ITS - Intelligent Transportation Systems Report ITS Home Page


cover image


Intelligent
Transportation Systems
Benefits and Costs

2003 Update

PDF Version 30.0MB

Prepared by

Mitretek Systems
600 Maryland Avenue, SW, Suite 755
Washington, DC 20024

Under Contract to the Federal Highway Administration
United States Department of Transportation
Washington, DC

May 2003


1. Report No.
FHWA-OP-03-075
2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No.
4. Title and Subtitle
Intelligent Transportation Systems Benefits and Costs: 2003 Update
5. Report Date
May 2003
6. Performing Organization Code

7. Author(s)
Robert P. Maccubbin, Barbara L. Staples, Michael R. Mercer
8. Performing Organization Report No.
9. Performing Organization Name and Address

Mitretek Systems, Inc.
600 Maryland Ave., SW, Suite 755
Washington DC 20024
10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)
11. Contract or Grant No.
20024 DTFH61-00-C-00001
12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address
Department of Transportation
Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office
400 Seventh Street, SW - Room 3416
Washington, DC 20590
13. Type of Report and Period Covered
14. Sponsoring Agency Code
HOIT
15. Supplementary Notes
Joseph I. Peters - Task Manager
 
16. Abstract

The increasing demand for travel by highway and public transit in the United States is causing the transportation system to reach the limits of its existing capacity. Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) can help ease this strain through the application of modern information technology and communications. This report is a continuation of a series of reports providing a synthesis of the information collected by the United States Department of Transportation's ITS Joint Program Office on the impact that ITS projects have on the operation of the surface transportation network. New in this 2003 report is the inclusion of cost information for representative ITS deployments; previous reports contained only benefits information. Information in this report is drawn from the ITS Benefits and Unit Costs Database, a regularly updated repository of such information, available on the Internet at www.benefitcost.its.dot.gov. The report presents material from the database that describes the impacts and costs of the intelligent transportation infrastructure as well as intelligent vehicle applications.



17. Key Words
Intelligent Transportation Systems, ITS, Benefits, Costs
18. Distribution Statement
No Restrictions
This document is available to the public

19. Security Classif. (of this report)
Unclassified
20. Security Classif. (of this page
Unclassified
21. No. of Pages
152
22. Price
NA


PREFACE

For the first time, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) is presenting in one document benefits and costs information for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) implementations. Intelligent Transportation Systems Benefits and Costs 2003 Update represents a culmination of DOT's active 10-year data collection on the impact of ITS projects on surface transportation and the cost of implementing them. This compendium builds on previous ITS benefits reports, and refers the reader to information sources.

As a public service, DOT also sponsors a regularly updated online ITS Benefits and Unit Costs Database at www.benefitcost.its.dot.gov, which gives transportation professionals the information they need about benefits and costs of ITS implementations and services. The database also gives researchers information on ITS areas where further analysis may be required.

The printed 2003 Update (FHWA Report FHWA-OP-03-075) can be ordered by writing to itspubs@fhwa.dot.gov. It can be viewed on DOT's ITS Electronic Document Library at www.its.dot.gov/itsweb/welcome.htm as document No. 13772_files.

Not all ITS efforts initiated by states, local governments, and private enterprises are documented in the 2003 Update or in the database. We encourage readers who are aware of ITS benefits and costs information from these and other sources to let us know about them by using the online database or by sending reference documents to:

Joseph I. Peters, Ph.D.
Manager, ITS Program Assessment
ITS Joint Program Office
Federal Highway Administration (HOIT-1)
400 Seventh Street, SW
Washington, DC 20590
Joe.Peters@fhwa.dot.gov




TABLE OF CONTENTS

Executive Summary
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Benefits Database Goals and Overview
1.2 Unit Costs Database Goals and Overview
1.3 A Few Good Measures
1.4 Report Organization
2.0 Benefits and Costs of the Intelligent Infrastructure
2.1 Arterial Management Systems
2.2 Freeway Management Systems
2.3 Transit Management Systems
2.4 Incident Management Systems
2.5 Emergency Management Systems
2.6 Electronic Payment Systems
2.7 Traveler Information
2.8 Information Management
2.9 Crash Prevention & Safety
2.10 Roadway Operations & Maintenance
2.11 Road Weather Management
2.12 Commercial Vehicle Operations
2.13 Intermodal Freight
3.0 Benefits and Costs of Intelligent Vehicles
3.1 Collision Warning Systems
3.2 Driver Assistance Systems
3.3 Collision Notification Systems
4.0 Summary and Conclusions
References
Appendix A: ITS Unit Costs Database
Appendix B: List of Acronyms

