustic sources and aerodynamic drag associated with

          high speed surface transportation systems.  Examines gaps

          in research to be filled by acoustical testing, as well

          as testing approaches to define Maglev noise and

          vibration sources and to investigate mitigation methods.

2.   Noise Criteria for High Speed Maglev Trains, Carl Hanson,

     Harris Miller Miller & Hanson Inc., prepared for U.S.

     Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration,

     Washington, DC, Final Report: Task 2, September 1992.

          Presents information on the criteria recommended for use

          in evaluating the noise impact from high-speed Maglev

          systems.  These criteria describe the noise environment

          considered acceptable for specific land uses, depending

          on the ambient noise.  These recommendations are based on

          the best available data related to transportation systems

          with noise characteristics similar to high speed Maglev. 

          The conclusions are considered based on circumstantial

          evidence until more definitive methods can be verified.

3.   Federal Agency Review of Selected Noise Analysis, Federal

     Interagency Committee on Noise (FICON), Washington, DC, August

     27, 1992.

          This report is the product of the 1990 Federal

          Interagency Committee on Noise (FICON), formed to review

          Federal policies governing the assessment of airport

          noise impacts.  The FICON review examined the manner in

          which noise impacts are determined and described; the

          range of Federal Aviation Administration mitigation.


          options, and the relationship of the FAA regulatory

          process to the National Environmental Policy Act.  The

          report makes technical conclusions on the DNL (Day Night

          Average A-Weighted Sound Level) noise exposure metric,

          and the impact of airport noise on health and welfare,

          environmental degradation/impact, land use planning and

          public education.  FICON policy recommendations are


4.   Preliminary Design Guidelines for Noise Control on High-Speed

     Maglev Trains, Carl Hanson, Harris Miller Miller & Hanson

     Inc., prepared for U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal

     Railroad Administration, Washington, DC, (Final Report

     pending), Task 3, Draft Report, June 1992.

          This report provides noise and vibration guidelines for

          assessment and design for the new Maglev technology. 

          Because mature or unused existing transportation

          corridors are being considered for alignments of Maglev

          systems and these corridors pass through suburban and

          urban areas in close proximity to residential buildings

          and other noise sensitive sites, noise mitigation

          measures should be designed into the new systems.

5.   "Noise Levels for U.S. Certificated and Foreign Aircraft,"

     Advisory Circular No. 36IF, U.S. Department of Transportation,

     Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, DC, June 5, 1992.

          The Federal Aviation Administration's regulatory program

          for airplane noise requires the quantifying of airplane

          noise levels.  This circular provides noise level data

          for certificated aircraft, and offers a common noise

          level reference for potential future reductions.

6.   Noise Sources of High Speed Maglev Trains, Carl Hanson, Harris

     Miller Miller & Hanson Inc., prepared for U.S. Department of

     Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration, Washington,

     DC, Final Report: Task 1, May 1992.

          Reviews basic acoustical terminology, describes the noise

          sources of Maglev, including propulsion noise,

          mechanical/structural noise, and aeroacoustic noise, and

          quantifies the environmental noise issue.

7.   "Noise Ransom," Railway Gazette International, May 1992.

          A tribunal in France ruled the French National Railways

          must pay Fr2OO,OOO in compensation to a land owner

          adjacent to the line over which the TGV operates.

8.   Environmental Research Needs in Transportation, Transportation

     Research Circular, Transportation Research Board, National

     Research Council, pp. 26-35, Washington, DC, Number 389, March


          A compilation of research problem statements representing

          a consensus of twenty nine Transportation Research Board

          committees concerned with the identification and

          development of operational solutions to environmental

          issues in transportation, including highway/air/rail



9.   "Highway Traffic Noise," Barry Benioff, Fundamentals of

     Traffic Engineering , W. S. Homburger, editor, Institute of

     Transportation Studies, University of California at Berkeley,

     January 1992.

     Technical definition of noise, its measurements, effects,

     sources, with recommendations for estimating road traffic

     noise, setting noise limits and for controlling traffic noise.

10.  Noise Emission of the Swedish X2 High Speed Train, T. Stroem,

     Statens Provningsanstalt, Boras, Sweden, (Text in Swedish,

     summary in English), 1991.

          Analysis of noise emissions of the Swedish X2 high speed

          train which started operations in 1990 between Stockholm

          and Gothenburg.  Measurements were taken at 7.5 and 25

          meters at speeds between 130 and 200 km/hr.  Results

          indicated that the noise emissions of the X2 train at 200

          km/hr is less than that of older trains operating at 160


11.  Fighting Noise in the 1990s, A. Alexandre and J. Barde,

     editors, Organization for Economic Cooperation and

     Development, Paris, France, 1991.

          Discussion of economic aspects, law and legislation for

          noise control and noise pollution.

12.  Comprehensive System-Level Noise Reduction Strategies, W.

     Bowlby, Vanderbilt University, Vanderbilt Engineering Center

     for Transportation Operations and Research, Report for U.S.

     Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration

     and Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT),

     September 1991.

          A comprehensive review of state-of-the-art in traffic

          noise abatement including surveys and a literature

          search.  Discussion of abatement strategies, effective

          vehicle noise control, land use compatibility programs,

          and programmatic and administrative issues.  Findings

          include: the demand for noise abatement is increasing;

          state DOTs need better sources of funds for retrofit

          noise barrier programs; state and local noise control

          programs have declined significantly since the end of the

          U.S. EPA noise program in 1982; truck manufacturers in

          the U.S. and Europe are successfully meeting their

          respective noise standards for newly manufactured

          vehicles.  Current Washington State initiatives were also

          examined.  WSDOT has included noise abatement as a

          priority area in its 1991 Transportation Policy Plan and

          the legislature developed a Growth Management Act and

          Growth Strategies Act that call for comprehensive land

          use plan development by cities and counties. 

          Recommendations to WSDOT include the need for expanded

          staff, a dedicated source of funds for a phased retrofit

          abatement program and active involvement in

          implementation of the two growth acts.

13.  Federal Register, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal

     Aviation Administration, Washington, DC, "Transition to an All

     Stage 3 Fleet Operating in the 48 Contiguous United States and

     the District of Columbia" and "Notice and Approval of Airport

     Noise and Access Restrictions," September 25, 1991.

          The first of these final rules places a cap on the number

          of Stage 2 airplanes allowed to operate in the United

          States and provides for a continuing reduction in the

          population exposed to noise from Stage 2 airplanes.  The

          second rule establishes a program for reviewing airport

          noise and access restrictions on the operations of Stage

          2 and Stage 3 aircraft.


 14. Method for Analyzing, Evaluating and Developing (Variational

     Aircraft Noise Abatement Measures in Civil Air Traffic, U.

     Pottmann, Technisclie Univ., Berlin, Germany, (Text in

     German), 1990.

          Author indicates there is a lack of knowledge on noise

          emission side sound pressure levels, and offers a method

          of predicting the sound emission of departing and landing

          passenger aircraft based on third-octave noise level

          histograms while considering aircraft operating

          procedures, noise characteristics and flight performance,

          and meteorological and topographic noise propagation


15.  Transit and the Environment, TransVision Consultants Ltd.,

     Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, 1990.

          The report situates transit in the environment, evaluates

          its contribution to reducing air and noise pollution,

          indicates the constraints to which it is subject, and

          reviews the contribution which the various forms of

          transit make to preserving and improving the environment

          and the quality of life of urban dwellers.

16.  En Route Noise Annoyance Laboratory Test: Preliminary Results,

     D. McCurdy, National Aeronautics and Space Administration,

     Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, 1990.

          Relatively little research has been conducted for en

          route aircraft noise.  To address this need, the author

          conducted a laboratory experiment to quantify the

          annoyance of people on the ground to en route noise

          generated by aircraft at cruise conditions.  The

          objectives were to determine the annoyance prediction

          ability of noise measurement procedures and corrections

          when applied to en route noise; to determine differences

          in annoyance response to en route noise and

          takeoff/landing noise; and to determine differences in

          annoyance response to advanced turboprop en route noise

          and conventional jet en route noise.

17.  Energy and Environment 1990: Transportation-Induced Noise and

     Air Pollution, Transportation Research Record No. 1255,

     Transportation Research Board, National Research Council,

     Washington, DC, 1990.

          Includes papers on public reaction to low levels of

          aircraft noise; airport noise insulation of homes

          surrounding Stapleton International Airport; case study

          for three dwellings near BWI Airport; control of wheel

          squeal noise in rail transit cars; atmospheric effects on

          traffic noise propagation; predicting stop-and-go traffic

          noise with STAMINA 2.0; feasibility of transparent noise

          barriers; field testing of the effectiveness of open-

          graded asphalt pavement in reducing tire noise from

          highway vehicles; cost of noise barrier construction in

          the United States; high-speed rail system noise


18.  En Route Noise: NASA Propfan Test Aircraft (Calculated Source

     Noise), E. Rickley, U.S. Department of Transportation,

     Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA, April 1990.

          This reports on a two-phased joint National Aeronautics

          and Space Administration (NASA) and Federal Aviation

          Administration (FAA) program to study the high-altitude,

          low-frequency acoustic noise propagation characteristics

          of the Advanced Turboprop (propfan) aircraft.  FAA/NASA

          designed a program to obtain noise level data from the

          propfan test bed aircraft, both in the near field and at

          ground level to test low frequency atmospheric absorption

          algorithms and prediction technology to provide insight

          into the necessity for regulatory measures.  The curves

          of calculated source noise versus emission angle are

          based on a second order best-fit curve of the peak

          envelope of the adjusted ground data.  Centerline and

          sideline derived source noise levels are shown to be in

          good agreement.

19.  Highway Traffic Noise in the United States - Problem and

     Response, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway

     Administration, Office of Environmental Policy, Noise and Air

     Analysis Division, Washington, DC, August 1990.

          Describes the federal-aid highway system and the three-

          part approach to highway noise abatement, including land

          use planning and control; source control; and highway

          project noise mitigation.  Describes noise barriers and

          FHWA noise abatement procedures.

20.  Environmentally Sound, M. Smith, Report No. PNR-90776,

     presented at the Third Annual Conference in Techno-Economic

     Issues, London, England, August 31, 1990.

          Reviews developments made in Stage 2 aircraft since 1989.

          Discusses: reengined stage 2 aircraft and orders for

          stage 3 Tay engines to replace Boeing 727 Pratt and

          Whitney engines; airports' stranglehold on stage 2

          operations; hushkits as marginal stop-gap methods; and

          concern about atmospheric pollution by old engines

          powering stage 2 aircraft.

21.  Inter-Noise 89 - Engineering for Environmental Noise Control;

     Proceedings of the International Conference on Noise Control

     Engineering, Poughkeepsie, N.Y., Noise Control Foundation,


          Examines various methods of engineering for noise control


          "Airport Noise Impact Analysis Problems," S. Lane, pp.


          Discussion of CNEL (Community Noise Equivalent Level) as

          the sole scale for noise evaluation, subsequent

          erroneously low values of aircraft noise levels,

          inaccurate data from malfunctioning noise monitor

          systems, and discrepancies between published noise

          contours and the airport noise monitor data.  Discussion

          of current noise impact criteria and existing scales,

          including aircraft event average noise level, LEQ (Long-

          Term A-Weighted Equivalent Sound Level); SENEL (Sound

          Exposure Level, or SEL); the speech interference

          fractional impact; the sleep interference fractional

          impact, and comparisons between these criteria and the

          DNEL and LDN (Day-Night Average A-Weighted Sound Level,

          or DNL) scales.

          "Aircraft Noise Annoyance," T. Gjestland, pp. 903-908.

          Presentation of recent studies of annoyance due to

          aircraft noise, assessed in different residential

          communities and different countries, indicating there may

          be a difference in community reaction depending on the

          type of noise source.  For any given noise level, twice

          as many people will be annoyed by aircraft noise as by

          road traffic noise.  Description of an extensive study to

          assess community reaction to aircraft noise around the

          Fornebu Airport in Oslo.  The results are being used to

          establish a new model for aircraft noise annoyance and to

          establish guidelines for the interpretation of Norwegian

          zoning laws around major airports.

          "Airport Noise Control - New Zealand's Radical New

          Approach to the 'Aimoise Boundary' Principle," P.

          Dickinson, pp. 685-690.

          Discussion of air noise boundary and proposed compatible

          land use zoning.  Airlines are required to balance

          aircraft type and noise generation with time and

          direction of flights.


          "Fifteen Years of Noise Control at Logan International

          Airport," L. Coleman, pp. 665-670.

          Discussion of noise control at Logan Airport, including

          establishment of a noise office in the Department of

          Aviation at Logan, promulgation of strict noise

          regulations, expansion of noise monitoring and complaint

          processing systems, and initiation of studies leading to

          improved flight tracks, runway preference rules, and

          sound proofing programs.  The program has caused a 60

          percent reduction in the population exposed to a day-

          night sound level exceeding 65 dB.

22.  "Use of FAA's Nationwide Airport Noise Impact Model," S.

     Albersheim, paper delivered for Proceedings of the

     International Conference on Noise Control Engineering, Newport

     Beach, CA., 1989.

          Describes the Nationwide Airport Noise Impact Model

          (NANIM), which makes it possible to assess nationwide the

          number of people affected by aircraft noise.  The model,

          based on the Integrated Noise Model for determining the

          day-night average sound level (DNL) noise contours for

          aircraft operations, enables analysis of various policy

          alternatives to control and mitigate aircraft noise.

23.  Transportation Noise: Federal Control and Abatement

     Responsibilities May Need to be Revised, Report to Congress,

     U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, DC, October 1989.

          Report examines the phaseout of the Environmental

          Protection Agency Noise Program and its current

          activities and role.  Describes efforts to control and

          abate aircraft, railroad, and traffic noise, and the

          federal role in transportation noise control and

          abatement.  Recommends alternatives Congress may consider

          if it wishes to change the federal transportation noise


24.  Reduction of Aircraft Noise in Civil Air Transport by

     Optimization of Flight Tracks and Takeoff and Approach

     Procedures, U. Rottmann, Technische Univ., Fachgebeit

     Flugfuehrung und Luftverkehr, Berlin, Germany, (Text in

     German, summary in English), August 1989.

          Analysis of optimal design of operational flight

          procedures for effective noise pollution reduction. 

          Designs include power cutback during approach and

          takeoff, extension of distance between sound source and

          sound receiver, and diminution of sound impact time. 

          Five takeoff and three landing procedures are examined

          for acoustic effects.  Sound emission is computed by

          NOISIMSIS (NOISE Impact Simulation System), a simulation

          system created to consider aircraft type sound emission

          characteristics and performance data and differing

          meteorological conditions.  Data from the Frankfurt

          Airport were used to develop a plan for operational noise


25.  Research on Noise and Environmental Issues, Transportation

     Research Record, No. 1176, Transportation Research Board,

     National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1988.

     Includes nine papers on highway noise and noise abatement



 26. The Williamsburg Conference on Noise Research; A Technical

     Conference to Develop a Plan of Needed Noise Research, Society

     of Automotive Engineers, July 1985.

