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Intelligent Transportation Systems for Traffic Incident Management

Deployment Benefits and Lessons Learned


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Benefits

San Antonio Reduces Response Times by 20 Percent
Quicker Response, Fewer Secondary Incidents
Service Patrols Promote Fuel Conservation and Public Safety
ITS Benefits All Responders
How Can You Save $8 Million Per Year?

Costs

FDOT Budget Supports a Variety of Traffic Incident Management Programs
Service Patrols Prove Cost Effective

Deployment

Trends in Detection and Verification

Lessons Learned

Managing Traffic Incidents – Lessons from Experience



Americans lose 3.7 billion hours and 2.3 billion gallons of fuel every year sitting in traffic.1 In 2004, trucks idling in traffic are estimated to have cost the trucking industry some 243 million hours, the equivalent of 17,000 work years, with a cost of $8 billion. 2 To combat the country's growing transportation congestion problem, the U.S. Department of Transportation launched the National Strategy to Reduce Congestion on America’s Transportation Network. One element of this initiative is to reduce incident-related congestion by promoting operational and technological improvements that increase incident response capabilities.3


Traffic Incident Management

Traffic Incident Management (TIM) is a systematic, planned, and coordinated effort to detect, respond to, and remove traffic incidents and restore traffic capacity as safely and quickly as possible. TIM involves the application of institutional, mechanical, and technical resources, including Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), and offers a number of measurable benefits:

ITS technologies for traffic incident detection, verification, response, and communication are recognized as valuable tools by transportation professionals and are being used throughout the country:




Quicker Response, Fewer Secondary Incidents

Secondary crashes due to congestion caused by a previous crash are estimated to represent 20 percent of all crashes.11

The benefits of reduced incident duration through incident management programs are clear and well documented.




FDOT Budget Supports a Variety of Traffic Incident Management Programs

All States and metropolitan areas are constrained by budget limitations, and the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) is no exception. But with a $36 million capital investment (annualized at about $8.3 million), FDOT has funded several programs designed to maintain traffic flow and hasten incident response through its District IV SunGuide Transportation Management Center.15

Some highlights of these efforts include:




Service Patrols Promote Fuel Conservation and Public Safety

Service patrols are known to help decrease incident-related delay, which means faster travel and fewer vehicle-hours annually. But less congestion also means less fuel wasted as vehicles idle while waiting for traffic to clear. The following examples show how fuel consumption was reduced at regional and local levels by decreasing incident-related congestion through service patrols.

Maryland's CHART Program

"I truly felt my life was in danger as cars and trucks whizzed by...I felt my life was saved today due to this service..."

"He right off was thinking safety for everyone...me and my family, the traffic, and himself..."

"This is the best service the state provides. I was back on the road within 30 minutes..."

– Travelers in Chattanooga, TN

A 2000 study of Maryland's Coordinated Highways Action Response Team (CHART) program showed how incident reduction benefits Marylanders:

Florida's Road Ranger Program

The Florida Road Ranger service patrol provides the residents of Florida with a significant reduction in wasted fuel due to congestion:

According to the Florida Department of Transportation, this program not only cuts down on harmful emissions, it has an overall benefit-cost ratio of nearly 26:1.28

Thoughts from the Public

Service patrols are highly visible and have a powerful impact on frightened motorists. The box to the right contains excerpts from letters of appreciation that travelers have written to the Tennessee Department of Transportation in praise of their program in Chattanooga.29




ITS Benefits All Responders

Fire, rescue, and emergency medical services (EMS) have different priorities than transportation agencies when clearing an incident. Their first concern is the safety of the victims and motorists; getting traffic flowing again is secondary.

"Being able to view the scene of a freeway incident using the surveillance cameras helped us to better decide the type and number of units to send to the incident."

– Tony Davidson, Chief of Communications, Atlanta Fire Department

Including these first responders in the planning and development of a traffic incident management program, and maintaining consistent communication, will help ensure effective management of the traffic incident scene and cultivate multiagency ties, with the traveling public reaping the benefits of increased efficiency – and safety.

This kind of information sharing occurred during the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta. The Atlanta Fire Department, as part of its joint response efforts with the Georgia Department of Transportation, the State patrol, and the city police, realized the benefit of closed circuit TV cameras.30

It's important to keep all players in mind when deploying ITS. Better information to fire, rescue, and EMS means that they can arrive at the scene with the right equipment and resolve the incident more quickly.