LISTING OF TABLES

Table 1.0.1 Definition of Impact Ratings for Assessment of ITS Applications
Table 2.1.1 Benefits and Costs of Arterial Management Systems
Table 2.2.1 Benefits and Costs of Freeway Management Systems
Table 2.3.1 Benefits and Costs of Transit Management Systems
Table 2.4.1 Benefits and Costs of Incident Management Systems
Table 2.5.1 Benefits and Costs of Emergency Management Systems
Table 2.6.1 Benefits and Costs of Electronic Payment Systems
Table 2.7.1 Benefits and Costs of Traveler Information
Table 2.8.1 Costs of Information Management
Table 2.9.1 Benefits and Costs of Crash Prevention & Safety
Table 2.10.1 Benefits and Costs of Roadway Operations & Maintenance
Table 2.11.1 Benefits and Costs of Road Weather Management
Table 2.12.1 Benefits and Costs of ITS for Commercial Vehicle Operations
Table 2.13.1 Benefits and Costs of ITS Applications for Intermodal Freight
Table 3.1.1 Benefits and Costs of Collision Warning Systems
Table 3.2.1 Benefits and Costs of Driver Assistance Systems
Table 3.3.1 Benefits and Costs of Collision Notification Systems
Table 4.0.1 Documents Available in the ITS Benefits Database
Table 4.0.2 Summary of Benefits Sources/References and System Cost Data

LISTING OF FIGURES

Figure 1.4.1 Taxonomy for ITS
Figure 1.4.2 Taxonomy for the Intelligent Infrastructure
Figure 1.4.3 Taxonomy for Intelligent Vehicles
Figure 1.4.4 Excerpt of Table 2.1.1   (describing benefits and costs of Adaptive Signal Control)
Figure 2.0 Taxonomy for the Intelligent Infrastructure
Figure 2.1.1 Taxonomy for Arterial Management Systems
Figure 2.2.1 Taxonomy for Freeway Management Systems
Figure 2.3.1 Taxonomy for Transit Management Systems
Figure 2.4.1 Taxonomy for Incident Management Systems
Figure 2.5.1 Taxonomy for Emergency Management Systems
Figure 2.6.1 Taxonomy for Electronic Payment Systems
Figure 2.7.1 Taxonomy for Traveler Information
Figure 2.8.1 Taxonomy for Information Management
Figure 2.9.1 Taxonomy for Crash Prevention & Safety
Figure 2.10.1 Taxonomy for Roadway Operations & Maintenance
Figure 2.11.1 Taxonomy for Road Weather Management
Figure 2.12.1 Taxonomy for Commercial Vehicle Operations
Figure 2.13.1 Taxonomy for Intermodal Freight
Figure 3.0.1 Taxonomy for Intelligent Vehicles
Figure 3.1.1 Taxonomy for Collision Warning Systems
Figure 3.2.1 Taxonomy for Driver Assistance Systems
Figure 3.3.1 Taxonomy for Collision Notification Systems

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The increasing demand for travel by highway and public transit in the United States is causing the transportation system to reach the limits of its existing capacity. Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) can help ease this strain through the application of modern information technology and communications. ITS include a wide collection of applications, from 511 telephone traveler information systems to freeway ramp metering systems and electronic transit fare payment systems. In order to apply ITS services most effectively, it is important to understand their benefits and costs. The diverse array of ITS applications available can address a variety of transportation problems. Some applications provide more cost-effective benefits than others, and as technology evolves, the available choices change. The costs of these technology investments—not only the first-time, initial costs, but the costs to operate and maintain them—are of interest to transportation agencies.

This report is a continuation of a series of reports providing a synthesis of the information collected by the United States Department of Transportation's (U.S. DOT) ITS Joint Program Office (JPO) on the impact that ITS projects have on the operation of the surface transportation network. New in this 2003 report is the inclusion of cost information for representative ITS deployments; previous reports contained only benefits information.

Information in this report is drawn from the ITS Benefits and Unit Costs Database, a regularly updated repository of such information, available on the Internet at www.benefitcost.its.dot.gov. The report presents material from the database that describes the impacts of the intelligent transportation infrastructure as well as intelligent vehicle applications. The majority of published evaluations of ITS implementations document positive impacts on the transportation system, and the assessments provided in this report reflect this fact. However, every attempt has been made to incorporate positive, negative, and neutral findings. A small number of negative findings appear in this report; for example, Section 2.6 documents increases in crashes at toll plazas with electronic toll collection, likely due to driver uncertainty regarding plaza configuration and the variations in the speeds of vehicles within the plazas. This report also documents a few evaluations which found that an ITS implementation did not have an impact on a particular measure of effectiveness, including two studies that found traveler information does not have a significant impact on capacity, while it does reduce traveler delay. Mixed results are also noted in the few instances where studies have found both positive and negative impacts in a given area. There is a continuing need for ongoing evaluation of ITS, as indicated by the large number of application areas within this report for which there are not enough evaluation data to make an assessment of the system's impact on many of the relevant performance measures.

The remainder of the Executive Summary provides representative samples of the information in the main body of the report. The body of this report includes additional detail on the impacts and costs of many applications within the wide variety represented by the major ITS program areas. The concluding section of this report contains a summary of the availability of benefits and costs data for the various ITS applications and points out the gaps that still remain.