          Discussion of the need for standardized measurement and

          test procedures for all types of vehicles; the problem of

          site variability; and the inadequate data on real-world

          equipment application.

27.  Analysis of Highway Construction Noise, U.S. Department of

     Transportation, Federal Highway Administration Technical

     Advisory, March 13, 1984.

          Provides information on the analysis of highway

          construction noise to ensure that potential construction

          noise impacts are given adequate consideration during

          highway project development.

28.  Federal Register, Railroad Noise Emission Compliance

     Regulations, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal

     Railroad Administration, Washington, DC, December 23, 1983.

          Revises the Federal Railroad Administration's noise

          enforcement procedures to encompass the railyard noise

          source standards published by the Environmental

          Protection Agency in 1980.

29.  Federally Coordinated Program of Research and Development in

     Highway Transportation, Annual Progress Report Fiscal Year

     1982, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway

     Administration, Washington, DC, 1982.

          Discussion of pollution reduction and environmental

          enhancement and social and economic concerns in highway

          development and improvement.  Discussion of noise


30."Assessment of Traffic Noise - Investigations on the Annoyance

Effect, on Road and Railway, " International Railway Congress

Association, pp. 13-22, January 1982.

          Investigates the subjective feelings of persons affected

          by transportation noise as well as the objective

          intensity of the sound.  Study found that people assess

          rail traffic noise more favorably than traffic noise at

          similar noise intensities.  This finding was incorporated

          into the setting of emission levels for transportation in


31.  Handbook for the Measurement, Analysis, and Abatement of

     Railroad Noise, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal

     Railroad Administration, Office of Research and Development,

     Washington, DC, January 1982.

          This handbook provides an introduction to acoustics, and

          describes the required measurement and analysis

          procedures and available abatement techniques to meet

          railroad noise regulations.

32.  Foreign Noise Research in Surface Transportation, 1978-1981,

     Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, May 1981.

          Identification of foreign research projects in surface

          transportation noise abatement.

33.  Report to Congress on the Evaluation of the EPA Revised

     Railroad Noise Regulation Source Standards, U.S. Department of

     Transportation, Washington, DC, June 1980.

          This analysis of EPA's proposed regulations describes

          their economic and financial impact on the railroad

          industry and recommends modifications to EPA's adoption

          of a final rule.

34.  Federal Register, Environmental Protection Agency, Noise

     Emission Standards for Transportation Equipment; Interstate

     Rail Carriers, January 4, 1980.

          Final rulemaking which established noise emission

          standards for four railyard noise sources pursuant to

          Section 17 of the Noise Control Act of 1972, 42 U.S.C.


35."Noise - The Quiet Revolution," J. Fleming, Journal of

Institution of Municipal Engineers, January 1980.

          Discussion of noise insulation legislation in Scotland,

          pertaining to insulation of properties adjacent to


36.The Impact of Noise Pollution, A Socio-Technological

Introduction., George Bugliarello and Ariel Alexandre, Pergamon

Press, 1978.

          An overview of the socio-technological aspects of noise,

          the effects of noise on health, surface transportation

          noise, aircraft noise, and the political economy of


37.  Noise Control: Handbook of Principles and Practices, edited by

     David M. Lipscomb and Arthur C. Taylor, Jr., Van Nostrand

     Reinhold Co., 1978.

          Handbook on noise assessment, definition, measurements,

          noise control, environmental assessment of noise, and

          noise control legislation.  Includes the following


          "Aircraft and Airport Noise," William C. Sperry, pp. 206-


          Discussion of noise sources and control and the

          consideration of noise control as a system concept

          utilizing source control as applied to the engine and

          airframe; path control as applied to flight procedures;

          receiver control; and land-use control, consisting of the

          development or modification of airport surroundings for

          maximum noise compatible usage.  Discusses population

          impact and the history of legislative and regulatory


          "Highway and Rail Traffic Noise," Edwin G. Ratering, pp.


          Examines the scope of traffic noise, the contribution of

          trucks to traffic noise, vehicular component hardware

          development for control of engine-related truck noise,

          noise test standards for trucks, and noise control of

          existing truck fleet.  Also examines the contributors to

          low-speed and high-speed automobile noise and railroad

          noise and its components - locomotive noise and

          wheel/rail noise.  Locomotive noise is generated by the

          engine exhaust system, the cooling fans, engine structure

          vibration, and car body vibration.  Wheel/rail noise can

          be attenuated by continuous welding of rail joints,

          grinding wheels, grinding rails, and car modifications,

          such as vibration damping devices.


          "Preparation of Noise Control Legislation, " Janet F.

          Pawlak, pp. 279-324.

          Discussion of components of community noise control

          legislation, including such issues as property line or

          receiving land use sound levels and preemption of local

          communities' authority to regulate certain noise sources.

38.  Laboratory and Community Studies of Aircraft Noise Effects, D.

     Stephens, Langley Research Center, National Aeronautics and

     Space Administration, Virginia, September 1978.

          Program to determine the effects of noise as a public

          health problem examines community and passenger

          acceptability.  The community acceptance research

          includes subjective response studies of single and

          multiple aircraft overflights as well as longer term

          community noise exposure.  Emphasis is on the development

          of indices which quantify annoyance.  The passenger

          acceptance research determines acceptable levels of

          interior noise and vibration for passenger and crew


39.  Noise-Con 77 Proceedings, 1977 National Conference on Noise

     Control Engineering, edited by George C. Maling, Jr., Noise

     Control Foundation, New York, N.Y., 1977.

          Examines government programs of transportation noise

          control, and the environmental impact of noise created by

          air and surface transportation systems.  Papers consider

          cost effectiveness analysis and safety and economic

          considerations in tire noise control and the noise

          environments created by rail transit systems and

          aircraft.  Includes the following articles:

          "Noise From High Speed Trains in the Northeast Corridor,"

          Carl E. Hanson, pp. 129-135.

          Analysis of the site specific Environmental Impact

          Statement for the Northeast Corridor Improvement Project

          may show that certain specific locations will require

          noise control measures, but the Preliminary EIS concludes

          the noise environment from high speed trains in the

          Northeast Corridor will show an improvement in future

          years because of the use of quiet electric locomotives,

          tie elimination of diesel locomotives, the elimination of

          jointed rail, and the elimination of grade-crossings and

          associated whistle-blowing.

          "Wheel/Rail Noise: The State-of-The-Art," Paul J.

          Remington, pp. 257-280.

          Reviews the present state of knowledge of the

          characteristics of at-grade wheel/rail noise, the

          mechanisms that produce it, experimental confirmation of

          those mechanisms, and techniques for its control.

          "Internal Combustion Engine Exhaust Muffling," Malcolm J.

          Crocker, pp. 331-358.

          Exhaust noise is the predominant noise source of the

          internal combustion engine.  Reviews the existing

          theories in muffler design, recent advances, and problems

          to be resolved.

          "The FHWA Highway Traffic Noise Prediction Model - Manual

          Method," Jerry A. Reagan, pp. 181-185.

          This noise prediction model is based upon a concept of

          adjustments, including adjustments for real traffic

          flows, finite length roadways, and shielding.

          "Aircraft Flyover Noise Prediction," William E. Zorumski,

          pp. 205-222.

          Examines the prediction techniques for turbofan-powered

          aircraft and the sources of noise, including jet noise,

          fan noise, combustion noise, and airframe noise. 

          Describes propagation prediction methods, source

          shieldings, and atmospheric and ground attenuation.

          "Some Advances in Design Techniques for Low Noise

          Operation of Propellers and Fans," Richard E. Hayden, pp.


          Reviews advances in the reduction of noise from fans and

          propeller installations through a combination of proper

          installation, control of the aerodynamic environment, and

          use of advanced braking concepts.

          "Locomotive In-Cab Noise - Towards a Standardized

          Measurement Methodology," Robert M. Clarke, pp. 431-442.

          Describes program in which the Federal Railroad

          Administration, the Association of American Railroads,

          and the National Bureau of Standards collected locomotive

          in-cab noise level data in order to develop a simplified

          stationary test procedure to yield data that correlated

          with crew exposure and noise level data for typical

          operational duty cycles.  Program also provided data for

          development of Occupation Safety and Health

          Administration hearing conservation regulations.

40.  In-Service Performance and Costs of Methods to Control Urban

     Rail System Noise, Test and Evaluation Plan, U.S. Department

     of Transportation, Transportation Systems Center, April 1977.

          Report details the methods and equipment used to collect

          data on both acoustic performance and costs of four noise

          control methods to reduce wheel/rail noise in rail rapid-

          transit systems (resilient wheels, damped wheels, wheel

          truing, and rail grinding).

41.  Highway Noise: A Guide to Visual Quality in Noise Barrier

     Design, Randolph Blum, prepared by The Organization for

     Environmental Growth, Inc. for the U.S. Department of

     Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Washington,

     DC, 1976.

          An extensive review of aesthetics in the design process,

          visual design principles, design concepts, and the

          application of principles to highway noise abatement.

42.  Aviation Noise Abatement Policy, U.S. Department of

     Transportation, Office of General Counsel, Washington, DC,

     November 1976.

          DOT recommendations to reduce aircraft noise, considering

          the constraints of technology, productivity and

          financing.  Clarifies federal government responsibility

          to reduce aircraft noise at the source, to promote safe

          operational procedures that lessen the impact of noise on

          populated areas and to promote positive efforts to attain

          compatible land use in areas adjacent to airports.

43.  Reassessment of Noise Concerns of Other Nations, C. Modig,

     editor, Informatics, Inc., Environmental Protection Agency,

     Washington, DC, August 1976.

          Overview of noise abatement programs of other countries,

          including laws, regulations, guidelines, criteria,

          research, and governmental organization.


44.  Background Document for Proposed Medium and Heavy Truck Noise


     Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, National

     Technical Information Service, October 1974.

45.  Environmental Explanation for Proposed Interstate Rail Noise

     Emission Regulations, Environmental Protection Agency,

     Washington, DC, June 1974.

          This report describes in detail the railroad industry,

          railroad noise sources, procedures to measure railroad

          noise, and the environmental and economic effects of the

          EPA's proposed regulations.

46.  Background Document/Environmental Explanation for Proposed

     Interstate Rail Carrier Noise Emission Regulations,

     Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, March 1974.

          Document includes data base for the regulation; railroad

          noise sources; summary of what proposed regulations will

          require; enforcement considerations; economic effects of

          a retrofit program; environmental effects of proposed

          regulations; selection of the proposed regulations.

47.  Report on Aircraft - Airport Noise, Environmental Protection

     Agency, Washington, DC, July 1973.

          Discussion of adequacy of Federal Aviation Administration

          flight and operational noise controls; adequacy of noise

          emission standards on new and existing aircraft,

          recommendations on the retrofitting and phaseout of

          existing aircraft; implications of identifying and

          achieving levels of cumulative noise exposure around


48.  Consideration of Environmental Noise Effects in Transportation

     Planning by Governmental Entities, L. Mayo, George Washington

     University, National Technical Information Service,

     Washington, DC, December 1972.

          Paper explores environmental effects of the development

          of the Interstate Highway System and the increase in

          automotive vehicles, and the evolution of the regulatory

45.  Background Document: Environmental Explanation for Proposed

     interstate Rail Carrier Noise Emission Regulations,

     Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., June 1974.

          This report describes in detail the railroad industry,

          railroad noise sources, procedures to measure railroad

          noise, and the environmental and economic effects of the

          EPA's proposed regulations.

49.  Transportation Noise and Noise from Equipment Powered by

     Combustion Engines,Environmental Protection Agency,

     Washington, D.C., December 31, 1971.

          Comprehensive handbook on noise sources in both

          commercial and recreational transportation with extensive

          discussion of the internal combustion engine.

50.  Public Hearings on Noise Abatement and Control Held at New

     York, New York October 21-22, 1971, Transportation Noise (Rail

     and Other); Volume VI, Environmental Protection Agency.

          Report on hearing concerning metropolitan noise, and

          control measures related to subways, airports, and

          highways, with attention to the noise effects on humans.

51.  Noise Pollution and the Law - The Noise Crisis, D. Anthrop,

     Hein Company, June 1970.

          Discussion of motor vehicle and aircraft noise sources

          and abatement principles.


3. Oil Pollution Issues

The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90), amended the Water Pollution

Control Act and created a comprehensive prevention response

liability, and compensation regime for dealing with oil pollution

from vessels and facilities.  OPA 90 substantially increased

Federal oversight of oil transportation by setting new requirements

for vessel construction and operation, crew licensing, and manning;

by mandating contingency planning; enhancing Federal response

capability; broadening enforcement authority; increasing penalties;

and creating a new research and development program.  A one billion

dollar trust fund, financed by a five cent per barrel fee on

imported oil, is available to cover cleanup costs and damages not

compensated by the spiller, whose financial responsibility

requirements were significantly increased under OPA 90.

Federal responsibilities directed toward prevention of oil spills

rest primarily with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; the

Minerals Management Service, U.S. Department of the Interior; and

the Maritime Administration, the U.S. Coast Guard, and the Research

and Special Programs Administration of the U.S. Department of

Transportation.  Potential oil pollution from landside railroad

facilities is regulated by the Coast Guard if navigable waters are

involved or by the EPA.  The Research and Special Programs

Administration is developing regulations on facility response plans

applicable to the transportation of oil and hazardous substances

for pipelines, motor carriers, and railroad tank cars.  These

regulations will be issued under sections of the Federal Water

Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1321) and the Hazardous Materials

Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. 1804) to satisfy the statutory

directives of OPA 90 for oil spill emergency response plans.

1.   International Oil Pollution R & D Abstract Database, U.S.

     Interagency Coordinating Committee on Oil Pollution Research,

     preliminary issue, printed for distribution at the

     International Oil Spill Research & Development Forum, Tysons

     Corner, Virginia, June 1992.

          Narrative database of abstracts provided by research

          managers prepared under Title VII of the Oil Pollution

          Act of 1990 which established the Interagency Committee

          to develop a comprehensive program of oil pollution

          research, technology development, and demonstration. 

          Project research categories include bioremediation,

          burning, chemical countermeasures, decision support,

          disposal/storage, effects, fate, mechanical recovery,

          prevention, and surveillance/remote sensing.

2.   Oil Pollution Research and Technolology Plan, United States

     Interagency Coordinating Committee on Oil Pollution Research,

     Report to Congress, April 24, 1992.

          OPA 90 established an Interagency Coordinating Committee

          on Oil Pollution Research to develop a comprehensive

          program of research, technology development, and

          demonstration among Federal agencies, in cooperation with

          industry, universities, research institutions, state

          governments, and other countries.  This report identifies

          the following priority areas to be addressed by the

          Interagency Committee: prevention; spill response

          planning and management; spill response, fate and

          effects; and restoration.  The proposed project

          descriptions range from vessel structural design to

          advanced electronic systems, to protection of migratory

          birds.  The major focus of the project plan is on oil

          spill prevention, response and mitigation.