Service Patrols Prove Cost Effective31
Program Operating Costs (Millions per Year) Hours of Operation Fleet Size Benefit-Cost Ratio
Los Angeles, CAl32 $20.5

6:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. Mon-Fri
10:00 a.m. to 6:30 p.m. Sat-Sun

150 trucks 8:1
Detroit, MI33 $2.5 6:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. plus special events

32 drivers
34 vehicles

15:1
Ft. Lauderdale, FL34 $2.5 24 hours/day, 7 days/week 11 vehicles 21:1
Tennessee statewide35 $5.6 variable hours, 7 days/week 85 operators
69 trucks
not available
Denver, CO36 $1.5 6:30 a.m. to 9:00 a.m.
3:30 p.m. to 6:30 p.m. Mon-Fri
2 trucks 23:1



How Can You Save $8 Million Per Year?

Houston TranStar did it by co-locating 75 personnel from the Texas Department of Transportation, Harris County, Houston Metro, and the City of Houston. Then they added a variety of traffic management tools, including a freeway management system, a freeway and arterial street incident management program, Intelligent Transportation System programs, a service patrol, and several other programs to the mix.

This combination of traffic professionals and a variety of traffic management tools, all with the goal of improving traffic flow, has saved an estimated 572,095 vehiclehours annually. For Houston, a metropolis covering more than 600 square miles and home to the Port of Houston, through which more than 200 million tons of cargo pass every year,37 that translates into an estimated economic value of $8.4 million saved annually.38 Other summary data show additional benefits:




Trends in Detection and Verification

Since 1997, more than 40 percent of freeway miles utilized dedicated call numbers for travelers to report incidents via cell phones. In fact, detection times can occur in as little as 1 minute in most metropolitan areas due to the proliferation of cellular phones.41 But, as the graph below shows, the number of cell phone calls to a dedicated number has remained flat; the fastest growing incident detection and verification method from 1997 to 2005 has been closed circuit TV (CCTV), which was deployed on 43 percent of freeways in 2005, a 35 percent increase since 1997.42

But no single method will detect everything, and transportation management professionals rely on several methods to detect and verify incidents, including CCTV cameras, cellular telephone calls, automated incident detection, and service patrols, among others.

Propagation of Incident Detection
and Verification Methods
48
Line graph shows how surveillance cameras are the detection method that have experienced the greatest increase in use since 1997.




Managing Traffic Incidents – Lessons from Experience

The following are lessons learned on how to plan, design, operate, and maintain traffic incident management programs.

Traffic Incident Management Program Development

Incident Detection, Verification, and Response

Incident Clearance and Evaluation

For these and other lessons, visit: www.itslessons.its.dot.gov.




San Antonio Reduces Response Times by 20 Percent

As populations surge across the south and southwest, roads get busier and delays get longer. That's why the Texas Department of Transportation, the City of San Antonio (police/fire/emergency medical services/traffic), and VIA, the region's transit provider, teamed up to develop and implement the TransGuide "smart highway" system.

TransGuide is an Intelligent Transportation System that uses dynamic message signs, loop detectors, video surveillance cameras, and a
communication network to respond rapidly to accidents and emergencies.

The system provided a number of dramatic incident response improvements in a very short time as demonstrated in a comparison of sample crash statistics
from the 3 years prior to deployment with sample statistics collected during the first year post deployment.

Survey results also indicate improvements in driver confidence due to the improved quality of traveler information available. Surveys taken after implementation indicated that driver response to posted instructions improved from 33 percent just after implementation to 80 percent at the time of the report.64

There’s More Online!

ITS Applications Overview: www.itsoverview.its.dot.gov

FHWA Office of Operations Traffic Incident Management Program: www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/incidentmgmt/index.htm

National Traffic Incident Management Coalition: www.timcoalition.org

TIM Community of Practice: www.timexchange.org




Source Information

1. U.S. Department of Transportation, National Strategy to Reduce Congestion on America's Transportation Network, Washington, DC: May 2006. Report: http://isddc.dot.gov/OLPFiles/OST/012988.pdf

2. National Traffic Incident Management Coalition Website, timcoalition.org/?siteid=41&pageid=591.

3. U.S. Department of Transportation, National Strategy to Reduce Congestion on America's Transportation Network, Washington, DC: May 2006. Report: isddc.dot.gov/OLPFiles/OST/012988.pdf

