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Transportation & the Environment - Description and Review of Alternative Policies for Departmental Consideration - Wisconsin TransLinks 21

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MISSION STATEMENT TRANSLINKS 21- Wisconsin's 21st century
transportation plan-will outline a comprehensive transportation
system that moves people and goods efficiently, strengthens our
economy, protects our environment, and supports our quality of
life.  Working with DOT, the public will identify Wisconsin's
transportation needs-and help to make tomorrow's transportation

Tommy G. Thompson

Charles H. Thompson

Transportation and Environment 

Prepared by the
Wisconsin Department of Transportation
TRANSLINKS 21 Environmental Strategies Team

February, 1994


This report was prepared by the Wisconsin Department of
Transportation, Division of Planning and Budget.  The primary
authors of the chapters are as follows:

Executive Summary                       Sari Radin
Chapter 1                               Joe Crossett, Sari Radin
Chapter 2                               Sari Radin
Chapter 3                               Joe Crossett
Appendix A
     Air Quality                        Sari Radin
     Physical Environment               Gary Birch
     Energy                             Carolyn Amegashie
     Global Climate Change              Joe Crossett
Appendix B                              Carolyn Amegashie, Gary
                                        Birch, Joe Crossett, Sari

Environmental Strategies Team: Carolyn Amegashie, Lisa Binkley,
Gary  Birch, Robert Bovy, Joe Crossett, Sarah Dunning, Ellen
Fisher, Susan Fox, Susan Hill, Lynne Judd, Barbara Kipp, Joanne
Lazarz, Tom Murray, Dixon Nuber, Sari Radin, Patrick Riopelle,
Josephine 1. Schmidt, Jerry Sieling

Beneficial comments were provided by John Allen, Thomas Batchelor,
Sandra Beaupre, Lisa Binkley, Donna Brown, Gary Brunner, Rod
Clark, Sarah Dunning, Ellen Fisher, Susan Fox, Joe Hollister,
Lynne Judd, Barbara Kipp, Ken Leonard, Patrick Riopelle, Mike
Rewey, Fred Ross, Jo Schmidt, Darren Schoer, Roger Schrantz, John
Thrall, Tom Walker, Tom Winkel, Fred Wisner.


Executive Summary

Overview of the Issues                                           1
     INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND                                 1
     TRENDS                                                      2
     LEGAL CONSTRAINTS                                           5

Key Environmental Issue Areas                                   11
     INTRODUCTION                                               11
     AIR QUALITY                                                11
     PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT                                       14
     ENERGY                                                     18
     GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE                                      19

Environmental Strategy Packages                                 21
     INTRODUCTION                                               21
     SUMMARIES OF MAJOR STRATEGY GROUPINGS                      21
     ALTERNATIVE TWO: ACTIVE ROLE                               25
     ALTERNATIVE THREE: AGGRESSIVE ROLE                         26
     ALTERNATIVE FOUR: DOMINANT ROLE                            27

GLOSSARY                                                        29

REFERENCES CITED                                                31

Appendices and technical support document available upon request: 

Transportation and Environment

Executive Summary


Transportation, like all human activities, affects the
environment.  This paper is designed to both give an overview of
the environmental effects of transportation and to present
alternative roles in the environmental arena available to the
Department of Transportation.  It begins with an overview of the
issue areas covered, underlying causes of the factors affecting
transportation's impact on the environment, legal constraints,
environmental strategies and alternative roles under which the
strategies would be applied.  These topics are expanded somewhat
in the remainder of the main report.  Two appendices and a
technical support document are available upon request to provide
indepth discussion of the issue areas and environmental
strategies.  Appendix A covers the four issue areas; Appendix B
describes the strategies under four categories: fuel/vehicle
technology, transportation demand/system management, planning
related, and research and education.


Four key environmental issue areas in which transportation plays a
role are identified: air quality; the physical environment,
encompassing biodiversity, water, and waste issues; energy; and
global climate change.  The paper is not exhaustive and the
department recognizes that there are other environment-related
issues affected by transportation.  These four areas were selected
as particularly timely.  Existing environmental legislation
requires WisDOT to consider the impact of the transportation
system on air quality, particularly in the counties that violate
federal ozone standards.  Reauthorization of key federal
legislation affecting each of the physical environment issues is
under consideration.  The efficiency and magnitude of use of
energy affects all of the other topics to be discussed.  Global
climate change is an emerging issue at a national and
international level, and may become an increasingly significant
concern for Wisconsin in the future.  The relationships between
transportation and land use and the effect of transportation
facility development on travel growth are discussed in separate
issue papers.

Alternative Roles

Compliance with requirements: Because of the extent of regulation
in the environmental area, compliance with legal requirements
involves a significant degree of activity.  The Department would
continue to mitigate adverse environmental impacts during project
development to the extent required by existing environmental
regulations.  WisDOT would participate in debate on environmental
policy when a proposal seems likely to harm our ability to meet
transportation needs or impose significant implementation costs,
perhaps beyond the scale of benefits to be received.


Active role: The Department would continue to acknowledge the link
between transportation and the environment, actively mitigate
during project development, and consider environmental issues in
reaction to public expectations and the recognition of emerging

Aggressive role: As the State's transportation agency, WisDOT's
responsibilities would include minimization of the transportation
system's environmental impacts.  The Department would strive to
create a transportation system in which unregulated environmental
impacts are avoided or minimized wherever feasible, in addition to
the activities described above.

Dominant role: As the designated state transportation agency,
WisDOT would actively seek opportunities to harmonize
environmental concerns with transportation needs, and
environmental concerns would be the determining factor in major
transportation policy and planning decisions.

Chapter 1

Transportation and the Environment:
Overview of the Issues


Mobility is an integral component of modern life.  An efficient
and convenient transportation system plays a key role in economic
growth, and the preservation of a high quality of life.  But, the
transportation system can have a disruptive impact on land, water,
and air resources.  Over the past 20 years, WisDOT has developed
an extensive process for review and mitigation of environmental
impacts as part of project development.  However, continued travel
growth, increased awareness of environmental issues, and
recognition that some types of impacts are hard to identify during
project development warrant consideration of environmental issues
as part of the long range planning process.  This report provides
an overview of the complex relationship between transportation and
key environmental issues.  Major environmental issue areas are
identified, and WisDOT's role in environmental protection is
examined.  Four alternative roles for the Department with respect
to the environment are presented for consideration.  More detailed
discussion of the environmental issue areas and strategies appear
in the appendices.

Environmental Issues and the TRANSLINKS 21 Plan
The Transportation and Environment issue paper is a part of
WisDOT's first statewide multimodal transportation plan since the
adoption of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act
(ISTEA).  The plan is called TRANSLINKS 21, and it includes both
strategic policy planning and system infrastructure planning
components.  Analysis of the environmental impacts of
transportation is a key component of the TRANSLINKS 21 Plan. 
Other issues covered in issue papers prepared for TRANSLINKS, such
as land use, transportation demand management, and transit have
close ties with environmental policy.

TRANSLINKS 21 Goals and Values
The TRANSLINKS 21 plan has five basic transportation goals:
Maintaining and enhancing mobility, maximizing the choices of
transportation modes available, maximizing connectivity among
modes, maximizing safety, and public sector efficiency.  In the
development of alternatives, the five basic transportation goals
are interpreted in ways which promote livable communities. 
TRANSLINKS 21 looks carefully at economic growth and environmental
issues, recognizing that both are critical to maintaining the
long-term livability of Wisconsin's communities.



TRANSPORTATION AND ENVIRONMENT              Overiew of the Issues


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Transportation's impact on the environment may be conceptualized
in three phases as illustrated in Figure 1. 1.  The first phase,
shown in the left-hand box, includes production of vehicles,
fuels, and construction materials.  Processes in this phase
include the manufacture of raw materials such as aluminum and
steel used in vehicles, which is very energy intensive; and, the
refining of petroleum which releases smog forming air pollutants. 
The middle box represents what is often considered to be the
"transportation system".  This paper focuses on the environmental
impacts of activities that take place in this box.  The final
phase, shown in the righthand box, contains the disposal of solid
wastes resulting from phases one and two.  In this phase
environmental impacts can occur as a result of the incorrect
disposal of worn tires, old batteries, and used oil.