3.   Lessons of the EXXON VALDEZ, R. Steiner and K. Byers, National

     Sea Grant Coll.  Program, Silver Spring, MD, 1991.

          An essay on prevention and control of oil spills, with a

          summary of environmental and biological effects of the

          spill accompanied by information on state and federal

          research, an overview of oil spill containment and

          cleanup technology, and a summary of significant state

          and federal legislative action.

4.   Safety in Petroleum Movement: Is Enough Being Done to Protect

     the Environment, B. Bialas, Naval Postgraduate School,

     Monterey, California, December 1991.

          The thesis investigates whether sufficient efforts are

          being taken to provide safety in petroleum movement. 

          Current practices in spill prevention and cleanup are

          identified and recommendations made.

5.   Performance of Oil Industry Cross-Country Pipelines in Western

     Europe: Statistical Summary of Reported Spillages, 1990, Y.

     Barriol, CONCAWE, The Hague, Netherlands, November 1991.

          This report reviews the performance of oil industry

          cross-country pipelines in Western Europe.  It covers an

          oil pipeline network of 19,350 km, and analyzes reported

          spillage incidents by cause and effectiveness of clean-

          up.  In 1990, there were three reportable spillage

          incidents, resulting in gross spillage of 592 cubic

          meters, or 0.00009 percent of the total volume

          transported.  Third party damage continues to be the

          largest cause of oil loss from pipelines in Western


6    Coast Guard:  Oil Spills Continue Despite Waterfront Facility

     Inspection Program, K. Mead, U.S. General Accounting Office,

     Washington, DC, October 1991.

          Statement of Kenneth Mead before the Subcommittee on

          Oversight and Investigations and the Subcommittee on

          Coast Guard and Navigation, Committee on Merchant Marine

          and Fisheries, U.S. House of Representatives.

7.   Update on Implementation of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990,

     Volume 1, Numbers I through 4, February - September 1991.

          This series of bulletins provides updated information on

          the Environmental Protection Agency's implementation of

          the various provisions of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990,

          including development and enforcement of regulations and



8.   Coast Guard: Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund Not Being Used to

     Pay All Allowable Costs, U.S. General Accounting Office,

     Washington, DC, August 1991.

9.   Tanker Spills: Prevention by Design, National Research

     Council, Washington, DC, February 199 1.

          The study, prompted by the March 1999 grounding of the

          EXXON VALDEZ in Prince William Sound, Alaska, focused on

          how alternative tank vessel (tanker and barge) designs

          might influence the safety of personnel, property, and

          the environment, and at what cost.  In selecting designs

          to be considered, the committee included certain

          operational options that might minimize the oil spilled

          in an accident.  The study did not consider means of

          averting accidents, altering the form of cargo, or

          responding to oil spills.

10.  Pollution From Pipelines: DOT Lacks Prevention Program and

     information for Timely Response,   U.S. General Accounting

     Office, Washington, D.C, January 1991.

11.  Oil Spill Contingency Planning: National Status.  A report to

     the Presidet, Department of Transportation, Office of the

     Secretary, Washington, DC, October, 1990

          The report examines the Nation's oil spill preparedness

          and response system, including the Federal government's

          National Response System and state, local and industry

          contingency planning, and addresses key environmental and

          health concerns, including the potential for

          contamination of the food chain.

12.  Grounding of the U.S. Tankship  EXXON VALDEZ on Bligh Reef,

     Prince William Sound, Near Valdez, Alaska, March 24, 1989,

     National Transportation Safety Board, Bureau of Accident

     Investigation, Washington, DC, July 1990.

          The report explains the grounding of the tanker and

          examines safety issues, including the vessel's navigation

          watch, the role of human factors, manning standards, the

          company's drug/alcohol testing and rehabilitation

          program, vessel traffic service, and oil spill response.

13.  Unregulated Potential Sources of Groundwater Contamination

     involving the Transport and Storage of Liquid Fuels: Technical

     and Policy issues, J. Davis, Argonne National Laboratory,

     Argonne, Illinois, National Technical information Services,

     Springfield, Virginia, August 1989. 

          Discussion of environmental aspects, such as effect on

          groundwater through oil pollution of water by oil storage


14.  The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: A Report to the President,

     Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C, National

     Technical information Service, May 1989.

          Report by Samuel Skinner, Secretary, U.S. Department of

          Transportation and William Reilly, Administrator,

          Environmental Protection Agency, prepared by the National

          Response Team.

15.  "Spilled Petroleum in the Subsoil: Problems, Remediation, and

     Costs," F. Pita, Proceedings of the American Railway

     Engineering Association, Vol. 88, pp. 134-158, 1987.

16.  Guidance and Procedures for Administering and Enforcing the

     Oily.  Waste Reception and Facility Program, U.S. Coast Guard,

     Washington, DC, 1985.

          Discussion of law and legislation relating to oil

          pollution of the seas.


4. Hazardous Materials Issues

Our society benefits from the chemical, nuclear, electrical and

petroleum industries, which require hazardous materials in their

production and also produce hazardous wastes.  Although the

probability of an accidental release while transporting hazardous

materials is very low, there is justifiable concern that hazardous

materials be transported in the safest manner possible, since a

release can be catastrophic for a community and the environment. 

Accidental releases with catastrophic results do in fact occur, as

is evidenced by the July 14, 1991 spill of a herbicide into the,

Sacramento River, when a tank car ruptured during a derailment in

Dunsmuir CA.  Issues currently being addressed are equipment

reliability, alternative routings, modal choice, and the adequacy

of emergency response.

1.  Code of Federal Regulations 49, Parts 100 to 177, Subchapter

    C - Hazardous Materials Regulations.

2.   "Environmental Impacts of a Modal Shift," M. William

     Newstrand, Marine and Intermodal Transportation: Freight

     Movement and Environmental Issues, Transportation Research

     Record, No. 1333, Transportation Research Board, National

     Research Council, pp. 9-12, Washington, DC, 1992.

          This paper compares water transportation with rail and

          trucks.  The author theoretically transfers cargo from

          four regularly scheduled vessel movements to rail and

          trucks, then calculates the effects upon fuel

          consumption, exhaust emissions, accidents, and other

          effects of the modal shift.  This analysis attempts to

          demonstrate some of the potential environmental costs of

          a modal shift from water.  Modal impact factors used for

          the analysis are somewhat dated and the emission factor

          was an aggregate.  The modal impact factors used indicate

          that water transportation is the most fuel efficient and

          produces the least amount of emissions on a ton-mile

          basis.  Modal impact factors also indicate trucks

          obtained 60 ton-miles per gallon compared with 204 ton-

          miles per gallon for rail.  While emissions measured by

          pounds per gallon are about twice as high for rail as for

          trucks, when measured on a ton-mile basis, rail produces

          .0034 pounds per ton-mile and trucks produce .0052 pounds

          per ton-mile.

3.   Cargo Tank Rollover Protection, National Transportation Safety

     Board, Special Investigation Report Hazardous Materials

     Accident Report, Washington, DC, 1992.

          As a result of several cargo tanker accidents on the

          highways, NTSB conducted this investigation on cargo tank

          rollover protection.  The safety issues discussed are:

          the adequacy of DOT regulations concerning the design and

          performance of rollover protection devices, the

          effectiveness of cargo tanker design and construction

          oversight, and the adequacy of accident reporting and

          data collected by DOT.

4.   Proposals For the Road Traffic, Training of Drivers of

     Vehicles Carrying Dangerous Goods: Regulations 1991, Health

     and Safety Commission, London, England, 1991.

          This document contains proposals for regulations for the

          training of drivers of road vehicles carrying dangerous

          goods, including explosives and radioactive materials. 

          The regulations are necessary to implement in England the

          provisions of a European Directive imposing requirements

          for training, examinations, and certification.


5.   Assessing the Risk of Transporting Hazardous Materials by

     Aircraft: A Case Study, M.J.Davis and L.A. Haroun, Argonne

     National Lab., IL, 1991.

          This risk assessment involves the transport of PCBs by


6.   Freight Transportation: Truck, Rail Water, and Hazardous

     Materials, Transportation Research Record, No. 1313,

     Transportation Research Board, National Research Council,

     Washington, DC, 1991.

          Includes several articles.  The most informative are:

     "State and Local Issues in Transportation of Hazardous

     Materials: Toward a National Strategy," M. Abkowitz, P.

     Alford, A. Boghani, J. Cashwell, E. Radwan and P. Rothberg,

     pp. 49-54.

          This paper presents findings of a recent conference whose

          objective was to identify effective methods for managing

          hazardous materials transportation within the evolving

          national system.  The conference was organized into five

          major themes: community preparedness and response;

          evaluating and communicating risk; routing and citing

          considerations; data collection and information

          management; and inspection and enforcement.

     "Benefit-Cost Evaluation of Using Different Specification Tank

     Cars to Reduce the Risk of Transporting Environmentally

     Sensitive Chemicals," C.P.L. Barkan, T.S. Glickman and A.E.

     Harvey. pp. 33-43.

          This paper presents an analytical approach to quantifying

          the benefits and costs of transporting specific chemicals

          in tank cars.  The results indicate that reduced

          liability would result from using a specific type of tank

          car, which more than offsets the increased capital and

          operating costs required.

7.   "A Probability Model To Assess the Risk of Railroad Accidents

     Involving Radioactive Material," H.B. Spraggins, J. Ozment,

     and P. Fanchon, Transportation Research Forum, Journal of the

     Transportation Research Forum, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1991.

          This paper identifies issues relevant to rail route risk

          analysis and presents a probability model of a train

          accident involving nuclear materials via movement by

          mixed train or dedicated train.

8.   Hazardous Materials on Board, C. Hild, Alaska Sea Grant Coll. 

     Program, Fairbanks, 1991.

          This book contains sections on the introduction to

          hazardous materials, common hazardous materials, confined

          spaces, personal protective equipment, hazardous spills

          on board, label and law, and references.

9.   Motor Carriers of Hazardous Materials: Who Are They? How Safe

     Are They?, L.N. Moses and I. Savage, Northwestern University

     Department of Economics, 1991.

          Using a database of 13,000 government audits of motor

          carriers, this paper investigates whether trucking firms

          that haul hazmat differ from firms that do not haul

          hazmat.  The investigation found that the haulers of

          hazmat were larger and less safe than non-hazmat



10.  Overturn of a Tractor-Semitrailer (Cargo Tank) With the

     Release of Automotive Gasoline and Fire, Carmichael,

     California February 13, 1991, National Transportation Safety

     Board, Hazardous Materials Accident Report, Washington, DC,


          This report reviews the overturn of a cargo tanker and

          the subsequent fire.  It discusses the following safety

          issues: the lack of DOT standards concerning manhole

          covers on motor vehicle tanks, the adequacy of California

          highway standards, the effectiveness of the carrier's

          evaluation of driver training and performance, and the

          lack of post-accident toxicological testing.

11.  "Purchasing Hazardous Waste Transportation Service: Federal

     Legal Considerations," J.M. Sharp, R.A. Novack, M.A. Anderson,

     American Society of Transportation and Logistics

     Transportation Journal, Vol. 31 No. 2, pp. 4-14, December


          This paper attempts to acquaint the purchaser of hazmat

          transportation with environmental statutes and gives a

          framework for compliance with these laws.

12.  "Highway Transportation of Hazardous Materials," TranSafety,

     Incorporated, Road Work Safety Report, Vol. 1, No. 6, December


          This study attempts to analyze the existing exposure and

          accident data pertaining to highway transportation of

          hazmat and summarizes the present knowledge and practices

          related to highway safety, design, traffic operations,

          and incident management.

13.  "Some Hazmat Facts," TranSafety, Incorporated, Transafety

     Reporter, Vol. 9, No. I 1, November 199 1.

          The paper discusses a Federal Highway Administration

          report, "Present Practices of Highway Transportation of

          Hazardous Materials".

14.  "Factors of Risk Assessment For Transporting High-Level

     Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel by Dedicated Train vs Regular

     Train," in Proceedings of the Thirty-third Annual Meeting,

     Transportation Research Forum, New Orleans, Louisiana, October

     31, November 2, 1991.

          This paper identifies some of the risk concerns of the

          directive involving dedicated and regular train movement

          of nuclear materials and presents a model of risk which

          could be used to assess those risks.

15.  Hazardous Materials: 1990 Transportation Uniform Safety Act-

     Status of DOT Implementing Actions, U.S. General Accounting

     Office, Washington, DC, November 1991.

          This report discusses the status of DOT's implementation

          of The Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety

          Act of 1990 (HMTUSA).

16.  lnspection Programs Improvements Are Under Way to Help Detect

     Unsafe Tankers, U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington,

     DC, October 1991.

          This report was prepared in response to Congressional

          inquiry concerning the Coast Guard's inspection program

          for tankers carrying oil and other hazardous cargo.  This

          report indicates that the Coast Guard has begun to

          improve its inspection program.


17.  "Technical Committee on Road Tunnels," XIX World Road

     Congress, Marrakesh. Permanent International Association of

     Road Congress, Paris, France, September 2228, 1991.

          This is a committee report which treats several topics

          including an analysis of risk resulting from the transit

          of hazardous materials.

18.  Transportation Safety: Information Strategy Needed For

     Hazardous Materials, U.S. General Accounting Office,

     Washington, DC, September 1991.

          This report was conducted to determine whether key

          initiatives to improve longstanding hazardous materials

          information shortcomings were successful, and whether any

          strategy guides DOT in directing the information

          management and technology resources devoted to its hazmat

          mission.  Findings: DOT is unable to use information

          effectively to evaluate activities or support safety

          accruing from its inspections and enforcement activities;

          and DOT has no directives outlining Department-wide

          Hazmat information management responsibilities.

19.  "Second Toxic Spill in Two Weeks Brings SP, Railroads Under

     Scrutiny," Traffic World, No. 6, Vol. 227, August 5, 1991.

          This article discusses the two recent accidents on the SP

          involving hazardous materials and the transportation of

          hazmat by rail.

20.  Proceeding of Hazmat Transport '91, A National Conference on

     the Transportation of Hazardous Materials and Wastes,

     Northwestern University, Evanston Transportation Center,

     Evanston, Illinois, June 17-19, 1991.

          This volume documents the proceedings of a national

          conference on the transportation of hazardous materials

          and waste, held at Northwestern University.  The

          conference was a neutral forum at which many viewpoints

          were aired and original research findings presented.  The

          following papers were given at the conference:

          "The Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety

          Act of 1990: The U.S. Department of Transportation

          Perspective," Travis P. Dungan, Administrator, Research

          and Special Programs Administration, U.S. Department of


          This is a summary of the requirements of the statute as

          it relates to DOT and an overview of hazmat


          "The Rail Perspective on Hazardous Materials

          Transportation," James A. Hagen, Chairman of Conrail.

          This paper addresses the key issues of hazmat

          transportation by rail, in particular, Conrail.

          "Behind Human Error Accidents," John K. Lauber, National

          Transportation Safety Board.

          This paper describes several accidents from the viewpoint

          of operator performance and professional standards,

          management commitment to safety, and operator training

          and human factors outside the vehicle.