4. The summary fact "Traffic incident management reduces fuel consumption by about 1.2 percent annually" is based on one article from the ITS Benefits Database:

Document Referenced Simulated v. Measured Data Location Date of Study Percent Decrease in Annual Fuel Consumpion
Federal Highway Administration, Metropolitan Model Deployment Initiative – Seattle Final Evaluation Report, Washington, DC: May 2000. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/06D560796A6416DC852569610051E2E2
Report: ntl.bts.gov/lib/jpodocs/redirect/repts_te/12883.pdf
Simulated San Antonio, TX 2000 1.2%

5. The summary fact "Traffic incident management saves 2,600-7,700 gallons per major incident" is based on two articles from the ITS Benefits Database:

Document Referenced Simulated v. Measured Data Location Date of Study Decrease Fuel Consumpion per Incident
Henk, Russel H., et al., “Before-and-After Analysis of the San Antonio TransGuide System,” paper presented at the 76th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 1997. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/6653718EFFE52A5C852569610051E27F

Simulated San Antonio, TX 1996 2,600 gallons
Jacobson, L., et al., Incident Management Using Total Stations, Seattle, WA: August 1992. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/0D0D8496BCC0EF69852569E700716FB3 Simulated Washington statewide 1992 7,770 gallons

6. The summary fact "Traffic incident management reduces incident durations by up to 65 percent" is based on five articles from the ITS Benefits Database:

Document Referenced Simulated v. Measured Data Location Date Conducted Percent Decrease in Incident Duration
Perrin, J., et al., Advanced Transportation System Elemental Cost Benefit Assessment, Washington, DC: March 2004. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/66602453BDBB0064852570C80070FFE6

Measured Salt Lake City, UT 2004 12% and 36%
Bertini, R., et al., Evaluation of Region 2 Incident Response Program Using Archived Data, Portland State University Report No. PSU-CE-TRG-01-01, Portland, OR: June 2001. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/62838FB271765BD385257217005A5872 Measured Oregon, I-5 and Hwy 18 2001 15% and 30%
University of Maryland, College Park and Maryland State Highway Administration, Performance Evaluation of CHART – Coordinated Highways Action Response Team – Year 2000, College Park, MD: November 2003.
ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/9FBABB7833F303C3852571B8004D4EF5
Measured Maryland statewide 2003 28%
Petrov. A., et al. “Evaluation of the Benefits of a Real-Time Incident Response System,” paper presented at the 9th World Congress on Intelligent Transport Systems, Chicago, IL, October 14-17, 2002. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/151060B2B05095D385256C6F006FF9D6 Measured Maryland statewide 1999 55%
Petrov. A., et al. “Evaluation of the Benefits of a Real-Time Incident Response System,” paper presented at the 9th World Congress on Intelligent Transport Systems, Chicago, IL, October 14-17, 2002. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/151060B2B05095D385256C6F006FF9D6 Measured Maryland statewide 2000 57%
Institute of Transportation Engineers, 1996 ITS Tour Report: Eastern North America & 1996 ITS World Congress: Volume 1, Washington, DC: 1997, p. 4-5. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/26F64E34457928EC852569610051E2D7 Measured Toronto, ON 1997 65%

7. The summary fact "Traffic incident management reduces secondary crashes by 30-50 percent" is based on two articles from the ITS Benefits Database:

Document Referenced Simulated v. Measured Data Location Date Conducted Percent Decrease in Secondary Crashes
Henk, Russel H., et al., “Before-and-After Analysis of the San Antonio TransGuide System,” paper presented at the 76th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 1997. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/6653718EFFE52A5C852569610051E27F
Simulated San Antonio, TX 1996 30%
Highway Industry Development Organization, Ministry of Construction, Intelligent Transportation Systems Handbook in Japan, Tokyo, Japan: October 1997. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/30D32D9BB1685CF3852569610051E26F Measured Odawara, Japan 1997 50%

8. The summary fact “Motorist assistance patrols’ benefit-cost ratio ranges from 2:1 to 36:1” is based on four articles from the ITS Benefits Database:

Document Referenced Simulated v. Measured Data Location Date Conducted Benefit-Cost Ratio
Fenno D., and M. Ogden, "Freeway Service Patrols: A State of the Practice," paper presented at the 77th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 1998. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/2B94636876E370D9852569610051E2DE
Unknown Norfolk, VA 1995 2:1 to 2.5:1
Minnesota Department of Transportation, Highway Helper Summary Report – Twin Cities Metro Area, St. Paul, MN: July 1994. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/B285A1F883C7C2BE852569610051E263 Benefits: Simulated
Costs: Measured
Minneapolis, MN 1994 2.3:1
Fenno D., and M. Ogden, "Freeway Service Patrols: A State of the Practice," paper presented at the 77th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 1998. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/2B94636876E370D9852569610051E2DE Unknown Orange County, CA 1995 3:1
Fenno D., and M. Ogden, "Freeway Service Patrols: A State of the Practice," paper presented at the 77th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 1998. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/2B94636876E370D9852569610051E2DE Unknown Riverside County, CA 1993 3:1
Fenno D., and M. Ogden, "Freeway Service Patrols: A State of the Practice," paper presented at the 77th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 1998. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/2B94636876E370D9852569610051E2DE Unknown Charlotte, NC 1995 3:1 to 7:1
Fenno D., and M. Ogden, "Freeway Service Patrols: A State of the Practice," paper presented at the 77th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 1998. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/2B94636876E370D9852569610051E2DE Unknown Dallas, TX 1993 3.3:1 to 36.2: 1
Fenno D., and M. Ogden, "Freeway Service Patrols: A State of the Practice," paper presented at the 77th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 1998. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/2B94636876E370D9852569610051E2DE Unknown Oakland, CA 1991 3.5:1
Latoski, S., et al., “Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation of Hoosier Helper Freeway Service Patrol,” Journal of Transportation Engineering, Volume 125, Number 5, September/October 1999. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/2B94636876E370D9852569610051E2DE Benefits: Simulated
Costs: Measured
Indianapolis, IN 1995 4.7:1 for daytime operations
Fenno D., and M. Ogden, "Freeway Service Patrols: A State of the Practice," paper presented at the 77th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 1998. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/2B94636876E370D9852569610051E2DE Unknown Minneapolis, MN 1995 5:1
Fenno D., and M. Ogden, "Freeway Service Patrols: A State of the Practice," paper presented at the 77th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 1998. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/2B94636876E370D9852569610051E2DE Unknown Sacramento, CA 1995 5.5:1
Fenno D., and M. Ogden, "Freeway Service Patrols: A State of the Practice," paper presented at the 77th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 1998. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/2B94636876E370D9852569610051E2DE Unknown Houston, TX 1994 6.6:1 to 23.3:1
Cuciti, P. and B. Janson, "Incident Management via Courtesy Patrol: Evaluation of a Pilot Project in Colorado," paper presented at the 74th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 1995. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/BE1E4488FF0F3E5B852569610051E29F Benefits: Simulated
Costs: Measured
Denver, CO 1995 10.5:1 to 16.9:1
Fenno D., and M. Ogden, "Freeway Service Patrols: A State of the Practice," paper presented at the 77th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 1998. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/2B94636876E370D9852569610051E2DE Unknown Los Angeles, CA 1993 11:1
Fenno D., and M. Ogden, "Freeway Service Patrols: A State of the Practice," paper presented at the 77th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 1998. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/2B94636876E370D9852569610051E2DE Unknown Fresno, CA 1995 12.5:1
Latoski, S., et al., “Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation of Hoosier Helper Freeway Service Patrol,” Journal of Transportation Engineering, Volume 125, Number 5, September/October 1999. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/B32DDDE9827B2177852569610051E25C Benefits: Simulated
Costs: Measured
Indianapolis, IN 1996 13.3:1 for 24-hour operations
Fenno D., and M. Ogden, "Freeway Service Patrols: A State of the Practice," paper presented at the 77th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 1998. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/2B94636876E370D9852569610051E2DE Unknown Detroit, MI 1995 14:1
Fenno D., and M. Ogden, "Freeway Service Patrols: A State of the Practice," paper presented at the 77th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 1998. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/2B94636876E370D9852569610051E2DE Unknown Chicago, IL 1990 17:1
Fenno D., and M. Ogden, "Freeway Service Patrols: A State of the Practice," paper presented at the 77th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 1998. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/2B94636876E370D9852569610051E2DE Unknown Denver, CO 1996 20:1 to 23:1
Fenno D., and M. Ogden, "Freeway Service Patrols: A State of the Practice," paper presented at the 77th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 1998. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/2B94636876E370D9852569610051E2DE Unknown New York City and Westchester County, NY 1995 23.5:1