The transportation system consists of two complementary
components, travel mode and transportation infrastructure, which
together determine the environmental impacts of the transportation
system.  Travel modes include air, rail, road, and water.  Trips
by mode can be broken down by length, and purpose.  Factors such
as cost, convenience, availability, and speed affect trip length,
and mode selection.  The environmental impacts of each mode vary
significantly.  Transportation infrastructure includes railroads,
highways, airports, and harbors.  Transportation infrastructure
choices determine which modes can be included in the
transportation system.  There can be environmental impacts
associated with the construction and repair of transportation
infrastructure.  Policy choices affecting transportation mode
and/or infrastructure can determine the transportation system's
impact on the environment.


Some fundamental forces influence the extent of the transportation
system's impact on the environment.  Trends in regulation, land
use policy, transportation costs, and the related changes


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TRANSPORTATION AND ENVIRONMENT              Overview of the Issues

in travel demand, fuel and vehicle technological change each play
a role in determining the extent of transportation impacts.  They
are discussed briefly below.  Figure 1.2 illustrates the
interactions between each of these factors and the key
environmental issue areas, as well as the relationships among the

Environmental regulation has a significant influence on
transportation policy and the other underlying influences on
environmental effects and the transportation system.  Legal
constraints are discussed in more detail in the next section.  The
volume of environmental regulation has increased rapidly over the
last thirty years.  Important revisions and new laws have been
passed since 1990, and it is likely that new laws or regulations
addressing emerging environmental issues such as global climate
change and toxics will be created in the future.  As laws are
passed at the State and Federal level WisDOT is likely to find its
activities even more circumscribed.  At the same time, these laws
affect land use and travel demand, putting pressure on WisDOT to
develop the infrastructure in response.  Some important
environmental regulations are discussed in the next section.

Land Use
Since World War 11, the shift of population and employment away
from high density central city locations to lower density suburban
and exurban locations has escalated dramatically.  Some
environmental laws, such as Superfund, discourage redevelopment of
industrial properties, which are often located in urban areas. 
Suburban and exurban sites are less likely to have contamination
from previous uses for which developers could be held liable. 
Local land use decisions, beyond WisDOT input, have also
significantly fostered development of suburban areas.

Low density development is not compatible with traditional high
occupancy modes such as transit or non-motorized modes of
transportation such as wailing and bicycling, therefore
encouraging dependence on automobile travel.  Suburban development
has also tended to separate land uses thus encouraging longer
trips.  This issue is discussed at length in the TRANSLINKS paper
on land use-transportation policies.

1 Description and Review of Alternative Land Use-Transportation
Policies for Departmental Consideration


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TRANSPORTATION AND ENVIRONMENT              Overview of the Issues

Travel Cost
Travel cost influences the volume of travel, choice of mode, and
preferred vehicle technology to some extent.  For example, a
significant rise in the cost of gasoline may reduce demand for
travel, encourage use of other modes such as transit; and,
increase the demand for more fuel efficient vehicles.  Likewise,
transit ridership falls as cost increases, both absolutely and
relative to auto travel.

Travel Growth
In 1990, FHWA updated its nationwide personal transportation
survey.  Survey results indicate that between 1983 and 1990
vehicle miles travelled (VMT) grew by 40 percent nationwide.  In
Wisconsin, VMT grew by 138 percent between 1960 and 1990.  Figure
1.3 indicates current forecasts of VMT growth in Wisconsin.

It is likely that future travel growth rates will be lower than
those seen in recent decades.  Factors contributing to the
declining growth rate include: a decline in population growth, a
peak in the growth of the female labor force, and a stabilization
of the decline in vehicle occupancy rates.

However, while overall travel growth rates may drop, travel growth
in particular metropolitan areas may continue, thus straining the
capacity of individual corridors.  As travel increases the
transportation system expands with attendant environmental

Fuel/Vehicle Technology
While VMT has increased, the polluting effects of highway vehicles
both on a per mile basis and in absolute terms have diminished. 
Figure 1.4 indicates this trend.  Emission controls were first
required on automobiles in the early 1960's, and have become
increasingly more effective and sophisticated.  Emissions of both
hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide from new vehicles have been
reduced over 90 percent for automobiles and light duty trucks, and
nitrogen oxides have been reduced over 50 percent.


TRANSPORTATION AND ENVIRONMENT              Overview of the Issues


Transportation's impacts on the environment are highly regulated
at the federal and state level, and environmental regulation is
likely to continue to increase in the future.  The requirements of
existing environmental regulations will determine WisDOT's
environmental role to a considerable extent.

The primary environmental laws which affect transportation are the
Clean Air Act and the Clean Water Act.  The National Environmental
Policy Act and the Wisconsin Environmental Policy Act lay out the
procedure that must be followed in considering environmental
aspects of proposed actions.  A number of other laws relating to
specific environmental impacts also must be considered: The
Endangered Species Act, Wisconsin Endangered Species Law,
Migratory Bird Treaty Act, Cooperative Agreement with WisDNR for
water and wetland laws, Coastal Zone Management Act, and the
Coastal Zone Act Re-authorization Amendments of 1990. 
Requirements for remediation of contaminated sites under the
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability
Act make costly and time consuming contaminated site assessments
necessary when corridors are proposed through industrial areas. 
The primary transportation law is the Intermodal Surface
Transportation Efficiency Act.  The National Energy Policy Act
includes provisions relating to transportation as well.  Brief
descriptions of the primary laws follow.

Clean Air Act (CAA)
The CAA sets National Ambient Air Quality Standards for five air
pollutants.  All parts of the country must meet these standards or
be considered in nonattainment.  When an area is in nonattainment,
it must implement certain mandatory control measures, as well as
any additional measures that are needed to show progress toward
coming into attainment.  Mandatory programs in Southeastern
Wisconsin include conformity of transportation and air quality
plans, enhanced inspection and maintenance of vehicles, clean fuel
fleets, reformulated gasoline, and a program for large employers
to encourage employees to choose other commuting options than the
single occupant vehicle.

Clean Water Act, as Amended
The Clean Water Act was enacted to restore and maintain the
integrity of the Nation's waters through the prevention,
reduction, and elimination of pollution.  Section 404 of this Act
requires that Wisconsin DOT coordinate with the Corps of Engineers
to obtain permit authorization to discharge fill or dredged
material into waters of the United States.  Section 401 requires
that before permits for discharges can be obtained, water quality
certification from the state natural resources agency must be
obtained.  The WisDNR certification to WisDOT occurs through a
Cooperative Agreement process.

TRANSPORTATION AND ENVIRONMENT              Overview of the Issues

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPAI
The objective of this federal law is to insure that an agency will
give appropriate and careful consideration to the environmental
aspects of proposed actions and alternatives that will
significantly affect the human environment.  CEQ regulations,
which implement NEPA, require that the agency avoid, minimize and
compensate for environmental impacts.  NEPA requires Environmental
Impact Statements for significant projects.  It applies to the
actions of federal agencies, and state agencies where federal
money is used or approval is required.

Wisconsin Environmental Policy Act (WEPA)
This state law complements the National Environmental Policy Act
discussed above.  It was written for the same purposes as the
federal legislation, but is affects the activities of state
agencies.  It becomes effective where state agencies propose
projects that would have a significant impact on the human and
natural environment.  One of its end products is a state
Environmental Impact Statement.  A related requirement,  1. 12,
Stats., mandates consideration of the conservation of energy
resources when making major decisions that could significantly 
affect energy uses.

Under WEPA and NEPA, environmental reviews are done at the project
level, often after many previous decisions (planning or budgetary)
have already occurred.  There is a need to examine impacts of
policies, plans or budgets before they are segmented into tens or
even hundreds of individual projects.  This need to examine
impacts with a cumulative perspective has spurred two related
efforts at WisDOT that will help examine environmental impacts at
earlier stages of decision making - the System-plan Environmental
Evaluation (SEE) which is conducted at the plan level and a
Legislative Environmental Implementation Statement (LEIS) which is
conducted at the policy and budget level.

Internodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA)
ISTEA requires that states and metropolitan planning organizations
consider the overall social, economic, energy, and environmental
effects of their transportation plans.  It provides funding for
transportation projects that reduce air pollution through the
Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality improvement program.

National Energy Policy Act
This law encourages the development and use of alternative fuels. 
It establishes a program for the research and development of
electric vehicles, and provides for tax incentives for the use of
these vehicles and of alternative fuel vehicles.  It mandates the
establishment of a governmental fleet program requiring purchases
of alternatively fueled vehicles.


TRANSPORTATION AND ENVIRONMENT              Overview of the Issues


Four key transportation-related "Environmental Issue Areas"
determine the broad menu of 'Environmental Strategies".  An
appropriate package of environmental strategies can be drawn from
this menu for the Department.  Some strategies are mandated by
existing law; however, selection and determination of the
appropriate geographic and technical scale of implementation of
many strategies will be greatly influenced by the "Environmental
Role" adopted by the Department.  The environmental role provides
a set of guiding principles for selection of appropriate
environmental strategies, constrained by the Department's broader
"Transportation Policies".  For instance, in situations where much
of the environmental problem results from another source, the
Department may wish to avoid the problem or seek other funding
rather than take resources away from other goals.  Four
alternative "environmental strategy packages" are presented for
consideration below.  Each succeeding alternative, beginning with
Alternative One, represents an increased level of WisDOT
commitment to environmental concerns.  Because of the regulatory
nature of environmental protection, the range of alternatives
possible is not as broad as for other TRANSLINKS issues. 
Strategies suggested are examples that illustrate the degree of
activity appropriate for that role, not an exhaustive listing.

Alternative One: Compliance With Environmental-Regulations
As the designated state transportation agency WisDOT's
responsibility would be to ensure mobility for the citizens and
businesses of Wisconsin.  The Department would continue to
acknowledge the close link between transportation and the
environment.  The Department would rely on the expertise of
Federal and State environmental agencies to determine the level of
action which is appropriate to minimize the negative side effects
of transportation, while objecting to environmental regulations
that are not cost-effective, or that force WisDOT to mitigate
environmental problems primarily caused by non-transportation

WisDOT would participate in debate on environmental policy only
when a proposal seems likely to harm our ability to meet
transportation needs or impose significant implementation costs,
perhaps beyond the scale of benefits to be received.  The
Department would develop a level of staff environmental expertise
adequate to participate in such discussions and to aid in
compliance with all transportation-related environmental laws.  It
would be inappropriate for the Department to actively pursue
environmental policies not required by law as this function would
be performed by other agencies and groups.

Alternative one may be characterized as a decline in WisDOT's
environmental protection role.


TRANSPORTATION AND ENVIRONMENT              Overview of the Issues

Alternative Two: Active Role - Reactive to Specific Environmental
As the State's designated transportation agency WisDOT's primary
responsibility would be to ensure mobility for the citizens and
businesses of Wisconsin.  The Department would continue to
acknowledge the close link between transportation and environment,
and would actively mitigate environmental impacts during project
development.  The Department would consider environmental issues
in reaction to public expectations and in recognition of emerging
issues.  However, a direct role in setting environmental policy
would only be appropriate where benefits to the transportation
system outweigh the costs, unless mandated by law.

WisDOT would participate in environmental policy debate wherever
transportation-related environmental impacts occur.  The
Department would comply with all State and Federal transportation-
related environmental laws.  The Department would foster the
development and utilization of in-house environmental expertise to
facilitate the mainstreaming of environmental decision making into
the transportation planning process, and to develop an awareness
of unregulated transportation-related environmental issues so that
the Department would be positioned to react to future policy
developments in the best interests of the transportation

Alternative Two may be characterized as the status-quo.

Alternative Three: Aggressive Role
As the State's designated transportation agency, WisDOT's
responsibilities would include minimization of the transportation
system's environmental impacts.  A direct role in setting
environmental policy would be appropriate for the Department under
circumstances where environmental policies and programs are
compatible with broader transportation goals.  The Department
would take a broad initiative on State transportation issues, and
would support Federal initiatives where appropriate.

WisDOT would participate in environmental policy discussions, and
would comply with all Federal and State environmental regulations. 
The Department would strive to create a transportation system in
which unregulated environmental impacts would be avoided or
minimized wherever feasible.  Communication and debate about
transportation-related environmental issues would be actively
encouraged, and environmental goals would figure prominently in
policy and planning discussions.

Alternative Three may be characterized as an expansion of WisDOT's
environmental protection role.

TRANSPORTATION AND ENVIRONMENT            Overview of the Issues  

Alternative Four: Dominant Role - Regulatory Approach
Many environmental experts hold the view that long term economic
prosperity is dependent on environmental sustainability.  As the
designated state transportation agency WisDOT would actively seek
opportunities to harmonize environmental concerns with
transportation needs.  The Department would support aggressive
measures aimed at changing travel behavior and reducing growth in
travel.  Environmental issues would be the determining factor in
transportation investment decisions.  A direct role in setting
environmental policy would be appropriate in this context, and
appropriate measures would be taken to minimize the negative side
effects of transportation.

WisDOT would comply with all State and Federal laws, and would
initiate debate on transportation and environmental policy. 
Environmental considerations would be mainstreamed into the
transportation planning process.  Unregulated environmental
impacts would be mitigated to the extent feasible.

Alternative Four may be characterized as a major expansion of
WisDOT's environmental protection role.


Chapter 2

Key Environmental Issue Areas


To evaluate the alternatives presented in Chapter 1, it is
necessary to have a basic understanding of the key environmental
issue areas in which transportation plays a significant role. 
This paper focuses on natural resource issues and does not attempt
to address socioeconomic, cultural or historic preservation
issues.  Four categories of environmental issues will be discussed
in this chapter: air quality, the physical environment, energy and
global climate change.  Detailed analyses of each issue are
contained in Appendix A.


Transportation can contribute significantly to a range of
environmental problems when there are excessive emissions of
pollutants to the atmosphere.  The effects of the pollutants
include health problems, damage to crops and forests, damage to
aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, materials deterioration, and
loss of visibility.  There is public concern about these impacts,
as well as aesthetic problems associated with emissions, such as
odors and smoke.

Tropospheric ozone is the air pollutant of greatest concern in
Wisconsin.  It is formed when volatile organic compounds (VOC) are
combined with oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in the presence of
sunlight, although recent modelling indicates that in Southeast
Wisconsin, it is more important to control VOC emissions than NOx. 
As a result of emissions both within Wisconsin and transported
from outside the region, Southeastern Wisconsin violates federal
standards for ozone levels.  Carbon monoxide, a poisonous gas, and
particulates, which can cause respiratory problems, can be local
problems.  Toxic pollutants, which can cause cancer, are becoming
a greater concern as other air pollution problems are lessening. 
Transportation contributes significantly to all of the air
pollution problems listed above.  Acid deposition, as a result of
oxides of sulfur emissions, will not be discussed because
transportation contributes very little to the problem. 
Transportation does contribute significantly to NOx emissions
which are also acid precursors, however sulfur is the larger
problem in acid deposition.

Federal mandates are extremely effective in reducing motor vehicle
emissions.  National data published by the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency indicate that during the 1980's, VOC emissions
from motor vehicles decreased 34 percent nationally, despite a 41
% increase in travel2.  Even with increases in vehicle miles
travelled, emissions from mobile sources are


2 United States Environmental Protection Agency. 1991. National
Air Pollutant Emission Estimates 1940-1990.

TRANSPORTATION AND ENVIRONMENT                Environmental Issues

declining in both relative and absolute terms.  Figure 2.1 shows
trends in VOC emissions and VMT for the 1980 to 1990 period, and
Figure 2.2 gives projections assuming two different VMT growth

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Mobile sector VOC emissions in Wisconsin are expected to decline
58 percent, from 160 to 67 tons between 1990 and 1996, as
illustrated in Figure 2.3. As a result of control measures being
implemented under the Clean Air Act, the fraction of total VOC
emissions from mobile sources in Southeast Wisconsin is expected
to decrease from 38% in 1990 to 23% in 1996.  In absolute terms,
total VOC emissions during that same period will decline from 402
tons per summer day to 288 tons per summer day.  The EPA is
undertaking a reevaluation of the MOBILE model, which it uses to
calculate emissions, and is expected to make changes in the
emission factors.  This will probably result in an overall
increase in emissions which are attributed to the mobile source
sector.  For more information on trends in motor vehicle
emissions, see Appendix A. 1, or the February draft background
paper "Trends in Motor Vehicle Emissions", prepared by WisDOT.