          "Data Requirements for the Development of a Quantitative

          Risk Assessment Model for Rail Transportation of

          Hazardous Materials," Christopher P.L. Barkan, Manager,

          Environmental and Hazardous Materials Research Division,

          Association of American Railroads.

          This paper states that while rail has a relatively good

          safety record, it is in the interest of the public and

          industry that improvements in hazmat transportation

          safety be as effective and efficient as possible.  To

          that end, Barkan discusses the efforts of the rail, tank

          car and chemical industries, which are working to develop

          a quantitative risk assessment model for rail

          transportation of hazmat.

          "The Law and Economics of Hazardous Materials

          Transportation: Regulating Harm by Administrative Agency

          and by Tort Liability," Thomas S. Ulen and Charles


          This paper discusses the authors' views on how best to

          achieve the socially optimal amount of precaution, while

          regulating the transportation of hazmat.

          "U.S. Department of Transportation Report on Mandated

          Studies and Regulatory Procedures to Date," Alan I.

          Roberts, Associate Administrator for Hazardous Materials

          Safety, U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and

          Special Programs Administration.

          This paper discusses the status of DOT legislatively

          mandated studies and regulatory procedures.

21.  Flows of Selected Hazardous Materials By Rail, F. Beier, et

     al.  U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Special

     Programs Administration, Volpe National Transportation Systems

     Center, Final Report for September 1987-April 1991,

     Washington, DC, May 1991.

          This study looks at rail traffic in 1986 and is designed

          to characterize the flow of selected hazardous materials

          and show their geographical distribution.

22.  Transportation of Hazardous Materials by Rail, National

     Transportation Safety Board, Washington, DC, Adopted May 16,


          For this study, the Safety Board conducted a study of 45

          selected railroads.

23.  "New Hazmat Regulation," Railway Age, pp. 44-45, April 1991.

          This article questions the cost-benefit from new hazmat

          regulations in light of a record which is characterized

          as good.

24.  "Revitalizing the Circuitry," Hazardous Cargo Bulletin, Vol.

     12, No. 1, January 1991.

          This article presents highlights of papers presented on a

          conference on tank containers entitled Tank Frans 90 in

          Berlin on October 17-19, 1990.  Papers were presented on

          the topic and other issues, such as quality control, tank

          cleaning, transport of dangerous substances through the

          Channel Tunnel, road vs rail, liability, and safety.



25.  "Critics say federal hazmat data bank is useful, but falls

     short of filling need," Traffic World, p. 64, March 11, 1991.

          This article finds that the Hazardous Materials

          Information Exchange does provide useful information. 

          However, this data bank is just a good beginning, and it

          should include additional information, i.e., information

          on worst-case accident scenarios.

26.  Transportation Research.Record No. 1245, Transportation

     Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC,


          Includes several articles. The most informative are:

          Comparison of Risk Measures for the Transport of

          Dangerous Commodities by Truck and Rail," by F.F.

          Saccomanno, J.H. Shortreed, M. Van Aerde, and J. Higgs,


          In this paper, the risks of transporting dangerous

          commodities by trick and by rail are expressed by four

          constituent elements: accident rates; spill probabilities

          in an accident situation; hazard areas for different

          classes of damage; and expected impacts on population and

          environment along a specified road or rail corridor.  The

          findings indicate that regardless of the material being

          shipped or the underlying transportation conditions,

          trucks reflect higher accident rates than rail; for most

          tanker systems, the probability of release in an accident

          situation is higher on rail than truck; the expected

          impacts for damage to population and property associated

          with rail transport of dangerous goods are lower than for


          "Characteristics of Accidents and Incidents in Highway

          Transportation of Hazardous Materials," by D.W. Harwood,

          E.R. Russell and J.G. Viner, pp. 23-33.

          This paper focuses on the role of traffic accidents as a

          cause of severe hazardous materials incidents. 

          Conclusions: about 99% of fatalities and 96% of injuries

          involving trucks carrying hazardous materials are not

          related to the hazmat release.  Approximately II % of

          hazmat incidents that occur on public highways are caused

          by traffic accidents, and about 99% of the fatalities and

          injuries in accidents involving hazmat-carrying trucks

          result from the physical collision.

          "Minimizing Derailments of Railcars Carrying Dangerous

          Commodities Through Effective Marshaling Strategies," by

          F.F. Saccomanno and S. El-Hage, pp.34-51.

          This paper presents a procedure for establishing and

          evaluating the effectiveness of alternative marshaling

          and buffering strategies for positioning special

          dangerous commodity cars.

          "Bicriterion Routing Scheme for Nuclear Spent Fuel

          Transportation," by Shin-Miao Chun and Paul Der-Ming

          Cheng, pp. 60-64.

          The objective of this paper is to develop an automated

          system to evaluate the trade-off between transportation

          cost and potential population at risk under different

          nuclear spent fuel transportation strategies.  The

          authors believe that by combining sophisticated

          algorithms with graphical representation of the network,

          the methodology allows the trade-offs among non-inferior

          paths to be understood more quickly and more fully.


27.  Transportation of Hazardous Material 1990, Transportation

     Research Record, No. 1264, Transportation Research Board,

     National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1990.

     Includes several articles, the most informative are:

     "Evaluating Routing Alternatives for Transporting Hazardous

     Materials Using Simplified Risk Indicators and Complete

     Probabilistic Risk Analyses," by William R. Rhyne; "Truck

     Accident Rate Model for Hazardous Materials Routing," by D.W.

     Harwood, J.6. Viner and E.R. Russell; "Fatality Risk Curves

     for Transporting Chlorine and Liquefied Petroleum Gas by Truck

     and Rail," by F.F. Saccomanno, J.H. Shortreed, and R. Mehta;

     "Restricting Hazardous Materials Routes on the Nation's

     Railroads: Some Considerations for Regulatory Analysis," by

     T.S. Glickman.

28.  Planning for Future Waste Storage and Transport Requirements,

     G.M. Holter, M.R. Shay and D.L. Stiles, Battelle Pacific

     Northwest Labs., Richland, WA, 1990.

          This paper discusses that any planning should take into

          account the storage and transport capabilities that will

          be required to properly manage the wastes, from the point

          of generation through to their ultimate disposal.

29.  Radioactive and Hazardous Materials Transportation: What Local

     Officials Are Telling Us, J.A. Walker, G.E. Ruberg, and S.H.

     Denny, Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg,

     VA, 1990.

          This paper summarizes the results of a 1989 meeting of US

          Department of Energy representatives with over twenty

          local officials from cities and counties around the


30.  "Modeling Equity of Risk in the Transportation of Hazardous

     Materials," R. Gopalan, K.S. Kolluri, R. Batta and M.H.

     Karwan, Operations Research, Vol. 38.  No. 6. November-

     December 1990.

          This paper develops and analyzes a model to generate an

          equitable set of routes for hazardous material shipments.

          Its objective is to determine a set of routes that will

          minimize the total risk of travel and spread the risk

          equitably among the zones of the geographical region in

          which the transportation network is embedded.

31.  Present Practices of Highway Transportation of Hazardous

     Materials, D.W. Harwood and E.R. Russell, Midwest Research

     Inst., Kansas City, MO, May 1990.

          This report summarizes the art of safe management of

          hazardous materials transportation by highway.

32.  Proceedings of the National Conference on Hazardous Materials

     Transportation, St. Louis, Missouri, concerned with "State and

     Local Issues in Transportation of Hazardous Waste Materials:

     Towards a National Strategy," May 14-16, 1990.

          This volume documents the proceedings of a national

          conference on the transportation of hazardous materials

          held in St. Louis, Missouri, May 14-16, 1990.  The

          following papers were given at the conference:


     "Evaluation of Hazardous Material Transportation By Rail,"

     W.H. Oderwaid, M.A. Sontag.

     This paper describes the application of the data bases

     utilized in the model, along with an explanation of the

     function and philosophy of the Princeton Transportation

     Network Model.  This model is used by shippers, receivers, and

     manufacturers to evaluate current and proposed rail routings.

     "Flows of Hazardous Materials Through States By Rail," R.C.

     Hannon and P. Zebe.

     This paper presents information on the tonnages of hazardous

     materials passing through each of the contiguous 48 states and

     DC by rail.

     "Computer-Assisted Risk Assessment of Dangerous Goods

     Transportation for Haute-Normandie," S. Lassarre, K. Fedra,

     and E. Weigkricht.

     This is software based on a geographical information system to

     manage, treat and represent statistical and geographical data

     related to the evaluation of risk of transport on a road

     network in a 600 sq. km. area in France.

     "StatGen/StateNet and DOT Guidelines: Tools for Highway

     Routing of Hazardous Materials," J.W. Cashwell, J.D. Brogan,

     and C.M. Erickson.

     This presentation discusses the latest update of the

     StateGen/StateNet model, its structure and routing algorithm,

     which contains the codified USDOT Guidelines for Highway Route

     Controlled Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials.

     "Societal-Individual Risks for Hazmat Transport," F.F

     Saccomanno, J.H. Shortreed.

     This paper considers the risks associated with the transport

     of hazmat by truck and rail from two perspectives: society in

     general and the individuals residing adjacent to the route.

     "A Risk and Vulnerability Assessment Approach for Selected

     Routes: A Case Study of Hazardous Waste Transportation in

     Arizona," K.D. Pijawka, A.E. Radwan, and J. A. Soesilo.

     This study's objective was to provide an approach to selecting

     routes to a proposed hazardous waste treatment and storage

     facility, based on a risk and vulnerability assessment.

     "A Community-Focused Routing and Citing Model for Hazardous

     Materials and Wastes," G. List and P. Mirchandani.

     This is a model that shippers, carriers, and policy-makers can

     use to analyze routing problems for hazmat or routing and

     siting problems for wastes.

     "Assessing Community Safety for Hazardous Materials

     Transport," C-K.  Chiang, E.J. Cantifli, and S.T. Ying.

     This paper describes a computer model developed to assess the

     safety of a community through which hazmat will be

     transported.  The model is predictive and can be used even in

     the absence of a past history of incidents.


     "Canadian Database Development as a Support Tool To Transport

     Risk Assessment," D. A. Learning.

     This paper provides details on the databases the Risk

     Management Branch has available to assess accident trends and

     exposure to dangerous goods, and introduces a costing model

     under development to further enhance risk management.

     "Hazardous Materials Data: A Federal Perspective," R.C.


     This paper discusses the evolution and current status of the

     Hazardous Materials Incident Report System maintained by RSPA.

     "Risk Management in the Transportation of Dangerous Goods--the

     Influence of Public Perception--a Discussion," M.K. Matthews.

     This paper discusses an example of how public perception of

     risk can unduly influence the proper response to effective

     risk management in the transportation of dangerous goods.

     "Dangerous Goods Emergency Response: The Western Australian

     Experience," K. Price.

     This paper is a general overview of the experience of the

     State of Western Australia in the management of hazmat


     "State Legislative Concerns Relative to Federal Hazardous

     Materials Transportation Regulations," J.B. Reed.

     This paper indicates that states have asserted their authority

     in regard to regulations of hazmat transport where they

     believe there are inadequate or declining Federal efforts. 

     States' interests include, inspection, enforcement, emergency

     response and routing.

33.  Hazardous Materials Flow By Rail, U.S.Department of

     Transportation, Research and Special Programs Administration,

     Final Report, Washington, DC, March 1990.

          This report is a quantitative overview of the movement of

          hazardous materials by rail in the U.S. The data used is

          a hazardous materials rail waybill sample developed at

          TSC from the 1983 Waybill Sample.

34.  Collision and Derailment of Montana Rail Link Freight Train

     with Locomotive Units and Hazardous Materials Release, Helena,

     Montana February 2, 1989, National Transportation Safety

     Board, Railroad Accident Report, Washington, DC, December 6,


          This report reviews the accident on Montana Rail Link and

          discusses various related safety issues, i.e., train

          operations, maintenance of airbrake system in extreme

          cold weather, oversight of employee preparedness, tank

          car performance, and documentation of hazmat shipments.

35.  Guideline for Applying Criteria to Designate Routes for

     Transporting Hazardous Materials, U.S. Department of

     Transportation, Research and Special Programs Administration,

     Final Report, Washington, DC, July 1989.

          These guidelines were prepared to assist state and local

          officials in analysis of alternate routes to be used by

          highway vehicles transporting hazmat.


36.  Transport of Radioactive Material by Air, Proposal for a

     Revision of the Regulation, C Devillers, and C. Ringot, CEA

     Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenary-aux-Roses (France),

     January 1989.

          This paper states that the regulations should be modified

          in such a way that the packages used for the air

          transport of radioactive material presenting a high level

          of potential danger be designed to fulfill their safety

          function for a large fraction of the conditions likely to

          be encountered in an aircraft accident.

37.  In-Flight Fire, McDonnell Douglas DC-9-83, N56 Nashville,

     Tennessee, February 3, 1988, National Transportation Safety

     Board, Hazardous Materials Incident Report, Washington, DC,

     September 13, 1988.

          This report reviews an in-flight fire involving

          undeclared and improperly packaged hazmat and the

          procedures followed by the crew and airline.

38.  Basic Facts About the Transport of Packaged Radioactive

     Products, Amersham International Ltd. (England), 1987.

          This pamphlet details the regulations that apply to

          transport of radioactive materials and outlines the

          precautions to be taken, along with what should be done

          if a package of radioactive materials is damaged and how

          packages of radioactive materials can be recognized.

39.  Truck Transportation of Hazardous Materials - A National

     Overview, Dominic J. Maio, U.S. Department of Transportation,

     Research and Special Programs Administration, Transportation

     Systems Center, Final Report, Washington, D.C., December 1987

          This report's objective was to provide regulators and

          policy-makers with: an estimate of the national volume of

          hazardous chemicals and petroleum products transported in

          trucks, a profile of the truck fleet that carries hazmat,

          and a geographical distribution of this transport


40.  Handling and Management of Hazardous Materials and Waste, by

     Theodore H. Allegri, Sr., Chapman and Hall, New York, 1986.

     Discusses the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act which

     authorized the EPA to perform specific functions to assess and

     manage hazardous wastes, including the setting of standards

     for the transportation of hazardous wastes.  Enumerates

     federal regulations concerning the loading and unloading of

     hazardous materials.

41.  "Institutional issues affecting the transport of hazardous

     materials in the United States: Anticipating strategic

     management needs," S.A. Cames, Oak Ridge, TN, Hazardous

     Materials, No. 13, 1986.

          This article attempts to discuss the complex and dynamic

          institutional environment in which hazardous materials

          are transported.  The article summarizes the

          institutional environment in which hazardous materials

          are transported and identifies related institutional


42.  Transportation of Hazardous Materials, U.S. Congress, Office

     of Technology Assessment, U.S. Government Printing Office,

     Washington, DC, July 1986.