9. Federal Highway Administration, "Incident Management," ITS Deployment Statistics Database Entry: www.itsdeployment.its.dot.gov/Trendsgraph.asp?comp=IM

10. Federal Highway Administration, "Incident Management," ITS Deployment Statistics Database Entry: www.itsdeployment.its.dot.gov/Trendsgraph.asp?comp=IM

11. Federal Highway Administration Office of Operations Webpage, "Traffic Incident Management," www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/aboutus/one_pagers/tim.htm

12. Karlaftis, M.G., S.P. Latoski, N.J. Richards, and K.C. Sinha, “ITS Impacts on Safety and Traffic Management: An Investigation of Secondary Crashes,” ITS Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1999, pp. 39-52. Article: ntl.bts.gov/lib/jpodocs/redirect/repts_te/14296.htm Cited in Horsley, John, “Advancing an [sic] National Agenda for Traffic Incident Management.” Article: timcoalition.org/sites/ntimc/docs/NTIMC%20article%20for%20R_B%20magazine2.mht

13. University of Maryland, College Park and Maryland State Highway Administration, Performance Evaluation of CHART – Coordinated Highways Action Response Team – Year 2002, College Park, MD: November 2003. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/ID/9FBABB7833F303C3852571B8004D4EF5
Report: www.chart.state.md.us/downloads/readingroom/CHART_II_Documents/Final_Evaluation_Report_03-04.doc

14. Latoski, S., et al., “Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation of Hoosier Helper Freeway Service Patrol,” Journal of Transportation Engineering, Volume 125, Number 5, September/October 1999. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/B32DDDE9827B2177852569610051E25C

15. Florida Department of Transportation, District IV: Broward County, FL, 2005 Annual Report SMART SunGuide Transportation Management Center (TMC), Ft. Lauderdale, FL: January 2006, p. 19. ITS Costs Database Entry: www.itscosts.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/0C66A52D53BD8592852571420066DCB4 Report: www.smartsunguide.com/PDF/Annual%20Report%2006_JAN_31%20FINAL.pdf

16. Ibid., p. 14 and p. 19.

17. Florida Department of Transportation, District IV: Broward County, FL, 2004 Annual Report SMART SunGuide Transportation Management Center (TMC), Ft. Lauderdale, FL: January 2005, p. 15. Report: www.smartsunguide.com/PDF/SMART%20TMC%20Annual%20Report.pdf

18. Florida Department of Transportation, District IV: Broward County, FL, 2005 Annual Report SMART SunGuide Transportation Management Center (TMC), Ft. Lauderdale, FL: January 2006, p. 19. ITS Costs Database Entry: www.itscosts.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/0C66A52D53BD8592852571420066DCB4 Report: www.smartsunguide.com/PDF/Annual%20Report%2006_JAN_31%20FINAL.pdf

19. Ibid.

20. Ibid. See also, Florida Department of Transportation, District IV: Broward County, FL, 2004 Annual Report SMART SunGuide Transportation Management Center (TMC), Ft. Lauderdale, FL: January 2005, pp. 17-18. Report: www.smartsunguide.com/PDF/SMART%20TMC%20Annual%20Report.pdf

21. Ibid.

22. Ibid.

23. Ibid.

24. Petrov. A., et al. “Evaluation of the Benefits of a Real-Time Incident Response System,” paper presented at the 9th World Congress Conference on ITS, Chicago, IL, October 14-17, 2002. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/151060B2B05095D385256C6F006FF9D6

25. Estimated economic value for CHART based on average annual fuel costs for 2000 as reported in U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Short Term Energy Outlook – January 2002, Washington, DC: 2002, p. 23. Report: www.eia.doe.gov/pub/forecasting/steo/oldsteos/jan02.pdf

26. Florida Department of Transportation, Road Ranger Benefit-Cost Analysis, Tampa, FL: 2006. ITS Benefits Database Entry:
www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/758CD9800CCDE9B38525725F0068BB0D
Report: www.dot.state.fl.us/research-center/Completed_Proj/Summary_TE/FDOT_BD544_14_rpt.pdf

27. Ibid.

28. Ibid.

29. Tennessee Department of Transportation, HELP Annual Operating Report, July 1, 2004 – June 30, 2005, Nashville, TN: October 2005. ITS Costs Database Entry: www.itscosts.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/91A6A7FCACF317668525714200638FB7