TRANSPORTATION AND ENVIRONMENT             Environmental Issues

While the largest and most obvious source of emissions from the
current transportation system is highway vehicles, the
infrastructure and other modes of transportation result in
emissions as well.  In any discussion of reducing emissions from
transportation through adopting an intermodal system, pollution
from the modes other than highway should be included.

Very little of the air pollution that can be directly attributed
to transportation comes from the construction or maintenance of
transportation infrastructure.  The issue of induced travel from
new capacity is discussed in a separate paper.  In the aggregate,
highway modes pollute the most because these modes constitute the
majority of all travel.  Diesel vehicles, including both highway
and rail, contribute more to NOx emissions than gasoline powered
vehicles, both on an aggregate and per mile basis.

When comparing modes, it is useful to keep in mind that within
each mode, technology, fuel and operating conditions can vary
substantially.  For this reason, ranges of potential emissions are
considered for each mode.  On a per passenger or ton mile basis,
newer technologies and higher vehicle occupancy or load lowers
emissions for most pollutants.  For hydrocarbon and carbon
monoxide emissions, automobiles have the widest range of emissions
represented because of the potential for change given new
technology.  The lowest emissions from automobiles is represented
by the California ultra low emission vehicle standard, which has
yet to be proven in the fleet.  For the technology contained in
the range, current automobiles using current gasoline emit at the
top of the range for CO and a& the middle of the range for NOx and
hydrocarbons.  Comparing passenger modes, the single occupant
vehicle (SOV) emits significantly more hydrocarbons and carbon
monoxide on a per passenger basis than any other mode.  The same
comparison for NOx, however, is a different story.  Carpooling,
vanpooling, intercity diesel trains, and electric powered heavy
rail transit systems do better than an SOV, but with current
technology and fuels, buses and diesel commuter rail emit more. 
Under an extreme scenario of very low ridership on a commuter
train, emissions of NOx on a per passenger mile basis from the
train are more than ten times as great as from the SOV.  Air
travel appears much better than any other mode, although only
pollution occurring during the landing and take-off cycles is

For freight, rail and vessel emit less on a per ton-mile basis
than trucks for hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.  NOx emission
from vessel transport could be as high or slightly higher than
emissions from truck transport, although much of the emission
range for vessels is below the range for trucks.  For longer trips
-where intermodal shipping is involved, the difference between
trucks and rail is less.  Easy intermodal shipment of goods
requires different types of equipment that are only partially
optimized for the modes for which they are used.  This intermodal
equipment could be less energy efficient or lead to increases in
emissions over the best equipment for each mode.  For instance,
trailer on flatcar shipments have poor aerodynamics compared to
other rail equipment, leading to poor fuel economy.


TRANSPORTATION AND ENVIRONMENT             Environmental Issues

In addition to the mandatory programs under the CAAA listed in
Chapter 1, there are a number of other environmental strategies
that could reduce emissions:

         Improved vehicle fuel efficiency
         Expanded inspection and maintenance
         Improved vehicle emission controls
         Expanded use of reformulated gasoline
         Lower vapor pressure gasoline
         Controls on locomotive emissions
         Use of selected alternative fuels
         Additional investment in alternative transportation
         Incentives and disincentives
         Alternative work schedules/sites
         Traffic flow improvements
         Improved land use/transportation planning
         Reduced speeds


Over the last thirty years, new laws and regulations have emerged
that have attempted to minimize or mitigate the impact of human
activities on the natural world.  While air quality effects from
transportation are dominated by the use of modes, the detrimental
effects on the physical environment result mainly from the
provision of the infrastructure.  Consequently, reducing the need
to provide more infrastructure by providing alternatives to single
occupant vehicle travel can reduce some of the effects on the
physical environment.  These effects include loss of biological
diversity and habitat fragmentation, loss of prime agricultural
land, noise impacts, non-point stormwater runoff pollution, soil
erosion, wetland loss, leaks from underground storage tanks and
spills, and water pollution from harbor dredging.  Transportation
directly causes loss of biodiversity, noise, non-point stormwater
runoff pollution and wetland filling at least to some extent. 
Transportation may indirectly contribute to problems with nonpoint
stormwater runoff, and wetland filling through its relationship to
land use.  Leaking underground storage tanks and abandoned waste
sites, and harbor dredged material to a large extent are
environmental problems that the Department must deal with in the
building and maintenance of the transportation system, although
WisDOT may have contributed very little or not at all to the
creation of the problem.

Shrinking biological diversity and natural habitat fragmentation
Biological diversity is the diversity of genes, species and
ecosystems.  The biological world is a series of connected
species, with the richness and complexity of species and the


TRANSPORTATION AND ENVIRONMENT                Environmental Issues

between those species contributing significantly to the health and
resilience of the biological world.  Healthy ecosystems provide
clean water and air, and are necessary to support commercial and
recreational fish and wildlife populations, forestry products and
some aspects of agriculture.  Furthermore, the diversity of
species and even genetic strains provide a pool of critically
important resources for potential use in Wisconsin's agriculture
and medicine, and to enhance the quality of life.

The smaller the habitat is for animals, the less species diversity
there is, and the more likely the species that do exist there will
be eliminated over time because of random events such as
tornadoes, droughts or floods.  Some habitats in Wisconsin where
fragmentation is especially noticeable are woodlands in the
southern third of the state and high quality grasslands statewide. 
When a transportation corridor is placed through a habitat, it
breaks up the habitat into smaller pieces, sometimes below a
minimum critical area for one or more species.  Within
transportation, highways contribute the most to fragmentation,
although rail while less pervasive, has a similar effect.

Loss of prime agricultural land
Highways and local land use decisions commonly influence the
location and timing of developments, although not the total demand
for regional development.  It is likely that the effects of a
given highway expansion will be greatest in those areas also
undergoing the greatest growth pressure already.  Today, much of
Wisconsin's prime agricultural land is located close to urban
areas, and is often under the most pressure for conversion to
urban use.  The loss of prime agricultural lands is an important
resource issue since today's decisions about transportation and
land use will affect the range of choices available to society in
the future.

If a transportation project has a noise impact, abatement can be
provided by shifting the alignment, depressing the roadway, or
constructing noise barriers.  WisDOT adopted a policy for
providing retrofit noise barriers throughout Wisconsin at 209
locations.  WisDOT is also working with local units of government
to encourage noise compatible land uses near rail systems and
airports, as well as highways.

Non-point stormwater runoff pollution
The source of non-point pollution varies significantly depending
on where in Wisconsin measurements are taken.  On a statewide
basis, agriculture contributes the most toward non-point runoff. 
However, in several urban counties in southern Wisconsin, non-
point runoff originates from many other sources such as
construction sites for buildings, utilities, and impervious
surfaces such as roof tops, parking lots and highways.
Transportation facilities act as conduits for non-point pollution,
tunnelling pollutants from fields, construction sites, and the
roads themselves into lakes and streams via storm water drains.



Besides collecting hydrocarbons and heavy metals, large areas of
pavement warm the water before discharge, lowering the amount of
oxygen it can carry and consequently decreasing the aquatic life
it can support.

Road salt, in particular, has been traced to shifts in vegetation
in some lakes because of increases in chlorine.  For example
amounts of chlorine in some Wisconsin lakes were recorded at 5-10
mg/l historically.  However recently, those same lake's chlorine
count increased to 70 mg/I.  Similar increases are measured in
Lake Michigan.  It should be noted that these are still well below
toxic levels for vertebrates.  Research in this area has linked
changes in algae and other vascular plants to this increase in
chlorine.  Not all of the chlorine increase can be attributed to
road salt.  Substantial amounts come from water softening salt and
industrial uses.