          This study was requested by the Senate Committee on

          Science, Commerce, and Transportation to determine

          whether major safety problems exist in the transportation

          of hazardous materials that should be addressed through

          legislation, and whether appropriate technology exists

          that could improve this essential portion of our nation's

          commerce.  OTA's study is a comprehensive assessment of

          the regulations, information systems, container safety,

          and training for emergency response and enforcement.

43.  Transportation of Hazardous Materials: State and Local

     Activities, U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment,

     U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, March 1986.

          This report is in response to a Senate request that OTA

          undertake a study of the transportation of hazardous

          materials.  This study summarizes Federal programs and

          identifies three major areas of state and local

          government concern: prevention and enforcement

          activities; emergency response and training; and planning

          and data gathering.  It outlines related issues,

          describes methods by which jurisdictions are responding

          to these issues, and documents the concerns that the

          Federal government could address.

44.  Barge Collisions, Rammings and Groundings: An Engineering

     Assessment of the Potential for Damage to Radioactive Material

     Transport Casks, B.L. Hutchison, Glosten Associates, Inc. 

     Seattle, WA, January 1986.

          This study was performed to gain insight into each of

          these types of accidents, with particular attention to

          those processes that possess potential for causing

          structural damage to the casks.

45.  "What's New in Hazardous Material Transportation?", Traffic

     Management, pp. 78-83, Volume 24, No. 11, November 1985.

          This article discusses current issues in hazmat

          transportation, i.e. uniformity of regulations and

          federal pre-emption, DOT's role in the hazmat program,

          and international regulations.  This article suggests

          that uniformity of regulations and federal pre-emption is

          necessary, in addition to more leadership at DOT, to

          protect the interests of US shippers from foreign


46.  Transportation of Radioactive and Hazardous Materials: A

     Summary of State and Local Legislative Requirements for the

     Period Ending December 31, 1984 N.P. Knox, L. F. Goins and

     P.T. Owen, John Ludwigson (ed.), U.S. Department of Energy,

     Information Research and Analysis Information Resources

     Organization, Oak Ridge, TN, September 1985.

     This report summarizes 513 adopted US state and local laws

     that affect the transportation of radioactive materials.

47.  Transportation of Hazardous Material: Planning and Accident

     Analysis, Transportation Research Record No. 977,

     Transportation Research Board, National Research Council,

     Washington, DC, 1984.

     Includes several articles, the most informative is:

     "A Survey of Foreign Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety

     Research Since 1978," by M.E. Wright and T.S. Glickman, pp.


     This is a survey of truck, rail, and air transportation

     concerning vehicle and container technology, emergency

     response technology, traffic flow and accident information,

     risk assessment, and policy analysis regarding operations,

     emergency planning, and regulations.

48.  Assessing the Release and Costs Associated With Truck

     Transport of Hazardous Wastes, Office of Solid Waste,

     Environmental Protection Agency, l984.

          This study estimates the release from and the costs of

          the truck transport of hazardous waste.  This report

          contains these estimates for bulk and container

          shipments.  Perhaps the most important result of this

          study is that the release rates associated with

          transporting hazardous wastes by truck appear to be as

          large as the potential releases at treatment and disposal


49.  "Derailments and Release of Hazardous Materials," by Theodore

     S. Glickman and Donald B. Rosenfield, Management Science,

     Volume 30, Number 4, pp. 257-277, April 1984.

          Models were used to assess the risks of hazardous

          materials releases in train derailments.  The results of

          a model indicated that: the chances are high (95%) that

          no one will be killed when a derailment release accident

          takes place.

50.  Community Teamwork: Working Together to Promote Hazardous

     Materials Transportation Safety.  A Guide for Local Officials,

     Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Cambridge, MA, May 1983

          This Guide is designed to provide ideas on how to develop

          a hazardous materials transportation safety program at

          the most economical cost.

51.  "The Ten Most Critical Issues in Hazardous Materials

     Transportation," Transportation Research Circular,

     Transportation Research Board, National Research Council,

     Number 219, Washington, DC, July 1980.

          While somewhat dated, this paper identifies ten major

          issues associated with the transportation of hazardous

          materials.  Most of the issues presented in this 1980

          paper are still major issues today.

52   Regulation of the Movement of Hazardous Cargoes, David M.

     Baldwin, National Cooperative Highway Research Program,

     Transportation Research Board, National Research Council,

     Washington, DC, May 1980.

          These guidelines were prepared to assist State and local

          officials in analysis of alternate routes to be used by

          highway vehicles transporting hazmat.


5. Land Use Issues

Land use and transportation systems are inextricably linked

together.  Historically, transportation facilities have been

constructed to foster land development, often without any

consideration for adverse environmental impacts.  However, new or

expanded transportation facilities, which require a substantial

amount of land, are increasingly difficult to build because of

their direct and indirect environmental effects on communities and

the landscape.  Moreover, public recognition of declining

environmental quality (particularly air quality), increasing

congestion, and the role of transportation in shaping development

patterns, has begun to focus attention on the need to integrate

transportation and land use planning.

Rail freight and passenger service, including commuter service,

operating over existing tracks or within existing transportation

corridors, can complement or substitute for more environmentally

intrusive modes in some corridors.  Unfortunately, the role of rail

service in an integrated approach to transportation and land use

planning does not appear to be widely recognized.  However, the

Internodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 contained

provisions strengthening the urban planning process.  The process

must now include additional considerations such as land use,

internodal connectivity, and transit service enhancement.

1."Automobiles Subsidies and Land Use: Estimates and Policy

Responses".  Mark E. Hanson, Journal of the American Planning

Association, Vol. 58, No. 1, pp. 60-71, 1992.

          The article estimates the magnitude of long-term

          automobile subsidies and discusses how they encouraged a

          pattern of urban/suburban sprawl.

2.   Land Use In Commuter Rail Station Areas: Analysis and Final

     Report, METRA and the Northeastern Illinois Planning

     Commission, 1992.

          The report focuses on enhancing the land use at Chicago

          area commuter rail stations and includes descriptions of

          nine prototypical rail stations (including the current

          rail service, access characteristics, and land use

          patterns) and concludes by suggesting land use and

          developmental guidelines, goals and objectives for six

          station prototypes.  The report is accompanied by a

          companion color brochure of the six prototype stations.

3.   "Transit-Sensitive Suburban land Use Design: Results of a

     Competition," Edward Beimborn; Harvey Rabinowitz; Charles

     Mrotek; and Shuming Yan; Public Transit Research: Management

     and Planning, Transportation Research Record, No. 1297,

     Transportation Research Board, National Research Council,

     Washington, DC, pp. 116-124, 1992.

          The paper presents an analysis of the extent to which

          public transit was included in the over 250 submissions

          to the International City Design Competition.  The

          authors found that the competitors explicitly evaluated

          public transit in only 43 percent of the proposals, and

          bus, park-and-ride, or commuter rail were seldom

          considered as options.  The authors concluded that the

          state of the art incorporating public transit into land

          use design is poor, and that unless this view is changed,

          little future change from the current auto dominated

          suburbs can be expected.


4.   "Impacts of Transit Facilities on Land Use," Institute of

     Transportation Engineers Technical Committee 6Y-38, ITE

     Journal, Vol. 62, No. 1, pp. 37-39, January 1992.

          The article reviews the full committee report on an

          analysis of the impact that urban transit can have on

          land use with the impacts of the Toronto, Washington, DC,

          San Francisco, Buffalo and Atlanta systems viewed in


5.   "A PRT Deployment Strategy to Support Regional Land Use and

     Rail Transit Objectives" J.B. Schneider, Transportation

     Quarterly, V46, pp. 135-53, January 1992.

          The article discusses strategic metropolitan scale land

          use planning and outlines a strategy that will allow

          those interested in conventional rail and personal rapid

          transit (PRT) to join forces and work together to

          increase transit's share of the urban mobility market.

6.   Special Report 231, Transportation, Urban Forum and the

     Environment, Transportation Research Board, National Research

     Council, Washington, DC, 1991.

          This report contains the papers and workshop reports from

          a December 9-12, 1990 conference that focused on the

          complexity of interactions between transportation, land

          use and environmental impacts.  The conference

          participants suggested areas where research is required

          to better understand the interactive relationships.

7.   Shaping Cities: The Environmental and Human Dimensions Marica

     D. Lowe, Worldwatch Institute, Washington, DC, October 1991.

          The paper suggests that the way cities physically evolve

          and the way their development is planned have profound

          impacts on the environment.  The paper looks at urban

          planning in other countries and discusses the

          relationships between land use and efficient transport.

8.   The New Suburb: Final Report, Harvey Rabinowitz, Edward

     Beimbom, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, prepared for

     U.S. Department of Transportation, Urban Mass Transit

     Administration, Washington, DC, July 1991.

          The report presents a historical background for transit

          use and suburban development and examines two groups of

          development projects, the first a group of ten exemplars

          that are analyzed for transit potential and the second, a

          group of 250 entries submitted in the International City

          Design Competition.  Based on their analysis the authors

          believe that while some progress towards integrating

          transit into suburban developments has occurred, most

          metropolitan areas not yet affected by suburban air

          pollution and congestion will continue to rely on the


9.   Guidelines for Transit-Sensitive Suburban Land Use Design,

     Edward Beimbom, Harvey Rabinowitz, University of Wisconsin,

     Milwaukee, WI, prepared for U.S. Department of Transportation,

     Urban Mass Transit Administration, July 1991.

          The report provides market based guidelines for planning

          and designing public transit sensitive land use patterns.

          The use of transit corridor districts (TCD) that separate

          transit and auto-oriented land uses is advanced and a

          prototype TCD with implementation guidelines is

          described.  Transit-sensitive land use would be enhanced

          by increasing densities near transit routes and

          emphasizing pedestrian and bicycle access.


10.  The Renaissance of Rail Transit in America, Regional Planning

     Association, New York, New York, June 1991.

          The report describes the types and locations of existing

          rail transit in the U.S. and abroad, profiles nine North

          American transit systems developed in the post WWII

          period, and provides data supporting the expanded use of

          existing rail transit and development of new systems. 

          Land use and its link to transportation, particularity

          rail transit, is highlighted, and the future potential of

          rail transit and station development is emphasized.

11.  "Suburban Congestion: Recommendations for Transportation and

     Und Use Responses," Thomas F. Humphrey, Transportation, V16,

     No.3, pp. 221-40, 1989/90.

          The paper highlights congestion problems and solutions

          and discusses short and long term approaches, including

          transportation actions where there are opportunities for

          better utilization of existing systems.

12.  "Dealing with Congestion from a Regional Perspective: The Case

     of Massachusetts," Michael D. Meyer, Transportation, V16,

     No.3, pp. 197-219, 1989/90.

          In this paper, the author argues that, in many cases,

          congestion is a widespread problem that must be viewed

          from a regional and programmatic perspective and

          emphasizes four policy areas including managing land use.

13.  "Regulating Traffic by Controlling Land Use: The Southern

     California Experience," Martin Wachs, Transportation, V16,

     No.3, pp. 241-56, 1989/90.

          The paper examines four transportation growth management

          strategies in Los Angeles, suggests many recent proposals

          have been hastily enacted, and recommends devoting more

          resources to monitoring and evaluation and to the

          development of new analytical tools.

14.  A Guide to Land Use and Public Transportation for Snohomish

     County, Washington, The Snohomish County Transportation

     Authority, December 1989.

          The report describes the promotion of public

          transportation-compatible land uses such as zoning

          ordinances, transportation management plans, and

          residential development site designs.  The report

          presents: criteria to judge compatibility of land use and

          transit; community planning goals and policies; and work

          sheets to determine whether or not a particular

          development is compatible with public transportation.


6. Water Pollution and Wetlands Issues

Traditional water quality concerns have focused on bacterial

contaminants, oxygen depleting wastes and sediment loads from human

activities, and priority is now being given to toxic substances as

well.  The source of this pollution tends to originate from point

sources, primarily industry and sewage treatment facilities. 

Increasing attention is now being paid to non-point sources such as

the run-off of water from urban areas and agriculture.  However,

the transportation sector's role in water pollution does not appear

to be well defined or understood.

Concerns over wetlands has primarily focused on the loss of wetland

acreage from the construction of highway projects and the

conversion of wetlands to agricultural use.

1.   U. S. Environmental Protection Agency Research Program on the

     Environmental Impacts and Control of Highway Deicing Salt

     Pollution, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Risk

     Reduction Engineering Lab, Cincinnati, OH, 1992.

          Salt-laden runoff from streets, highways, and storage

          facilities can result in damage to public water supplies,

          ponds, lakes and surface streams, roadside soil,

          vegetation and trees, and infrastructure and vehicles. 

          This paper outlines the results of several 1970s studies

          on highway-deicing impacts characterization and control

          conducted by the EPA's research program on urban

          stormwater and combined sewer overflow pollution control.

2.   "Measuring the Economic Value of Water Quality: The Case of

     Lakeshore Land," Donald N. Stiennes, The Annals of Regional

     Science, V26, pp. 171-76, 1992.

          The paper discusses the difficulty economists and others

          have had in valuing water quality using hedonic methods. 

          The author suggests that the economic value may be

          attached to a perceived (as opposed to actual) measure of

          water quality.

3.   "Our Disappearing Wetlands," John G. Mitchell, National

     Geographic, pp. 3-45, October, 1992.

          This article presents an overview of the importance of

          wetlands and highlights the loss of 300,000 acres of

          wetlands each year.

4.   Maintenance Guidelines for Accumulated Sediments in

     Retention/Detention Ponds Receiving Highway Runoff, Final

     Research Report, Performed by University of Central Florida,

     Department of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences for

     the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway

     Administration, Washington, DC, September 1990.

          The report details a two year study investigating

          sedimentation rates and heavy metal enrichment and

          leaching from accumulated bottom sediments in nine

          Florida highway runoff detention/retention ponds.

5.   "The Imperatives of Nonpoint Source Pollution Policies," Peter

     Rogers and Alan Rosenthal, Journal of Water Pollution Control

     Facilities, V60, No. II, pp 1912-192 1, 1988.

          The article provides an overview of nonpoint source water

          pollution, water policy decision making, and a matrix

          evaluation of nonpoint source pollution control policies.


7. Related Environmental Issues

While many recent publications may be readily categorized by

environmental topic, some are sufficiently broad in scope as to

apply to a wide range of transportation related environmental

issues.  The following list of publications fits this description

and contains information on a wide range of topics including future

options in transportation technology, national overviews of

environmental impacts, and broad, in-depth discussions/descriptions

of transportation and the environment.

1.   Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit, Senator Al

     Gore, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, New York, London,


          Senator (now Vice President) Gore addresses environmental

          issues that involve the earth's ecology, population

          trends, appropriate technology, and environmental

          education.  He believes that the severity of the

          environmental crisis requires a bold and visionary

          response to bring the earth back into balance.

2.   New Technology Options for Transit in California, Institute

     for the Future, sponsored by California Department of

     Transportation, Division of New Technology, Materials, and

     Research, 1992.

          The report identifies new transit technology options and

          systems and makes recommendations as to transit

          initiatives in California including: auto disincentives

          (price-by-use systems); education on transit's value; and

          the need for coordinated transit and land use planning.