30. Federal Highway Administration, Incident Management Successful Practices: A Cross-Cutting Study, Washington, DC: April 2000. See also, ITS Lessons Learned Knowledge Resource Entries:
(1) www.itslessons.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/Lesson?OpenForm&032E7396049034CE8525718F0062E879,
(2) www.itslessons.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/Lesson?OpenForm&457366209E8D9BEA8525718F00648AA1 and
(3) www.itslessons.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/Lesson?OpenForm&A636DFCF4D1A89278525718F00661959
(Lesson learned point of contact: Cheryl Lowrance, Mitretek Systems, 202-863-2986, cheryl.lowrance@mitretek.org)
Report: ntl.bts.gov/lib/jpodocs/redirect/repts_te/11484.pdf

31. Fenno, David W. and Michael A. Ogden, “Freeway Services Patrols: A State of the Practice,” paper presented at the 77th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 1998. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/ 2B94636876E370D9852569610051E2DE

32. Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Authority Webpage, “About FSP,” www.mta.net/projects_programs/fsp/about_fsp.htm and www.mta.net/news_info/facts.htm
ITS Costs Database Entry: www.itscosts.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/13AE8D48114F8EC885257218006876D3
ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/66F24F4460E32E938525725F00501B12

33. Southeast Michigan Council of Governments, MDOT Freeway Courtesy Patrol in Southeast Michigan: 2004 Evaluation Report, Detroit, MI: May 2005.
ITS Costs Database Entry: www.itscosts.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/F9BA0916D8410B368525723C004C6565
Report: www.semcog.org/products/pdfs/2004FCPREPORT.pdf

34. Florida Department of Transportation, Road Ranger Benefit-Cost Analysis, Tampa, FL: 2006. ITS Costs Database Entry: www.itscosts.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/2FA61263C877AE888525722900608B08
Report: www.dot.state.fl.us/research-center/Completed_Proj/Summary_TE/FDOT_BD544_14_rpt.pdf

35. Tennessee Department of Transportation, HELP Annual Operating Report, July 1, 2004 – June 30, 2005, Nashville, TN: October 2005. ITS Costs Database Entry: www.itscosts.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/91A6A7FCACF317668525714200638FB7

36. Colorado Department of Transportation, CDOT Launches Courtesy Patrol on I-70 West, Denver, CO: March 4, 2005. ITS Costs Database Entry: www.itscosts.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/A2E3E5BA7B6915DE85256DE4006272A1

37. Port of Houston Authority Webpage, "General Information," www.portofhouston.com/geninfo/overview1.html

38. Parsons Transportation Group and Texas Transportation Institute, Estimation of Benefits of Houston TranStar, Houston, TX: February 1997. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/0B37A6D584E620B2852569610051E268

39. Ibid.

40. Ibid.

41. Federal Highway Administration, "Incident Management," ITS Deployment Statistics Database Entry: www.itsdeployment.its.dot.gov/Trendsgraph.asp?comp=IM

42. Ibid.

43. Federal Highway Administration, “Freeway Incident Detection and Verification Via CCTV: 2004 National Summary,” ITS Deployment Statistics Database Entry: www.itsdeployment.its.dot.gov/Results.asp?ID=432&rpt=M&filter=1&sort=NumCCTV&Year=2004

44. Federal Highway Administration, Incident Management Successful Practices: A Cross-Cutting Study, Washington, DC: April 2000, p. 16. Report: ntl.bts.gov/lib/jpodocs/redirect/repts_te/11484.pdf

45. Fenno, David W. and Michael A. Ogden, "Freeway Services Patrols: A State of the Practice," paper presented at the 77th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 1998. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/2B94636876E370D9852569610051E2DE

46. Federal Highway Administration, "Incident Management," ITS Deployment Statistics Database Entry:
www.itsdeployment.its.dot.gov/Trendsgraph.asp?comp=IM

47. Federal Highway Administration, "National Summary," ITS Deployment Statistics Database Entry: www.itsdeployment.its.dot.gov/FactSheet.asp

48. Ibid.

49. Federal Highway Administration, Incident Management Successful Practices: A Cross-Cutting Study, Washington, DC: April 2000. ITS Lessons Learned Knowledge Resource Entry: www.itslessons.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/Lesson?OpenForm&032E7396049034CE8525718F0062E879
(Lesson learned point of contact: Cheryl Lowrance, Mitretek Systems, 202-863-2986, cheryl.lowrance@mitretek.org).
Report: ntl.bts.gov/lib/jpodocs/redirect/repts_te/11484.pdf