Although agriculture is the greatest contributor to erosion
statewide, construction of homes, utilities and roads contribute
significantly in several urban counties in southeastern Wisconsin. 
In recent years, development of sophisticated erosion control
methods, combined with very significant efforts to minimize
erosion by WisDOT, road builders and highway designers has reduced
erosion from highway projects.  Erosion dumps tons of soil
sediment into Wisconsin's streams and lakes, smothering all but
the most resistant of bottom dwellers, covering spawning areas,
and extracting oxygen from the water.  In addition, a large
percentage of harbor dredging is required because of erosion.

Wetlands and wetland filling have been transportation issues for
at least twenty years and continue to be significant issues.  The
biggest contributor to wetland losses is conversion to
agricultural land.  Within transportation, highways contribute
most toward wetland losses with airport expansion a distant
second.  WisDOT makes every effort to avoid or minimize the
wetland loss and is approaching no net loss of wetlands for any
projects.  Wetland mitigation for projects takes place at a ratio
of 1.5 new acres for each acre lost.  Bank sites consisting of
wetlands remediated off site have been created for use when on
site mitigation is not possible.

Leaking underground storage tanks
Although WisDOT is not directly responsible for these storage
tanks, some of the tanks were used for fuel storage, necessitated
by the need for transportation.  Leaking underground storage tanks
are a source of groundwater contamination for Wisconsin.  WisDOT
is involved in cleanup of these tanks, costing four to five
million dollars per year.  Soil or water contamination is often
encountered during the planning or construction of a highway
because of the proximity of service stations and other commercial
buildings to existing highways.  The entire site, by law, must be
cleaned by the owner of the storage tank.  Because of the long
regulatory process, WisDOT often cannot wait for private parties
to clean up before proceeding with construction and often performs
the clean-up, at least within the right of way.



Contaminated  Soil
Contaminated soil is pervasive in previous industrial and
commercial areas in Wisconsin.  Federal and state contaminated
site laws (Superfund, etc.) contain sweeping liability provisions
for all current owners of these sites regardless of the owner's
contribution to the problem.  Although the laws are intended to
cause clean-up of contaminated sites, several unintended impacts
have occurred such as abandonment of large areas in many central
urban areas throughout the state, and causing tax delinquency on
these lands.

WisDOT often encounters contaminated soils in one or more of the
alignments considered for any given project.  High clean-up, costs
for problems not created by WisDOT or even the transportation
sector may distort decisions, preventing selection of an otherwise
desirable alternative.  In addition, reluctance of developers and
lending institutions to assume liability for clean-up has helped
encourage development at the urban fringe rather than
redevelopment in central urban areas.  These newly developed areas
require transportation service whereas redevelopment of existing
areas might well be served by existing transportation.

Harbor dredged material
To remain useful to both commercial and recreation traffic,
Wisconsin's harbor basins must be dredged on a regular basis. 
Harbor dredging sometimes involves contaminated sediment.  Point
and non-point sources from land use and industrial practices
contribute to the contamination of the harbor sediment.  Not all
dredged material is considered to be contaminated, however, and
there is the potential for this material to be used beneficially
for wetland mitigation/creation, beach restoration, and
construction.  Confined disposal facilities are used to hold
contaminated dredged material.  These facilities are filling fast
in Wisconsin.  Alternatives include extending the lives of
existing facilities by increasing dike height and recycling clean
dredged material.

Environmental Strategies
In addition to actions taken to comply with the many legal
requirements listed in Chapter 1, there are a number of policy
options that WisDOT could pursue to mitigate the effect of
transportation on the issues listed above.  These options are
described in detail in Appendix B.

         Mitigation research
         Improve land use/transportation planning
         Transportation demand/system management
         Retain ownership of surplus right-of-way
         Help local governments plan harbor facilities
         Assist local governments in identifying environmentally
          acceptable dredged material sites (confined and
          unconfined) and uses 
         Increase WisDOT/WisDNR emergency spill education 
         Support changes in contamination liability laws
         Support alternatives to road salt in critical areas


Click HERE for graphic.

TRANSPORTATION AND ENVIRONMENT                Environmental Issues

In addition, policy options that would reduce emissions of air
pollutants would have a beneficial secondary effect on water
quality through reduced deposition and runoff.


Transportation requires the input of energy, but the quantity and
source of the energy vary by mode and type of technology. 
Pollution and disruption of the environment occur throughout the
fuel cycle, from extraction and distribution through the end use
in the vehicles.  The magnitude of energy use and its distribution
across fuel types determines the size of the effects from energy
use.  The more efficiently energy is used, the more easily the
transportation system can meet the TRANSLINKS goal of mobility
without sacrificing environmental quality.

There are two components in an energy efficient transportation
system: fuel efficient vehicles, and high occupancy or load of
those vehicles.  National statistics indicate that between 1970
and 1990, energy efficiency increased for all passenger modes,
except transit buses and rail transit.

As a result of Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards and rising
gasoline prices through the early eighties, automobiles in 1990
were over 31 percent more fuel efficient than in 1970 on a per
passenger mile basis.  Highway system improvements have reduced
congestion and unnecessary speed changes so vehicle engines can
operate more efficiently, and so less energy is lost through
braking.  Transit buses became less energy efficient during this
time period, partially due to declining ridership. On a per
passenger mile basis, energy efficiency of transit buses dropped
by 51 percent between 1970 and 1990.

All freight modes experienced energy efficiency improvements from
1970 to 1990, measured on a per vehicle mile basis. Diesel fuel
burned per unit of freight hauled declined as a result of load   
increases and marginal improvements in operating efficiency over
time. In general, vessels are the most energy efficient mode on a
per ton mile basis, followed by rail and truck.

Energy consumption in Wisconsin in the transportation sector
nearly doubled between 1960 and 1990, from approximately 0.18
quadrillion Btu in 1960 to 0.34 quadrillion Btu in 1990. Figure
2.4 illustrates this trend. In 1991, the industrial, residential,
and transportation sectors each used about a quarter of the energy
consumed in the state.


TRANSPORTATION AND ENVIRONMENT             Environmental Issues

Motor gasoline was the major fuel type used in the state's
transportation sector between 1970 and 1990, representing 88
percent and 78 percent of total fuel consumed in those years
respectively.  Most of the gasoline used in the sector was used to
fuel light duty vehicles, which are primarily automobiles. 
Because of improvements in the fuel efficiency of automobiles, the
quantity of gasoline consumed in 1990 did not exceed the 1975
level.  Highway diesel fuel use increased significantly during
that period as a result of increased highway freight movements. 
Fuel use by both rail and vessel decreased over this time as
freight was shifted to the highway mode and locomotive technology

Energy use has a number of environmental impacts.  The development
and distribution of oil can result in serious environmental
degradation.  Burning fuel releases air pollutants and greenhouse
gases.  Deposition of these pollutants causes some problems with
water pollution.

Both the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA)
and the Energy Policy Act have implications for energy use in
transportation.  ISTEA requires that states and metropolitan
planning organizations consider the energy effects of their
transportation plans.  The Energy Policy Act contains a number of
requirements and incentives to increase the use of alternative
fuel vehicles.

The following strategies could be used to conserve energy.  They
are discussed in more detail in Appendix B.

         Improve vehicle fuel efficiency
         Use of selected alternative fuels
         Invest in energy efficient alternative transportation
         Incentives and disincentives to affect travel demand and
          modal split
         Alternative work schedules/sites
         Traffic flow improvements
         Improve land use/transportation planning
         Assist local governments in identifying environmentally
          acceptable dredged material sites (confined and
          unconfined) and uses
         Inspection and maintenance of vehicles
         Reduced speeds


Global climate change is an emerging environmental issue which is
surrounded by controversy and uncertainty.  A significant body of
scientific opinion asserts that some build up of greenhouse gases
is already occurring, and that global climate change may occur as 


TRANSPORTATION AND ENVIRONMENT                Environmental Issues

a consequence of this build up.  This knowledge has led to public
concern about "global warming", and the development of national
and international programs to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.

Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere trap the earth's heat. 
Research has shown that since 1900 human activities have led to a
25 percent increase in atmospheric concentrations of C02, the
primary greenhouse gas.  The five most important greenhouse gases
in order of significance are carbon dioxide, methane, CFCs, ozone,
and nitrous oxides.  Carbon dioxide, which is a byproduct of
fossil fuel combustion, composes the majority of greenhouse gas
emissions generated by mobile sources.  Transportation accounted
for approximately 25 percent of statewide carbon dioxide emissions
in 1990.

Many scientists argue that this increase could result in an
elevation of the greenhouse effect and consequently a change in
global climate.  The extent and timing of climatic change is
difficult to predict, with predictions of change over the next
century ranging from 0.9 degrees Fahrenheit to 8.1 degrees.  There
are a number of uncertainties which must be resolved in order to
determine the likelihood and degree of global climate change.  The
extent to which the oceans and vegetation can absorb carbon
dioxide from the atmosphere, the role clouds play in either
warming or cooling the earth, and the amount of heat that the
oceans absorb need to be determined in order to assess the amount
of warming that could result.

The potential impacts of global climate change on Wisconsin are
very uncertain because in addition to the uncertainty discussed
above, the models that predict warming look at impacts over large
areas and cannot accurately predict regional or local impacts. 
There is a chance that climate change in Wisconsin could result in
a shift in the vegetation provinces northward causing significant
ecosystem disruption and species loss.  Along with this effect,
the change in climate could disrupt the forestry economy and
change the type of agriculture that could be supported in the
state.  Besides these effects on land, the Great Lakes could have
lower average lake levels, reduced duration of ice cover,
increased thermal stratification, increased growth of algae,
decreased water supply capabilities, and higher water
temperatures.  These changes in the lakes could increase the need
for dredging and harm aquatic life.

There is no existing federal legislation in the US to control
greenhouse gas emissions.  The Clinton administration recently
issued a National Action Plan for reducing carbon dioxide
emissions.  The plan is primarily voluntary in nature, but
recommends federal legislation to encourage "parking cash out"
policies among employers.  Under these policies, employers would
give employees cash transportation benefits equal to the value of
parking at their site.  The policy options listed for energy
conservation could also reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. 
Given the uncertainties surrounding global climate change, it
would appear advantageous to focus attention on policies that,
wherever possible, carry other environmental and or economic


Chapter 3

Environmental Strategy Packages


This chapter identifies environmental policies appropriate for
mitigation of transportation's impacts on the environment.  Most
transportation-related environmental policies fall under one of
four major policy groups: Fuel and vehicle technology,
Transportation demand/system management, Planning-related options,
and Research/education efforts.  For the most part, project-level
mitigation strategies are not dealt with because of the extensive,
existing system for project-level mitigation.  In addition, there
are a number of areas where the level of mitigation pursued is an
issue for WisDOT largely because of questions about how the
mitigation costs are covered.  For example, extensive stormwater
control can be very expensive.  The TRANSLINKS financial strategy
will address options for funding mitigation for areas where
cost, rather than the appropriateness of mitigation, is the issue. 
Selection of environmental policies is determined both by
regulatory requirements, and the environmental alternative adopted
by the Department.  A possible "package" of example policy
measures for each alternative is described in the following
section.  Specific policy measures are described in more detail in
Appendix B.


Vehicle Technology/Fuel Strategy
Improvements in vehicle design/technology can yield significant
vehicle fuel economy increases.  Improvements in fuel economy may
result in a decrease in fuel consumption, if total travel does not
increase in response to fuel economy improvements.  In addition to
energy savings, pollutant emissions are also reduced, although the
relationship between fuel saved and emissions reduced is not
necessarily linear for all pollutants.  The federal government has
challenged efforts by states to improve fuel efficiency through
rebate programs as conflicting with the federal Corporate Average
Fuel Economy (CAFE) program, so measures to increase fuel economy
standards may be limited to the federal level.  Improvements in
the design and maintenance of emission control equipment can yield
significant emission reductions.  Current emission control
technology and maintenance programs target smog forming
pollutants.  Alternative fuels, if carefully selected, can yield
environmental benefits.  However, the environmental impacts of
each fuel vary widely, and are also dependent on vehicle
technology, operating conditions and other variables.


TRANSPORTATION AND ENVIRONMENT                Environmental Issues

Transportation Demand/System Management
Transportation Demand Management (TDM) is a tool for changing
travel behavior.  TDM may eliminate, or shorten motor vehicle
trips, and shift travel into high occupancy modes.  Most research
concludes that the potential for TDM to impact total travel,
and/or modal shifts is limited.  However, TDM may serve as a
complementary strategy in combination with other measures aimed at
reducing the impact of transportation on the environment.  TDM
measures include: investment in alternative transportation modes;
incentives and disincentives to reduce total travel, and
alternative work schedules or sites.  Transportation system
management (TSM) is used to improve traffic flow, and includes
measures such as signal timing improvements, intelligent
vehicle/highway systems, ramp metering and speed limit
enforcement.  TDM and TSM measures can yield energy conservation
benefits, emission reductions, and mitigation of impacts on the
physical environment.

Planning-Related Options
Land use and transportation planning decisions can be integrated
during early development stages of system, community or project
level transportation plans.  Effective land use/transportation
planning can mitigate travel growth by reducing travel distances,
and encouraging use of alternate modes.  Successful land
use/transportation planning and implementation can result in fuel
savings, congestion reduction, emissions reductions, and
mitigation of impacts on the physical environment.  Environmental
impacts can be avoided if they are recognized at the
transportation planning stage.

These are actions which may be helpful in providing the Department
with further guidance in issue areas where knowledge is


In this section, strategies selected from the above groupings are
matched with the four alternative roles described in Chapter 1.
The alternatives are broken down into a statement of action for
each environmental issue area followed by a brief discussion of
implementation issues, and some example strategies, which are
described in detail in Appendix B. In general, as environmental
actions become more extensive, the costs rise; Alternative One can
be considered a baseline cost.  For some programs, such as
changing from basic to enhanced I/M, the programs become more cost
effective as they become more stringent.  More typical, however,
is increasing costs for smaller incremental benefits.  To measure
the full costs of the action, both initial capital costs and
operating or maintenance costs must be included.  Some examples of
costs are given with the descriptions of potential environmental
strategies in Appendix B, although costs would vary for the
programs depending on the level of effort.


TRANSPORTATION AND ENVIRONMENT                Environmental Issues


Environmental Actions

The department would continue to comply with the requirements of

Air Quality
WisDOT would continue to comply with the CAAA transportation-
related requirements to reduce ozone forming pollutants.  The
Department would work with WisDNR to ensure that negative impacts
on the transportation system are minimized.

Physical Environment
WisDOT would continue to comply with the requirements of the Clean
Water Act, RCRA, CERCLA, and Endangered Species Act, as well as
any other laws that apply.  Transportation's impacts on the
physical environment would be considered where required by law. 
The Department would work with appropriate agencies to ensure that
negative impacts on the transportation system would be minimized.

WisDOT would continue to comply with the transportation-related
components of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, but would not develop
a statewide energy conservation program, or consider energy
conservation a principle goal in planning and designing the
transportation system.  The Department would participate in policy
debate to the extent necessary to ensure that the transportation
system would not be adversely affected.  The Department would
promote those policies which would yield energy savings without
affecting transportation goals, e.g. traffic flow improvements.

Global Climate Change
There is currently no federal or state legislation to control
emissions which contribute to the greenhouse effect, and evidence
for the existence of global climate change is limited.  Therefore
no action would be taken to reduce emissions from the
transportation sector.  WisDOT would participate in debate on
climate change to the extent necessary to ensure that impacts of
proposals on the transportation system would be understood and to
minimize adverse effects of policy developments.

Environmental Strategies
Federal and State mandatory environmental measures include a
number that affect transportation.  Some require implementation of
new WisDOT programs or enhancements of old ones, and some are
primarily being developed by other agencies, but WisDOT may be


TRANSPORTATION AND ENVIRONMENT                Environmental Issues

WisDOT programs:
1.   Conformity.    Require that emissions generated as a result
     of implementing the transportation plan must not exceed those
     budgeted for in the air quality plan.