3.   New Technology Options for Transit in California: Internal

     Appendix, Institute for the Future, sponsored by California

     Department of Transportation, Division of New Technology,

     Materials, and Research, 1992.

          The appendix provides detailed information on the

          characteristics and emerging future technologies of

          various passenger transit technologies, including: light

          rail; rapid rail; commuter rail; personal rapid transit;


4.   Public Transportation, Edited by George E. Gray and Lester A.

     Hoel, 2nd Ed, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey,


          This text is a reference work that deals with all transit

          modes including commuter rail, bus, rapid rail,

          paratransit and ridesharing; it contains 25 chapters by

          various experts dealing with all areas of public

          transportation including: history; systems and

          technologies; alternatives; planning; management and

          operations; policy considerations; and the future of

          public transport.

5    Fundamentals of Traffic Engineering, Wolfgang S. Homburger,

     James H. Kell, David D. Perkins, Institute of Transportation

     Studies, University of California at Berkeley, 1992.

          This text contains basic information on highways and

          traffic engineering, as well as data on other

          transportation modes, energy consumption and

          environmental impacts.


6.   Flexible Funding Opportunities for Transit, U.S. Department of

     Transportation, Federal Transit Administration, Washington,

     DC, 1992.

          The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act

          (ISTEA) established flexible funding opportunities for

          highway and transit use.  This report reaffirms the need

          for collaborative multimodal planning and summarizes the

          necessary steps, presents a broad overview of the Surface

          Transportation Program, including the flexible funding

          distribution and eligibility criteria, describes the

          flexible funds programs, and presents a state-by-state

          breakdown of the FY 1992 flexible funding opportunities.

7.   "Commuter Rail Comes to Los Angeles," David Lustig, Trains,

     pp. 34-36, November 1992.

          The start of Metrolink commuter rail operations in the

          Los Angeles area is described, including routes,

          equipment and service.  The service operates over

          existing freight lines and when complete will eventually

          consist of 60 stations and 400 miles of track and will

          serve six counties in the Los Angeles area.

8.   "Commuter Rail Traffic Increases With a Pitch to Keep Air

     Clean," Metro Magazine, Vol. 88, No. 5, pp. 47-52,

     September/October 1992.

          The value of commuter rail service in reducing air

          pollution has become a marketing opportunity for the

          commuter authorities in the tri-state New York, New

          Jersey, Connecticut area.  Recent significant service and

          facility improvements have increased on-time performance

          and have allowed the authorities to offer employers

          innovative programs, such as coordinating train schedules

          and local bus service (in Westchester County and the

          Bronx), and, in Greenwich, CT, a coordinated train-van

          shuttle between train stations and the central business


9    High-Speed Passenger Ground Transportation: An Analysis, Marc

     D. Latman, Northeast Midwest Congressional Coalition,

     September 1992.

          This study states that the federal government has

          historically contributed only limited resources to the

          development of high-speed rail transportation.  Growing

          concern over traffic congestion and the environment has

          prompted new interest in this mode of travel.  This study

          suggests that the installation of a high-speed ground

          transportation system in the U.S. will relieve

          congestion, help state economies, and lessen

          environmental degradation.

10.  Travel Behavior Issues in the 90s, based on data from the 1990

     National Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS) and the 1985

     and 1989 American Housing Surveys (AHS), Alan Pisarski, for

     the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway

     Administration, Office of Highway Information Management,

     Washington, DC, July 1992.

          Drawing on data from the NPTS and the AHS, this report.

          provides a selective review of changes in the amount,

          purpose, and mode of personal travel, as related to

          various demographic and geographic factors.


11.  New Perspectives in Commuting, based on early data from the

     1990 Decennial Census and the 1990 National Personal

     Transportation Study, Alan Pisarski, for the U.S. Department

     of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Office of

     Highway Information Management, Washington, DC, July 1992.

          The 35 percent increase in persons driving alone to work

          from 1980-1990 (an increase of about 22 million persons)

          exceeded the number of new workers.  All commuting

          alternatives to the single-occupant vehicle declined in

          share.  Transit ridership remained at about 6 million

          riders from 1980 to 1990.  Rail-related travel gained in

          absolute terms, but its gains did not balance declines in

          bus ridership.  The report reviews state and selected

          metropolitan area travel patterns.

12.  "Chicago's $5-Billion Plan," Railway Age, Vol. 193, No. 6, pp.

     43-44, June 1992.

          The article discusses the Regional Transit Authority's

          Future Agenda for Suburban Transportation (FAST) plan to

          improve commuter rail service (including grade crossing

          elimination) and system expansion (including a

          circumferential route).  The FAST plan responds to a

          variety of environmental concerns, most notably

          congestion, air pollution and energy consumption, by

          targeting infrastructure improvements and expansions to

          areas where improved operational flexibility will

          increase train speeds and reduce transit times, making

          the automobile a non-competitive commuting option.

13.  Public Transportation in the United States: Performance and

     Condition, Report to Congress, U.S. Department of

     Transportation, Federal Transit Administration, Washington,

     DC, June 1992.

          The report provides an overview of public transportation

          in the U.S., data and information on how the cost of mass

          transportation has changed over the past two years, and

          future capital investment needs seen in terms of

          different projected levels of mass transportation


14.  The Going Rate: What it Really Costs to Drive, James J.

     MacKenzie, Roger C. Dower, and Donald D.T. Chen, World

     Resources Institute, Washington, DC, June 1992.

          The Institute's study estimates costs of $300 billion per

          year to the environment and to society as a whole that

          are only partly covered by user fees and taxes.  Some of

          the costs identified are: road construction and

          maintenance; highway patrols, traffic management, parking

          enforcement, traffic accident response teams, police work

          on auto accidents and thefts; free commuter parking; air

          and noise pollution; and the security costs of importing

          oil.  Suggested measures to redress the balance include

          higher fuel taxes, road pricing at heavy use times,

          reforming employer-paid parking, and raising charges on

          truckers, as well as long-term changes in zoning laws to

          encourage greater residential population density, making

          public transportation a more viable option.

15.  Searching for Solutions, A Policy Discussion Series: Exploring

     the Role of Pricing as a Congestion Management Tool, U.S.

     Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration

     (FHWA), Number 1, March 1992.

          The report summarizes a July 23, 1991 FHWA seminar that

          provided participants an opportunity to discuss a variety

          of policy issues related to congestion pricing, i.e.

          direct charges for roadway use varying by time, location,

          occupancy, etc. in response to level of service,

          environmental or cost recovery policy objectives. 

          Included are the views and comments of many participants,

          and, while no overall consensus on congestion pricing


          emerged, there was general agreement that revenues must

          be well thought out and presented in advance,

          compensation for those adversely affected must be

          addressed early in the planning process, and reasonable

          alternatives to priced roads must be available.

16.  Financing High-Speed Rail and Maglev Systems in Europe, Japan,

     and the United States:Implications for Systems Financing in

     Florida, Dr. Thomas A. Lynch, Center for Economic Forecasting

     and Analysis, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida,

     for the Florida Department of Transportation, January 1992.

          The study compares public transportation financing and

          subsidies in Western Europe and North America and

          develops a profile of significant public transportation

          policies and other differences between the U.S. and

          Canada and Western Europe that may influence prospects

          for successful deployment of interurban high-speed rail

          systems in Florida.  The report includes a chapter on The

          Need to Include Environmental Externalities in the

          Development of Transportation Systems.

17.  Environmental Research Needs In Transportation, Transportation

     Research Circular, Transportation Research Board, National

     Research Council, Number 389, March 1992.

          This document is the product of many individuals and

          organizations concerned with the identification and

          development of operational solutions to environmental

          issues in transportation.  It provides guidance to

          financial sponsors, such as governmental agencies,

          research institutions, the industry and the academic

          community, in allocating scarce resources for the

          development of functional solutions to environmental

          problems in all modes of transportation.

18.  Edge City, Life on the New Frontier, Joel Gaffeau, Doubleday,

     New York, NY, 1991.

          In this book Mr. Garreau describes the growing phenomenon

          of white collar office and shopping complexes on the

          peripheries of large cities.  He organizes his book

          around nine geographical areas to illustrate broad

          patterns of development.  While he reports that edge

          cities are popular because they are easily accessed by

          car and avoid the problems of cities, he also suggests

          that peripheral office markets and thriving downtowns can

          be mutually beneficial.

19.  The Federal Role in Urban Mass Transportation, George M.

     Smerk, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN, 1991.

     The book surveys historical governmental policies for mass

     transportation, discusses how the availability of mass

     transportation facilities influenced urban areas, and suggests

     how it can be used in the future to improve circulation in

     urban and metropolitan areas, creating a more appealing urban


20.  Steering a New Course: Transportation, Energy and The

     Environment, Deborah Gordon, Union of Concerned Scientists,

     Island Press, Washington, DC, 1991.

          Worsening congestion will soon make transportation an

          even more tedious, aggravating exercise than it already

          often is; dependence on foreign oil will make supplies

          increasingly unreliable and expensive.  Without

          innovative strategies to reduce the number of miles

          driven, cars and trucks will continue to pollute air,

          water, and land.  The book surveys policy options and

          provides a master list of policy recommendations for each

          level of government.


21.  The Renaissance of Rail Transit in America, A Report by the

     Regional Planning Association, New York, NY, 1991.

          The report assesses nine North American rail systems

          developed since World War 11, as well as systems abroad,

          and concludes that around the world, public transit

          ridership is higher than in the U.S. because of: 1) land

          use policies; 2) cost of driving; 3) national

          infrastructure finance policies; and 4) local government

          structure.  The report suggests that the nation needs the

          same long-term commitment to an efficient metropolitan

          transportation system as was made to the Interstate

          Highway System nearly forty years ago.

22.  Special Report 233, In Pursuit of Speed: New Options for

     Intercity Passenger Transport, Conducted by the Transportation

     Research Board, National Research Council, sponsored by the

     U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC, 1991.

          This study of intercity passenger transport concludes

          that high-speed (200 mph) trains are feasible and could

          relieve airport and highway congestion.  Environmental

          benefits of highspeed trains may include a reduction in

          air emissions.  However, because of differences in the

          characteristics of high-speed rail, highway and air

          transportation noise, it is unclear whether high-speed

          rail would reduce or increase ambient noise levels.

23.  Transportation and Tax Policy, Deborah Gordon and Harriet

     Parcells, The Campaign. for New Transportation Priorities,

     CNTP Policy Series, No. 2, Washington, DC, 1991.

          This paper argues that Federal tax laws fail to promote

          energy efficiency in transportation.  Low gasoline prices

          and subsidized parking at work encourage solo driving,

          and Federal policies subsidize big trucks to the

          detriment of more energy-efficient railroads.  Changes in

          Federal tax laws are recommended.

24.  Super-Trains, Solutions to America's Transportation Gridlock,

     Joseph Vranich, St. Martin's Press, New York, NY, December


          This book describes high-speed rail developments in

          Europe, as well as efforts to introduce high-speed ground

          transportation in the U.S. It discusses how high-speed

          trains can reduce energy consumption and oil dependency,

          pollution, global warming, land use consumption, airport

          congestion, and noise.

25.  Neglect of Rail and Intermodal Facilities, Intercity Passenger

     Transportation, The Campaign for New Transportation

     Priorities, CNTP Policy Series No. 5, Washington, DC, August


          Increased Federal funding of intercity passenger rail

          service and intermodal facilities is needed to alleviate

          costly airport and highway congestion, rising dependence

          on foreign oil, and environment pollution.  Flexibility

          to use gas tax revenues for rail service expansion and

          intermodal terminals and earmarking a gas tax penny for

          Amtrak are recommended.

26.  Atlas of United States Environmental Issues, Robert J. Mason

     and Mark T. Mattson, Macmillan Press, New York, NY, 1990.

          The atlas contains state by state, city-by-city multi-

          media environmental data, including land use, forestry,

          coastal zone management, air quality, water quality,

          noise and light pollution, solid wastes, and energy, with

          issue overviews and selected specific area case study



27.  The Greening of Urban Transport: Planning for Walking and

     Cycling in Western Cities, Edited by Rodney Tolley, Bellhaven

     Press, London, England, 1990.

          This is a collection of international essays focusing on

          the need for urban planners to encourage "green modes"

          (walking and cycling) of transportation within cities and

          contains four sections that: address the principles and

          issues of green transport- discuss the practice of green

          transport planning; cite examples of successful traffic

          restraint and exclusion; and review present conditions

          and future possibilities.

28.  National Transportation Strategic Planning Study, U.S.

     Department of Transportation, U.S. Government Printing Office,

     Washington, DC, 1990.

          This study, comprising 17 chapters and 6 appendixes,

          provides an overview of the Nation's transportation

          system and identifies future investments required to

          maintain and develop our infrastructure.  The contents of

          the study were used to support the "National

          Transportation Policy Statement," issued by the

          Department in March 1990.

29.  Transport Policy and the Environment, European Conference of

     Ministers of Transportation, ECMT Ministerial Session, OECD,


     Includes two papers pertaining to pricing of transportation:

     "Urban Traffic Management," David Bayliss, United Kingdom.

          A discussion of methods of restraining traffic, including

          physical restraint of traffic, rationing and permitting

          systems, road pricing, and parking restraint.

     "Economic Aspects," Wemer Rothengatter, Germany.

          Discussion of environmental policy measures to encourage

          users to choose the transport mode with the minimal

          impact on the environment.  Policies include regulation,

          pricing, investment, organization, and marketing and

          advertising policies.

30.  "Building New Rail Markets," William D. Middleton, Railway

     Age, Vol. 19 1, No. I1, pp. 31-53, November 1990.

          Washington, D.C. area commuters are increasingly using

          commuter rail services as an alternative to traveling

          over crowded highways in the sprawling metropolitan area.

          Maryland's MARC system of three lines is the fastest

          growing commuter rail operation in the U.S., and northern

          Virginia will soon have its own commuter service


31.  CONEG High-Speed Rail Regional Benefits Study, A Report on the

     Benefits to the Region of Improved Passenger Rail Service

     Between Boston and New York, prepared by Parsons Brinckerhoff

     Quade & Douglas, Inc., Cambridge Systematics, Inc., and the

     Regional Science Research Institute for the Coalition of

     Northeast Governors, HighSpeed Rail Task Force, Washington,

     DC, October 1990.

          This study identified operational and passenger

          transportation benefits, and environmental and economic

          benefits that would accrue to the region as a result of

          improved Amtrak service between Boston and New York City.

          With three-hour travel times, diversion of trips from air

          and highway travel will help reduce fuel consumption and

          air pollution.  The study estimates that 18,250 air

          shuttle flights and 114 million passenger miles annually

          would be diverted to rail.


32.  Transit 2000 - Managing Mobility: A New Generation of National

     Policies for the 21st Century, American Public Transit

     Association, Transit 2000 Task Force, Washington, DC, 1989.