50. Ibid.

51. Transportation Research Board, NCHRP Report 520: Sharing Information between Public Safety and Transportation Agencies for Traffic Incident Management, Washington, DC: 2004. ITS Lessons Learned Knowledge Resource Entry: www.itslessons.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/Lesson?OpenForm&826BE97F5DE1F88F852570A60060F5A1 (Lesson learned point of contact: Aimee Flannery, Ph.D., P.E., George Mason University, 703-993-1738, aflanner@gmu.edu).
Report: onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_rpt_520.pdf

52. Federal Highway Administration, Incident Management Successful Practices: A Cross-Cutting Study, Washington, DC: April 2000.
ITS Lessons Learned Knowledge Resource Entry: www.itslessons.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/Lesson?OpenForm&457366209E8D9BEA8525718F00648AA1 (Lesson learned point of contact: Cheryl Lowrance, Mitretek Systems, 202-863-2986, cheryl.lowrance@mitretek.org).
Report: ntl.bts.gov/lib/jpodocs/redirect/repts_te/11484.pdf

53. Federal Highway Administration, Computer-Aided Dispatch – Traffic Management Center Field Operational Test Final Report, Washington State, Washington, DC: 2003. ITS Lessons Learned Knowledge Resource Entry: www.itslessons.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/Lesson?OpenForm&BCC1F2BF48F9AE908525725F0061DF01 (Lesson learned point of contact: Carolina Burnier, Mitretek Systems, 202-488-1503, carolina.burnier@mitretek.org).
Report: ntl.bts.gov/lib/jpodocs/redirect/repts_te/14325.htm

54. Federal Highway Administration, Incident Management Successful Practices: A Cross-Cutting Study, Washington, DC: April 2000. ITS Lessons Learned Knowledge Resource Entry: www.itslessons.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/Lesson?OpenForm&457366209E8D9BEA8525718F00648AA1
(Lesson learned point of contact: Cheryl Lowrance, Mitretek Systems, 202-863-2986, cheryl.lowrance@mitretek.org).
Report: ntl.bts.gov/lib/jpodocs/redirect/repts_te/11484.pdf

55. Ibid.

56. Federal Highway Administration, Improving Mobility, Saving Lives – Safety Service Patrols, Washington, DC: 1999. ITS Lessons Learned Knowledge Resource Entry: www.itslessons.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/Lesson?OpenForm&1370BC7CE41A9B2A8525707E0061C639
(Lesson learned point of contact: Allan DeBlasio, U.S. DOT / RITA / John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, 617-494-2032, allan.j.deblasio@volpe.dot.gov). Report: ntl.bts.gov/lib/jpodocs/redirect/brochure/6872.pdf

57. Federal Highway Administration, Intelligent Transportation Systems Field Operational Test Cross-Cutting Study: Incident Management: Detection, Verification, and Traffic Management, Washington, DC: September 1998. ITS Lessons Learned Knowledge Resource Entry: www.itslessons.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/Lesson?OpenForm&3450D6377A6818148525707E0061C49D (Lesson learned point of contact: Dave Helman, FHWA, 202-366-8042, david.helman@dot.gov). Report: ntl.bts.gov/lib/jpodocs/redirect/repts_te/6328.pdf

58. Ibid., p. 12.

59. Federal Highway Administration, Incident Management Successful Practices: A Cross-Cutting Study, Washington, DC: April 2000. ITS Lessons Learned Knowledge Resource Entry: www.itslessons.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/Lesson?OpenForm&A636DFCF4D1A89278525718F00661959 (Lesson learned point of contact: Cheryl Lowrance, Mitretek Systems, 202-863-2986, cheryl.lowrance@mitretek.org).
Report: ntl.bts.gov/lib/jpodocs/redirect/repts_te/11484.pdf

60. Henk, Russel H., et al., “Before-and-After Analysis of the San Antonio TransGuide System,” paper presented at the 76th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 1997. ITS Benefits Database Entry: www.itsbenefits.its.dot.gov/its/benecost.nsf/0/6653718EFFE52A5C852569610051E27F

61. Ibid.

62. Ibid.

63. Ibid.

64. Ibid.