2.   Inspection and Maintenance.  Develop an "enhanced" car
     inspection program in the severe nonattainment area and
     institute an I/M program in Sheboygan County.  The new
     program scheduled to begin in 1995 is estimated to cost
     nearly $18 million per year.
3.   Traffic Flow Improvements.  Reduce congestion and fuel
     consumption through projects which yield traffic flow

WisDOT subject to requirements:
1.   Reformulated Gasoline.  Sell cleaner burning oxygenated gas
     in severe nonattainment areas.  Additional cost to the
     consumer is estimated at $0.03 to $0.07 per gallon.
2.   Clean Fuel Fleets. (See Alternative Fuels, Appendix B)
     Require large centrally fueled fleets to use clean fuels.
3.   Employee Commute Options. (See Invest in Alternative Modes -
     Appendix B) Develop a program to reduce drive alone work
     trips in Southeast Wisconsin.  EPA estimates costs at roughly
     $100 per employee; DNR puts costs at roughly $60 per
     employee.  Costs are likely to vary greatly by employer.
4.   Coastal Zone Area Re-Authorization Act (CZARA).  Require the
     development of a non-point pollution control program within
     most of the Great Lakes watershed as required by law.  This
     new control program is estimated to cost $55 million per
     year, above the $63 million per year for current stormwater
5.   National Energy Policy Act. (See Alternative Fuels, Appendix
     B) Require alternative fuel vehicle purchase requirements
6.   National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). (See Legal
     Constraints - NEPA Chapter
     1)   Give appropriate and careful consideration to the
     environmental aspects of proposed actions that affect the
7.   Wisconsin Environmental Policy Act (WEPA).  Same as NEPA.

Implementation Issues
This alternative would implement the requirements of state and
federal law.  The measures could involve some expenses to
individuals and businesses, as well as some inconvenience.  If the
measures are not taken, the Department could be subject to
sanctions from the EPA, including loss of funding.


TRANSPORTATION AND ENVIRONMENT                Environmental Issues


Environmental Actions

Air Quality
The Department would continue to comply with CAAA requirements,
and would work with WisDNR to ensure that transportation interests
would be adequately represented.  The Department would also
monitor policy developments concerning emerging air quality issues
such as air toxics.

Physical Environment
The Department would continue to comply with all Federal and State
laws, and would monitor emerging environmental issues in this
area.  The Department would be actively involved in wetland

The Department would take steps to promote the energy conservation
benefits of transportation programs where they can be shown to be
cost effective.

Global Climate Change
The Department would monitor policy developments related to global
climate change to ensure that policy developments would not
adversely affect the quality of Wisconsin's transportation system. 
The department would promote the greenhouse gas reduction benefits
of existing transportation programs such as transit.

Environmental Strategies
In addition to mandated measures described in Alternative One the
Department would adopt additional measures consistent with this
role, as exemplified by the following strategies:

1.   Invest in Alternative Passenger and Freight Transportation
     Modes. Support alternative modes to some extent, based
     primarily on considerations other than the environment.
2.   Support Alternative Fuels.  Investigate the appropriateness
     of alternative fuels for mitigating environmental impacts.
3.   Traffic Flow Improvements.  Implement IVHS and other traffic
     flow improvements.
4.   Improve Land Use/Transportation Planning Help local
     governments with land use plans, especially focusing on
     improved coordination with transportation plans and on
     multimodal supportive land uses and designs.
5.   Retain Ownership of Surplus Right-of-Way Lands.


TRANSPORTATION AND ENVIRONMENT                Environmental Issues

Implementation Issue
This alternative represents current Department activity.  In
addition to the mandatory measures, some policies that support the
requirements are included.  The package could be more expensive
than Alternative One for the Department, requiring some resources
to be used for modes other than highway, or new funds found in
order to maintain the level of Alternative One funding for
highways.  Costs and inconvenience to individuals should be
similar to Alternative One.


Environmental Actions

Air Quality
WisDOT would continue to comply with CAAA requirements, and would
work with WisDNR to ensure that standards would be met.  The
Department would investigate and act appropriately, based on cost
effectiveness or public interest, on emerging air quality issues.

Physical Environment
WisDOT would continue to comply with Federal and State laws. 
Wherever it is appropriate, based on cost effectiveness or public
demand, the Department would seek to mitigate environmental
impacts not covered by existing law, for instance initiation of a
cooperative effort by DOT, DNR and local governments to seek
beneficial uses of dredged material.

WisDOT transportation planning would include greater consideration
of energy conservation benefits, and support federal initiatives.

Global Climate Change
WisDOT would use less stringent standards of proof in considering
the potential threat of global climate change, but would recognize
that unilateral action is inappropriate for a transportation
agency.  Therefore the Department would promote statewide policies
which would also yield other environmental benefits including,
improvements in energy conservation, cleaner air, reduced runoff,
and reductions in greenhouse gases.  The Department would support
federal initiatives such as increases in Corporate Average Fuel
Economy standards.

Environmental Strategies
In addition to actions required in Alternatives One and Two the
Department would:


TRANSPORTATION AND ENVIRONMENT                Environmental Issues

1.   Invest Significantly in Alternative Passenger and Freight
     Transportation Modes.  Environmental issues would be an equal
     consideration in the decision to increase provision of
     Alternative Modes.
2.   Use Incentives and Disincentives.  Use innovative TDM
     strategies to encourage reductions in drive alone travel.
3.   Alternative fuels.  Actively encourage the use of alternative
4.   Traffic Flow Improvements.  Design and implement a program of
     traffic flow improvements
5.   Improve Land Use and Transportation Planning.  State issued
     guidelines for land use plans, along with a requirement for
     multimodal-supportive local land use plans where significant
     development is occurring.
6.   Help local harbor planning.  Widen funding eligibility under
     WisDOT's Harbor Assistance Program to port communities to
     plan for potential harbor dredged material disposal sites and
     beneficial uses.
7.   Research and Education.  Conduct research to determine
     effects of departmental policies and transportation in
8.   Support Selected Federal Environmental Laws.               
     In anticipation of additional requirements, WisDOT may
     support the less intrusive alternatives e.g. improvements in
     vehicle efficiency, and vehicle emission controls rather than
     expanded TDM measures.
9.   Support Contamination Liability Law Changes.  Support laws at
     the federal and state level that would limit the liability of
     property owners who did not cause the contamination and
     financial institutions that lend them money.
10.  Support Alternatives to Road Salt.  In certain critical areas
     of the state, use alternatives to road salt, e.g. calcium or
     magnesium compounds.  These alternatives work more slowly and
     are about ten times the cost of normal salt but they would
     not contribute to increasing chlorine levels in Wisconsin's

Implementation Issues
This alternative would require greater Departmental spending on
modes other than highway and on mitigation.  Individual costs and
inconvenience may increase as TDM strategies are implemented.


Environmental Actions

Air Quality
WisDOT would exceed CAAA requirements, and would expand its
activities in the mitigation of other air pollutants.


TRANSPORTATION AND ENVIRONMENT                Environmental Issues

Physical Environment
WisDOT would implement land use and transportation planning to
mitigate habitat damage.

WisDOT would implement a statewide energy conservation program.

Global Climate Change
The Department would use less stringent standards of proof in
considering the potential threat of global climate change and
would act unilaterally to minimize the contribution to emissions
from Wisconsin's transportation sector.

Environmental Strategy
In addition to strategies proposed in the first three alternatives
the Department would:

1.   Strongly support alternative modes.
     a)   Invest in alternative passenger and freight
          transportation modes.
     b)   Regulate commuting to a greater extent than ECO.
2.   Support state adoption of new fuel and vehicle technology,
     such as:
     a)   Lower vapor pressure gasoline.
     b)   Locomotive emission controls.
     c)   Alternative fuels.
3.   Implement stringent transportation demand/system management
     a)   Use more and stronger incentives and disincentives to
          reduce highway travel.
4.   Conduct research and education
     a)   Conduct collaborative research with the U.S. Army Corps
          of Engineers on the remediation and use of contaminated
          harbor dredged material.
5.   Reduce speeds (see Traffic Flow Improvements, Appendix B)
     a)   Reduce speed limits
     b)   Stricter speed enforcement
6.   Improve Land Use/Transportation Planning.  Adopt a State land
     use policy, binding on local governments that addresses
     multimodal transportation needs and the land use impacts of
     WisDOT investments.
7.   Support Federal environmental laws that could reduce the
     environmental impacts of transportation.
     a)   Improve vehicle fuel efficiency.
     b)   Improve vehicle emission controls.