          The report recommends that transportation policies and

          programs at the Federal,level must be changed and service

          delivery at the state and regional level redefined if we

          are to preserve and enhance mobility.  As a Nation, we

          must make a commitment to reduce dependence on the

          automobile and increase the share of travel demand on

          convenient high-occupancy shared ride services of all


33.  Special Report 220, A Look Ahead - Year 2020 Proceedings of

     the Conference on Long-Range Trends and Requirements for the

     Nation's Highway and Public Transit Systems, conducted by the

     Transportation Research Board, sponsored by the U.S.

     Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration,

     American Association of State Highway and Transportation

     Officials, the Association of Regional Councils, and the

     Transportation Alternatives Group, Transportation Research

     Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1988.

          This volume includes papers and responses presented in

          conference sessions on: Economic Growth and Vitality;

          Demographics and Life-Style; Energy and Environment;

          Future Development Patterns; Commercial Freight

          Transportation; Personal Mobility; New Technology and

          Communications; and Resources and Institutional


34.  Urban Mass Transportation Research Information Service

     Selections Pertaining To: The Cost of Traffic Congestion,

     Washington, DC, May/June, 1988.

          A compilation of abstracts of papers on such topics as:

          Congestion Pricing of Public Transport; Peak - Period

          Traffic Congestion: A State-of-the-Art Analysis and

          Evaluation of Effective Solutions; Analysis of Peak

          Period Traffic Congestion with Elastic Demand; Road

          Pricing: Some Further Comments; Road Pricing - Some of

          the More Neglected Theoretical and Policy Implications;

          Behavioral Impacts of Flexible Working Hours; Technical

          Methods for Road Pricing; Road Pricing: The Economic and

          Technical Possibilities (The Smeed Report); Implementing

          a City Congestion-Pricing Demonstration: Overcoming the

          Hurdles; Effects of Parking Costs on Urban Transport

          Modal Choice.


8. Energy Issues

The United States consumes about 25 % of the world's petroleum,

with transportation accounting for nearly two-thirds of U.S. use

each year.  While oil use in other sectors of the economy has

decreased, transportation consumption continues to grow.  Highway

vehicles consume 73% of all energy used in transportation.  In

high-density corridors, commuter rail and intercity rail passenger

and freight service may be more energy efficient than motor

vehicles, while serving the same purposes.

The Internodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991

(ISTEA) calls for the development of an internodal transportation

system that is economically efficient and environmentally sound and

moves people and goods in an energy efficient manner.  Many of the

programs that can be funded through the ISTEA's Congestion

Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program, as well as other

ISTEA programs, will also increase energy conservation and

efficiency.  Also, alternative fuels being developed to reduce air

pollution may increase engine efficiency.  Further research is

needed on engine performance, emissions, and maintenance, using

alternative fuels, as well as on the energy implications of various

transportation control measures.

1.   Methodology for Freight Transportation Energy and Emission

     Studies, A.M. Khan, for the Canadian Society for Mechanical

     Engineering Forum, June 1-4, 1992, Montreal, Canada, June


          This paper describes methodological advances in the

          estimation of freight transportation energy and

          emissions.  The overall methodological framework is

          covered and a comparative examination of a number of

          recent studies is presented.

2.   Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 12, S.C. Davis, M.D.

     Morris, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee,

     prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Washington DC,

     March 1992.

          This publication is a statistical compendium prepared and

          published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under

          contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies

          in the Department of Energy (DOE).  Designed for use as a

          desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly

          and display of statistics and information that

          characterize transportation activity, and presents data

          on other factors that influence transportation energy


3.   "Report of the 24th Annual Joint Conference of the ENO

     Transportation Foundation, Board of Directors and Board of

     Advisors," D. Knight, Eno Foundation for Transportation,

     Incorporated, Transportation Quarterly, Vol. 46, No. 1, pp. 3-

     17, January 1992.

          This day-long debate had as its theme: "Mobility,

          Environment and Energy--Impossible?"  The discussion

          focused on two research programs undertaken in 1991

          through the auspices of the Foundation, entitled

          "Transportation and Energy" and "Transportation and the

          Environment." Both studies will be published in 1992.


 4.  Energy Efficiency, Developing Nations, and Eastern Europe: A

     Report to the U.S. Working Group on Global Energy Efficiency,

     M.D. Levine, A. Gadgil, S. Meyers, J. Sathaye, J. Stafurik,

     Bechtel National, Inc., Arlington, Virginia, sponsored by the

     Agency for International Development, Office of Energy,

     Washington, DC, 1991.

          The report describes a number of insights gained from

          efforts to promote energy efficiency that have been

          pursued in developing countries in recent years, and

          details some of the ways to move towards a more efficient

          energy future.

5.   Assessment of Costs and Benefits of Flexible and Alternative

     Fuel Use in the U.S. Transportation Sector, Technical Report

     Seven: Environmental, Health, and Safety Concerns, U.S.

     Department of Energy, Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis,

     Washington, DC, 1991.

          This report addresses questions of energy security and

          fuel availability, but covers a wide range of issues,

          examining environmental, health, and safety concerns

          associated with a switch to alternative and flexible fuel


6.   The Texas Transportation Energy Data Book, Southwest Region,

     University Transportation Center, Texas Transportation

     Institute, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, 1991.

          The Texas Transportation Energy Data Book is a

          statistical data base which contains information

          regarding the transportation energy characteristics of

          Texas, comparing transportation statistics of Texas with

          seven other comparable states.  The report furnishes

          information about alternative fuels and new energy saving


7.   "Comparison of Emissions and Energy Use for Truck and Rail,"

     W.G. Blevins, A.W. Gibson, Transportation Association of

     Canada Conference, Vol. 4, Conference Proceedings, 1991.

          This paper examines a variety of railway technologies and

          truck configurations, representative of the range of

          equipment in service, covering a representative route

          across Canada.  The conclusions are that railways can

          move competitive traffic at a fuel saving typically in

          the range of 65 to 70 percent compared with trucks, and

          that this advantage will be largely maintained in the

          future, even in the face of extreme truck configurations

          such as turnpike doubles.

8.   Trucks and Energy Use: A Review of the Literature and the Data

     in Canada, F.P. Nix, Ontario Trucking Association, Rexdale,

     Ontario, Canada, August 1991.

          There are some who say that, because railways are more

          energy efficient than trucks, government should do

          something to encourage a shift of freight from trucks to

          rails.  This report argues that a recent study from

          Transport Canada, which claims that large amounts of

          energy could be saved in Canada if there were a major

          shift of traffic from trucks to the railways (Kahn,

          1991), is flawed, because it uses energy used per ton-

          kilometer of freight as the basis for comparing. 

          According to the author, "Anybody can prove that a train

          can move a ton of freight one kilometer under most

          circumstances with less fuel than a truck, especially if

          the train in question is a unit train of coal moving over

          a long distance and the truck in question is picking up

          or delivering consumer products in an urban area."


9.   Are We Running Out of Oil?, C.J. DiBona, Highway Users

     Federation for Safety and Mobility, Washington DC, July 1991.

          Charles J. DiBona, President and Chief Executive Officer

          of the American Petroleum Institute (APT), addressed more

          than 260 delegates to the 1991 Highway Transportation

          Congress, sponsored by the Highway Users Federation.  In

          this address, an overview on petroleum energy, Mr. DiBona

          voices his opposition to fuel conservation, arguing that

          oil reserves are infinite and opposing alternative fuels

          on the grounds that they will be more expensive.  Mr.

          DiBona calls for development of oil resources in

          locations other than the Middle East.

10.  Energy and Environmental Factors in Freight Transportation,

     A.M. Khan, A.K. SocioTechnical Consultants, Ottawa, Canada,

     for Transport Canada, Economic Research Branch, Ottawa,

     Ontario, July 1991.

          This study produces energy efficiency and environmental

          estimates for the freight transportation system in

          Canada, with emphasis on intercity transportation.  The

          effects of likely future traffic growth and selected

          scenarios are also assessed.The study found that at the

          aggregate national level, rail freight is the most

          efficient user of energy (in ton-km terms) and air

          freight is the most inefficient.  On a per ton-km basis,

          truck service by Class 1 and Class 11 for-hire carriers

          uses more than three times the fuel required by railway

          freight and domestic marine.

11.  Rail Vs.Truck Fuel Efficiency: The Relative Fuel Efficiency of

     Truck Competitive Rail Freight and Truck Operations Compared

     in A Range of Corridors, Abacus Technology Corp., Chevy Chase,

     Maryland, for the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal

     Railroad Administration, Office of Policy, Washington, DC,

     April 1991.

          The report evaluates the fuel efficiency of rail freight

          operations relative to competing truckload service.  The

          findings are based on computer simulations of rail and

          truck freight movements between the same origins and

          destinations, based on actual rail and truck operations. 

          Data was provided by U.S. Class I and regional railroads

          and by large truck fleet operators.  Rail achieved from

          1.4 to 9 times more ton-miles per gallon than competing

          truckload service.  The study included consideration of

          rail circuity, fuel used in rail switching, terminal

          operations, and truck drayage (for rail).

12.  Forecast of Transportation Energy Demand Through the Year

     2010, M.M. Mintz, A.D. Vyas, Argonne National Laboratory,

     Argonne, Illinois, April 1991.

          This report documents the process used to forecast

          transportation activity and energy demand through the

          year 2010.  It was developed by the Center for

          Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory

          under contract to the Office of Transportation

          Technologies under the Assistant Secretary for

          Conservation and Renewable Energy of the U.S. Department

          of Energy.

13.  Transport Coordination, N. Krarup, Copenhagen, Denmark, March


          An investigation, based on questionnaires, of the

          potential for economic savings and energy conservation,

          if firms coordinate transportation of their goods instead

          of having their own individual transportation.  The

          calculated reduction of energy consumption was estimated

          to be 50%, with a 27% reduction in transport.

14.  Transport Energy Conservation Policies for Australian Cities:

     Strategies for Red Automobile Dependence, P. Newman, J.

     Kenworthy, T. Lyons, Murdoch University, Australia, 1990.

     Discussion of transport energy conservation policies for

     Australian cities has been expanded and developed, based on

     the authors' previous book, Cities and Automobile Dependence:

     An International Sourcebook.  New evidence confirms that the

     more automobile-dependent cities were in 1960, the more they

     became by 1980.  Toronto is an exception, not showing the

     downward density and public transport trends evident in the

     other cities and providing a model for Australian cities in

     the next two decades.  Other Canadian cities (Montreal,

     Edmonton, Calgary and Vancouver) were also shown to be more

     like European than US/Australian cities.

15.  Energy Consumption and Conservation Potential: Supporting

     Analysis for the National Energy Strategy, U.S. Department of

     Energy, Washington, DC, December 1990.

          This report presents a detailed assessment of the

          conservation potential in the end-use energy sectors of

          the U.S. economy.  Increased conservation is achieved in

          the transportation sector, by increasing the penetration

          of more efficient alternatively fueled vehicles.  The

          principal finding of this study is that for the same

          level of energy services (heating, cooling, etc.) that

          are enjoyed today by residential, commercial, and

          industrial users, and with modest reduction in vehicle

          travel, if specific technologically based conservation

          initiatives are successful, and can be placed into

          service in every sector and end-use energy system, then

          significant energy savings could be achieved over the

          next 40 years.  Further work is necessary to quantify the

          costs and benefits of these savings in each sector.

16.  National Transportation Statistics, Annual Report, 1990, J.

     Kelley, Transportation Systems Center Research and Special

     Programs Administration, Cambridge, Massachusetts, sponsored

     by the U.S. Department of Transportation, Office of Budget and

     Programs, Washington, DC, July 1990.

          This report is a compendium of selected national

          transportation, and transportation-related, energy data

          from a wide variety of government and private sources. 

          The data illustrate transportation activity for the major

          transportation modes - air, automobile, bus, truck, local

          transit, rail, water, and pipeline.  Basic descriptors

          such as operating revenues and expenses, number of

          vehicles and employees, vehicle and passenger-miles, and

          passenger and freight operations, are included. 

          Transportation trends in performance, safety, and motor

          vehicle sales, production, and costs are also presented. 

          Supplementary sections include Transportation and the

          Economy and Energy in Transportation, which is divided

          into Energy Consumption, Energy Intensiveness, Energy

          Transport, and Energy Supply and Demand.

17.  Energy Policy: Developing Strategies for Energy Policies in

     the 1990s, U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, DC,

     June 1990.

          The information contained in this report updates and

          supplements the information in a previous 1988 General

          Accounting Office report and discusses continuing

          concerns about several energy issues, including energy

          consumption, increased dependence on imported oil from

          Persian Gulf sources that are more likely to be

          interrupted, uncertainty over the adequacy of future

          electric generating capacity, and concern for the

          potentially adverse environmental effects of energy

          consumption.  In addition, the President's initiative to

          develop a national energy strategy is discussed.

18.  Annual Bulletin of Transport Statistics for Europe, 1990,

     United Nations, Volume 40, New York, NY, April 1990.

          The purpose of this annual bulletin is to provide basic

          data on transport and related trends in European

          countries, Canada and the United States.  This

          publication is purely statistical, and its scope

          comprises the rail, road, and inland waterway sectors,

          container transport, goods loaded and unloaded at sea

          ports, transport by oil pipeline, and international goods

          transport by various modes of transport and commodity

          group.  The data refer to length of networks, number,

          capacity and power of vehicles and internal and

          international traffic and transport.  General information

          on the consumption of energy in transport is included.

19.  Iowa at the Crossroads: 1990 Iowa Comprehensive Energy Plan,

     K.D. Sibold, P.S. Cale, K.M. Poulson, L. Dombrowski, R.

     Martin, L. Smith, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des

     Moines, Iowa, January 1990.

          This publication examines lowa's consumption of energy

          and the economic and environmental impacts of energy use.

          The 1990 Comprehensive Energy Plan provides

          recommendations for energy policies that will assist in

          meeting the state's economic and environmental

          objectives.  In addition, to show the technical and

          programmatic potential for carrying out the

          recommendations, an appendix of current energy program

          case studies is included.

20.  Cities and Automobile Dependence: An International Sourcebook;

     Peter Newman and Jeffrey Kenworthy, Gower Publishing Co.,

     Aldershot, England, 1989.

          A study of urban form, transport, and energy use in 32

          cities in North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia.

21.  Transportation Energy, Transportation Research Record No.

     1155, Transportation Research Board, National Research Board,

     Washington, DC, 1987.

          This publication includes several articles concerning

          energy and transportation.


9. International Issues

The European Community is seeking to achieve "sustainable

mobility," to allow transportation to fulfill its economic and

social role while containing its harmful effects on the

environment.  Some countries are developing approaches to take

account of the external effects of transportation by imposing

externality charges through road pricing, gas taxes, kilometer

taxes, and landing charges.  The EC framework will require a

coordinated examination of environmental standards and enforcement

and other guidelines to accomplish their goals.  There is as yet no

common strategy.

1.   Transport Policy Decision made by the German Government in

     1992, Verkehrsnachrichten, published by the Federal Transport

     ministry, Bonn, August/September 1992 (German only), obtained

     from Dr. Andreas Kuechel, Transportation Counsellor, Embassy

     of the Federal Republic of Germany.

          "Priority for the railroad" is the basic principle of the

          decisions made by the German Federal Cabinet on July 15,

          1992, which is also reflected in the transport budget for

          1993 and the masterplan for the transport infrastructure.

          Goals of the German policy are to achieve a

          comprehensive, environmentally-friendly transportation

          system, to meet the increased demand for transportation

          services caused by the unification of Germany, the single

          European market, and the opening of the Central and

          Eastern European countries.  The centerpieces of this

          policy are a quality-improved and capacity-enlarged rail

          passenger and freight system, the development of freight

          centers to interlink rail and road freight traffic,

          improved intermodal service, and better usage of the

          inland waterway system.

          Emphasis is being placed on rapid improvement of the

          linkage between East and West Germany, both with high-

          speed rail and road improvements.  Airport capacity will

          be expanded to handle international flights, and the

          long-term goal is to eliminate all flights under one hour

          where high-speed ground transportation is available. 

          Motor vehicle emissions must be substantially reduced,

          and airport noise is being addressed.  Taxes and fees

          will be used as incentives and disincentives for modal

          shifts.  To encourage modal shifts, rail is receiving

          first priority for investment.  In 1993, for the first

          time, investments in the rail system will exceed the

          investments in the federal highway network.

2.   "The Environment-Mobility Dilemma," Rail International

     Proceedings, Session C, Workshop 17, Brussels, June/July 1992.

          This panel discussed the need to shift more traffic to

          environmentally benign modes and ways to measure the

          environmental and social impacts of transportation. 

          Several papers are described below:

     "The Environment-Mobility Dilemma," a paper by the Chairman of

     the above panel, Dr. Hans Lindenbaum (Austria).

          This paper points out that to prevent mobility from

          endangering health and the environment, railways need to

          be attractive, for people, goods, and for the

          environment.  Dr. Lindenbaum notes that the advent of the

          TGV in France and the ICE in Germany has drawn attention

          from the remainder of the rail system.  He urges greater

          attention to improving the environment and service of the

          rest of the rail network.


     "A Solution Based on Market Principles," Lars Hansson


          This paper points out that in the 1980s, there was

          increasing focus on the quality of mobility of different

          transport modes and the environmental impact of

          transportation.  Externality charges, internalizing

          environmental effects, will allow appropriate tradeoffs

          to be considered.

     "Environmental Problems in the Transport Sector and Concepts

     Proposed for their Solution," Werner Rothengatter (Germany).

          Dr. Rothengatter suggests a pricing policy for the

          different transport modes, with the modes with the

          highest intrinsic environmental costs having to pay the

          highest extra charges-through road pricing, fuel taxes,

          or by paying for environmental certificates.

     "Mobility and the Environment," Antonio Tamburrino (Italy).

          Dr. Tamburrino discusses the concept of "environmentally

          sustainable mobility." He points out the need to obtain

          exhaustive scientific data on environmental effects and

          to develop a sound evaluation of economic, social, and

          environmental costs and benefits, activating a public

          decisional process to build consensus on these.

3.   Transport and the Environment in Finland, Statistics Finland,

     for the Ministry of Transport and Communications, Helsinki,

     Finland, June 1992. (English edition, which is an abridged

     version of the more comprehensive Finnish report.)

          The goal of this report is to provide a comprehensive

          picture of the relationship between transportation and

          environmental issues in Finland.  The. report contains

          statistics, estimates, and projections, research results,

          and information on aspects of transport policy and

          legislation.  One development objective for the next few

          years concerns the pricing of environmental damage

          attributable to traffic.

4.   "Environmental Quality and Transport Policy in Europe," Veli

     Himanen, Peter Nijkamp, and Juraj Padjen, Transportation

     Research, Part A, Policy and Practice, V26A, pp. 147-57, March


          The paper discusses the relationship of transport policy

          and environmental quality/sustainability, suggests that

          transport policy can improve environmental conditions if

          it decreases VMT, auto production and ownership, and

          increases the use of technological measures for cleaning

          exhaust gases.  Four scenarios (status quo, traffic

          restraint, redistribution of demand, and reduction of

          demand) are analyzed and compared.

5.   Financing Public Transport: How Does Britain Compare?, Steer

     Davies Geare, for Bow Group, Centre for Local Economic

     Strategies, Eurotunnel, Railway Industry Association,

     Transport 2000, London, March 1992.

          Compared with other EC countries, in Britain there has

          been a long period of under investment in public

          transport, and by 1991, Britain spent less per capita on

          rail infrastructure than any other EC country apart from

          Greece and Ireland.  Among other recommendations, the

          report calls for a national framework for public

          transport assessment, so plans can be formulated in an

          equivalent manner to the national roads program.


6.   Green Paper on the impact of Transport on the Environment, A

     Community Strategy for Sustainable Mobility, Commission of the

     European Communities, Brussels.  February 1992.

          This paper provides an assessment of the overall impact

          of transport on the environment and presents a common

          strategy for "sustainable mobility," which should enable

          transport to fulfill its economic and social role while

          containing its harmful effects on the environment.  The

          report identifies critical issues relating to pollution

          and noise standards, truck size and weight, speed limits,

          energy consumption, land use, congestion, and the risks

          inherent in transporting dangerous goods, and measures

          that could take better account of the external costs of

          transportation are cited.  The goals are to encourage and

          improve the more environmentally friendly modes

          (especially rail freight, intermodal, barge, rail

          passenger systems) and to make efficient use of existing


7.   Freight Transport and the Environment, European Conference of

     Ministers of Transport (ECMT), ECMT May 1991 International

     Seminar, prepared in Cooperation with OECD, Paris, France,


          In the past 20, years growth in European freight

          transport has occurred primarily on highways, with 75

          percent of the growth attributed to increased length of

          haul.  At the seminar, three papers that presented the

          European perspective emphasized the importance and effect

          freight transport has on the environment, both today and

          in the future.  Additional papers were presented

          detailing technical changes that may reduce future

          adverse emission and noise impacts from all modes.  The

          inclusion of the appropriate environmental costs in

          transport pricing was a theme widely discussed.

8.   Energy and Environmental Issues 1991, Transportation Research

     Record, No. 1312, Transportation Research Board, National

     Research Council, Washington, DC, 1991.

     Includes several articles.  The most informative are:

     "Transportation and Urban Air Pollution Policies for Developed

     and Developing Countries", by Alan J. Krupnick.

          Improvements in urban air quality remain elusive in large

          cities throughout the world, including those in the U.S.,

          where efforts have continued over 20 years to reduce

          emissions from vehicles and other sources.  Germany, the

          Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden have until recently taxed

          clean cars (those using catalytic converters) less than

          others, or reduced their annual vehicle fees.  EC-wide

          vehicle emission standards, which will be somewhat less

          strict than those in the U.S., will make such

          differentiation unnecessary.

     "Pricing of Air Pollution in the Swedish Transport Policy,"

     Lars Hansson.

          Swedish transportation policy has radically changed

          during the last decade.  In 1979, the principle of a

          social marginal cost responsibility for road and rail

          traffic was introduced, taking into account social costs

          for traffic accidents.  In 1988, an essential part of the

          new Transport Policy Act was the principle of

          internalizing some of the traffic emissions.  These were

          then explicitly considered in infrastructure charges for

          road and rail traffic and for domestic aviation. 

          Negative external effects taken into account are traffic

          accidents, air pollution, noise disturbance, and

          congestion, through gas taxes, kilometer taxes, rail

          charges, and landing charges.  Some of these charges have

          already been adopted by Parliament.

9.   Transport in a Fast Changing Europe, Group Transport 2000

     Plus, Brussels, Belgium, 1990.

          This report was prepared by the working group, Transport

          2000 Plus, formed in association with the Commission of

          European Communities, to examine the medium and long-term

          transportation and communication problems of the European

          Community.  It highlights the crisis facing the European

          transportation system once the single market becomes a

          reality.  Unless the pending crisis is addressed by the

          political sector, the transport system is likely to

          become paralyzed, resulting in economic slowdown and

          increased damage to the environment.  The report included

          discussion of transportation's negative environmental

          effects, including land use, energy consumption, noise

          and vibration, visual intrusions, and air pollution.

          The report recognizes that a balance must be struck

          between the environmental imperative and ramifications

          for economic growth.  Any policy introducing

          environmental improvements more quickly than actually

          necessary, with a severely reduced GNP as a result, would

          be just as damaging as the too-little-too-late approach. 

          Recommendations for action include a Euro bonus system

          that would tax petroleum products, a European

          infrastructure fund, as well as other alternatives.

10.  Transport Policy and the Environment, European Conference of

     Ministers of Transport (ECMT), ECMT 1989 Ministerial Sessions,

     prepared in Cooperation with OECD, Paris, France, 1990.

          This report includes the following chapters: The

          Interface Between Transport and the Environment;

          Transport Trends of Environmental Significance; Noise;

          Air Pollution; Regulations and Standards (exhaust

          emissions and noise emissions) in OECD countries; and

          Conclusions.  The report considers how the comparative

          environmental advantages of alternative modes to private

          motorized transport can best be used and suggests that a

          combination of direct and indirect measures, including

          improvement of urban railways, along with charges or

          restrictions as disincentives to car use might be most

          effective.  Any such actions will require political will

          and a major information campaign.  For interurban

          traffic, the ECMT adopted a resolution that recommends

          making railway, inland waterway, and combined transport

          as efficient and commercially oriented as possible, with

          improved cooperation at the international level.  It also

          recommends that any proposals to harmonize taxes and

          charges in international road freight transport should

          take into account the environmental damage caused by such


11.  Transport in Cities, Brian Richards, Architecture Design and

     Technology Press, London, U.K., 1990.

          British architect and transportation planner Brian

          Richards describes practical and attractive

          transportation alternatives that have worked in cities

          around the world.  Drawings, diagrams and photographs

          illustrate ways to reduce auto trips through such

          strategies as auto-free pedestrian zones, road pricing

          and permit programs, busways, light rail, subways,

          intermodal connections, parking restrictions and water


12.  Railways, Environment and Transport Quality, A collection of

     Expert Papers prepared for the International Transport

     Workers' Federation, London, U.K., February 1990.

          Growing demand for mobility, especially in the

          international movement of people and goods, poses the

          question of whether this demand can be satisfied without

          causing irreparable damage to local environments and the

          global environment.  Political decisions with respect to

          transport are now closely scrutinized, and transport has

          become more important on the political agenda.  The

          Railwaymen's Section introduction to the group of papers

          suggests that


          intervention and positive action are required in the

          supply of basic infrastructure and to insure the

          development of transport modes which cause the least

          damage.  "For too long the railways' ability to respond

          to the increasing demand for transport has been

          restricted by lack of investment in modern infrastructure

          by comparison with other transport modes.  Past failure

          to attribute to the other modes their full external costs

          led to the misconception that the other transport modes

          were a "cheaper" option.

          The seven papers included are entitled: The Energy

          Consumption of Various Transport Systems; The 

          Environmental Impacts of Transport; Comparative Accident 

          Costs of Transport Modes; Railways and the Public; The

          Transport Planner's View; The Railway Manager's View; and

          the Transport Politicians View.  Abstracts of several of

          these are presented below:

     "Railways and the Public," J. Sivardiere, General Secretary of

     the National Federation of Transport Users, France, included

     in Sub-Theme 2: Safety and Quality of Service.

          Railways under government-imposed financial constraints

          are frequently obligated to put financial profitability

          before public service considerations.  Improvements in

          service speeds on non-high speed (non-TGV) lines are

          needed as are improvements in: station facilities; maps;

          information availability; passenger comfort; and

          personnel attitudes.  Efficient, convenient modal

          transfers (including adequate station parking) are

          essential, and the railways must make information on such

          transfers readily available.

     "The Transport Planner's View," A. Nilsson, Swedish State

     Railways, included in Sub-Theme 3: Transport and the

     Environment - A Balanced Policy.

          In Sweden, the 1988 Transport Policy Decision established

          that transport charges were to cover total (variable and

          fixed) socioeconomic costs and that these costs were to

          be the responsibility of the user.  The Swedish National

          Railways has developed an estimate of the total 1986

          socioeconomic costs of motor transport indicating that

          the heavy goods transport by road generates SEK 4.5 and

          5.5 billions in costs while the charges and taxes paid by

          this transport segment total only SEK 2 billions.  Once

          the public and decision-makers understand the railways'

          advantages, the author believes railways will be the

          transport mode of the future.

     "The Railway Manager's View," J. Higgins, Republic of Ireland,

     Railway Consultant, Ireland, included in Sub-Theme 3:

     Transport and the Environment - A Balanced Policy.

          The rapidly developing concern for environmental

          standards and energy conservation has expanded the

          opportunity for railroad transport, particularly in light

          of the approaching European Economic Community (EEC)

          single market.  Railroads offer large advantages over

          roadways in: safety, congestion, pollution, noise, land

          use, and energy consumption.  Policy makers should judge

          all modes using the same assessment criteria and must be

          encouraged to support railways, both in terms of revenues

          and investment.  However, in order to gain the support of

          policy makers, the railroads must redouble their efforts

          to improve their performance and recognize that

          anachronistic transport systems supported by public

          charity belong to the past.

     "The Transport Politician's View," G. Whitlam, Prime Minister

     of Australia 197-275, included in Sub-Theme 3: Transport and

     the Environment - A Balanced Policy.

          Increasingly, the relationship between transport and the

          environment is being addressed by governments in an

          integrated and comprehensive approach, matched by a

          consistent determination to create environmentally and

          financially sustainable solutions.  This paper


          considers the scope of a pro-environment transport policy

          and considers the role that rail could play in

          ameliorating transport induced environmental problems and

          the role of government in facilitating this.  While each

          mode's unique advantages should be encouraged, while

          conserving resources and ensuring that a mode is not

          inefficiently under- or overutilized, the principle that

          each mode be required to bear its environmental cost

          should be applied.  The article discusses rail's

          environmental advantages in terms of energy efficiency,

          pollution, safety and consumption of space.

13.  Second Transport Structure Plan, Transport in a Sustainable

     Society, Second Chamber of the States, General Session 1989-

     1990, the Netherlands.

          This paper, submitted to the Parliament as a Cabinet

          Document, sets out the relationship between

          transportation and the environment and the policy of the

          sustainable environment.  The Netherlands is working

          within the European Community (EC) to achieve a situation

          whereby a larger share of the real environmental cost is

          passed on to the user.  They will continue developing

          effective transportation options and negative incentives,

          raising the variable cost of motoring through congestion

          pricing and higher gas taxes.

14.  Transportation and the Environment, Organization for Economic

     Cooperation and Development, Paris, France, 1988.

          This report includes sections on: An Overview on

          Transport and the Environment; The Impacts of Road

          Transport on the Environment; Assessment of Innovations

          in Urban Transport Management; and An Assessment of

          Technical Changes to Reduce Air Pollution and Noise

          Emissions from Motor Vehicles.



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