Implementation Issues
Cost and inconvenience to individuals would be significantly
greater than under current policies.  There would be more
regulations more strictly enforced as well as higher costs of all
forms of transportation.


Glossary of Terms

Alternative fuel: as defined in the National Energy Policy Act,
alternative fuels include methanol, denatured ethanol, and other
alcohols; mixtures containing 85 percent or more (or such other
percentage, but not less than 70 percent, as determined by the
Secretary, by rule, to provide for requirements relating to cold
start, safety, or vehicle functions) by volume of methanol,
denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other
fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas; hydrogen; coal-
derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from
biological materials; electricity (including electricity from
solar energy); and any other fuel the Secretary determines, by
rule is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial
energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits

AWS: Alternative Work Schedules
BTU: One Btu is the quantity of energy in the form of heat
required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree
CAAA: Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990
CDF: Confined Disposal Facility, used for harbor dredge material
CFC: Chlorofluorocarbons, a category of greenhouse gases
CNMQ: Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality
CMS: Congestion Management Systems
CNG: Compressed Natural Gas, an alternative fuel
CO:  Carbon monoxide, a poisonous gas
CZARA: Coastal Zone Re-Authorization Act
ECO: Employee Commute Options
FHWA: Federal Highway Administration
FTMS: Freeway Traffic Management Systems
HC:  Hydrocarbon, a category of ozone precursors
HOV: High Occupancy Vehicle
I/M: Inspection and Maintenance program for testing and repairing
     automobiles and light duty trucks
IM240: New transient test for I/M that more accurately tests
     vehicle emissions over a typical driving cycle
ISTEA: Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991
IVHS: Intelligent Vehicle and Highway Systems
LDT: Light Duty Truck
LEV: Low Emission Vehicle, defined under California law
LMOS: Lake Michigan Ozone Study
LPG: Liquified petroleum gas; propane
LTO: Landing/Take off cycle
NW:  Metropolitan Planning Organization
NAAQS: National Ambient Air Quality Standards; apply to
     particulates, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, nitrogen
     oxides, ozone, and lead 
NEPA: National Environmental Policy Act


NES:National Energy Strategy
NMHC: Non-methane hydrocarbon, a category of ozone precursors
NMOG: Non-methane organic gases, a subset of hydrocarbons which is
     a category of ozone precursors
NMVOC: Non-methane volatile organic compounds, a subset of
     hydrocarbons which is a category of ozone precursors
NOx: Oxides of nitrogen, ozone and acid precursors
PECFA: Petroleum Environmental Clean-up Fund Act
RFG: Reformulated gasoline
RVP: Reid Vapor Pressure; a measure of volatility
SEWRPC: Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission
SOV: Single Occupancy Vehicle
TDM: Transportation Demand Management
TLEV: Transition Low Emission Vehicle, defined under California
TOFC: Trailer on flatcar; intermodal truck/rail shipping
TSM: Transportation System Management
ULEV: Ultra Low Emission Vehicle, defined under California law
VMT: Vehicle Miles Travelled
VOC: Volatile Organic Compounds, a subset of hydrocarbons which is
     a category of ozone precursors
WEPA: Wisconsin Environmental Policy Act
ZEV: Zero emission vehicle, defined under California law


Amann, C.A. 1992.  "The Passenger Car and the Greenhouse Effect",
     The International Journal of Vehicle Design Vol. 13.  No. 4.

American Public Transit Association. 1991 Transit Fact Book.

American Public Transit Association.  Mass Transit - The Clean Air

Black, Frank M. 1991.  "Control of Motor Vehicle Emissions - The 
     U.S. Experience" Critical Reviews in Environmental Control,
     vol. 21, pp. 373-410.

Coffman and Associates. 1993.  General Mitchell Field, Noise
     Compatibility Study.

Davis, Stacy C. and Sonja G. Strang. 1993.  Transportation Energy
     Data Book: Edition 13. Prepared by Oak Ridge National
     Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy.
Energy Information Administration. 1990.  State Energy Price and
     Expenditure Report.
Energy Information Administration. 1991.  State Energy Data

Federal Aviation Administration. 1990.  General Aviation Pilot and
     Aircraft Activity Survey.

Federal Highway Administration, 1992.  Travel Behavior Issues in
     the `90s.

Federal Railroad Administration. 1991.  Rail vs.  Truck Fuel
     Efficiency: The Relative Fuel Efficiency of Truck Competitive
     Rail Freight and Truck Operations Compared in a Range of

Great Lakes Commission. 1993.  Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River
     Commerce: Safety,Energy and Environmental Implications of
     Modal Shifts.

Harris, L.D. 1984.  The Fragmented Forest.  University of Chicago

Interstate Commerce Commission.  Final Environmental Impact
     Statement on the Abandonment of Cross Lake Michigan Car Ferry
     Service.  Docket No. AB 18 Sub-No. 21 and Docket No. AB 31
     Sub-No. 5.

Klausmeier, Robert F. and Irwin F. Billick. 1993.  "Comparative
     Analysis of the Environmental Impact of Alternative
     Transportation Fuels" Energy & Fuels, vol. 7, pp.


Mahlman, J.D. 1988.  Mathematical Modeling of the Greenhouse
     Warming.  National  Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Middleton, William D. 1992.  "Emission standards loom for US
     railways" Railway Gazette International, November, pp 755-

Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association of the United States, Inc.
     1990.  MVMA Motor Vehicle Facts & Figures '90.

National Academy of Sciences. 1991.  Policy Implications of
     Greenhouse Warming. National Academy Press.

New York City Alternative Fuels Task Force. 1993.  Fiscal Year
     1993 Alternative Fuel Vehicle Program Evaluation.

Peters, R.L. 1989.  Effects of Global Warming on Biological
     Diversity.  Natural Resources Defence Council.

Russell, Robert. 1991.  The Efficiency of Motor Fuel Use in
     Wisconsin: The Last Twenty Years, and the Near Future. 
     Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Bureau of Policy
     Planning and Analysis.

Schneider, S. 1989.  Global Change and Our Common Future. 
     National Research Council.

Schoer, Darren. 1993.  Draft Future Scan, February 10, 1993. 
     Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Bureau of Strategic

Schuler, T.R. 1987.  Controlling Urban Runoff.

Schuler, T.R., et al. 1991.  Developing Effective BMP Strategies
     for Urban Watersheds.
United Nations Environment Program.  UNEP Environment Brief.

United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.
     1991.  Survey of Current Business.  December.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. 1991.  National Air
     Pollutant Emission Estimates 1940-1990.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. 1993.  National Air
     Pollutant Emission Trends 1900-1992.

Urban Mass Transportation Administration. 1990.  National Urban
     Mass Transportation Statistics 1989 Section 15 Annual Report.


Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer
     Protection. 1992.  Potential Secondary Highway Impacts on
     Farming and Rural Communities.

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 1986.  Non-Point Source
     Pollution: Where to go with the Flow, Special Report.

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 1991.  Global Climate
     Change - Management Strategies for Wisconsin.

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 1991.  Urban Programs
     for Cleaner Water.

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 1993.  Wisconsin's
     Biodiversity as a Management Issue, Draft.

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 1993.  Wisconsin
     Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Draft Report August.

Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Bureau of Aeronautics and
     Bureau of System Planning. 1993. 1992 Wisconsin Aviation

Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Division of Planning.
     1976.  Intercity Bus Transportation in Wisconsin, Volume I:
     Service and Operating Characteristics

Wisconsin Energy Bureau. 1992.  Wisconsin Energy Statistics -




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