The following pages contain brief descriptions of the 16 ITS program areas discussed, as well as highlights of the benefits and costs information available for each.


Photo of traffic at intersection.  ARTERIAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
Arterial Management Icon. Arterial management systems manage traffic along arterial roadways, employing traffic detectors, traffic signals, and various means of communicating information to travelers.


Benefits
Studies from 6 cities in Canada, Brazil, Spain, and Scotland indicated delay reductions from 5% - 42% after installation of adaptive signal control systems. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Costs

System Cost
Arlington County, Virginia, Department of Public Works, Traffic Engineering Division, recently brought 65 intersections (expandable to 235) under an adaptive signal control system. The costs included software, hardware, roadside equipment, cabling, mobilization and maintenance of traffic, installation, training, maintenance and test equipment, and system documentation. 6 Project cost:$2.43 million(2001)
Photo of traffic surveillance center.  FREEWAY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
Freeway Management Icon. Freeway management systems employ traffic detectors, surveillance cameras, and other means of monitoring traffic flow on freeways to support the implementation of traffic management strategies such as ramp meters, lane closures, and variable speed limits (VSL).


Benefits

A study of the six-week shutdown of the ramp meters in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, found that ramp meters were responsible for:

  • a 21% crash reduction,
  • a 10% increase in the volume of traffic accommodated by area freeways,
  • and a 22% decrease in travel times.7

Traveler opinions of the system improved with the implementation of a modified operating strategy after the shutdown. The new operating strategy used fewer ramp meters, operating for a shorter period of time each day, with faster metering rates. Support for complete shutdown of the system dropped from 21% prior to the shutdown to just 14% of survey respondents after the system modifications. 8

A simulation study of the system found 2-55% fuel savings for vehicles traveling along two corridors in the city, under varying levels of travel demand. 9

Costs

System Cost
Colorado DOT (CDOT) has implemented ramp metering to regulate the flow of traffic onto freeways as part of the T-REX each site installed (Transportation Expansion) project. 10, 11 Cost: $50,000 for each site installed with controller (2001)

Photo of buses at terminal  TRANSIT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
Transit Management Icon. Transit ITS services include surveillance and communications, such as automated vehicle location (AVL) systems, computer-aided dispatch (CAD) systems, and remote vehicle and facility surveillance cameras, which enable transit agencies to improve the operational efficiency, safety, and security of the nation's public transportation systems.

Benefits
The GPS-based AVL system in Denver, Colorado, rated very well with Regional Transportation District (RTD) dispatchers. Operators and dispatchers were able to communicate more quickly and efficiently. Approximately 80% of dispatchers found the system "easy" or "very easy" to use, and about 50% of operators and street supervisors felt likewise. The system succeeded in improving bus service by decreasing the number of passenger late arrivals by 21%. 12
Costs

System Cost
The Denver RTD installed the AVL system on its 1,355-vehicle fleet. Capital costs include system software, dispatch center hardware, in-vehicle hardware, field communication equipment, initial training, and planning and implementation. Capital cost:$10.4 million (approx.) Annual Operations & Maintenance (O&M) cost: $1.9 million (approx.) (1997)

Photo of crash rescue team  INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
Incident Management Icon. Incident management systems can reduce the effects of incident-related congestion by decreasing the time to detect incidents, the time for responding vehicles to arrive, and the time required for traffic to return to normal conditions. Incident management systems make use of a variety of surveillance technologies, often shared with freeway and arterial management systems, as well as enhanced communications and other technologies that facilitate coordinated response to incidents.

Benefits
A study of the Coordinated Highways Action Response Team (CHART) in Maryland found that the system reduced average incident duration 57% in 2000 and 55% in 1999. 13 Delay savings identified in studies of systems in Minnesota, Colorado, and Indiana yield benefits of $1.2-$1.8 million/yr. 14, 15, 16  Motorist assistance patrols, an important component of many incident management systems, are well-received by the public. The Virginia Department of Transportation has published hundreds of "thank you" letters received regarding its Safety Service Patrol. 17
Costs

System Cost
Dane County, Wisconsin, implemented an interagency dispatch and reporting coordination system to improve response to incidents and emergencies. Police vehicles are equipped with on-board computers used to transmit incident data to a central dispatching database.18 Cost per vehicle:$8,000-$10,000
Photo of ambulance  EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
Emergency Management Icon. ITS applications in emergency management include hazardous materials management, the deployment of emergency medical services, and large- and small-scale emergency response and evacuation operations.


Benefits
The LifeLink project in San Antonio, Texas, enabled emergency room doctors to communicate with emergency medical technicians (EMTs) using 2-way video, audio, and data communications. EMTs and doctors had mixed opinions about the system; however, it was expected that this technology would have more positive impacts in rural areas, where transit times to emergency rooms are generally longer.19
Costs

System Cost
To overcome the lack of shared communications among Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs) in the Seattle, Washington, metropolitan area, the Smart Trek project purchased and distributed to each EOC communications equipment that operated on the same frequency. The project cost included the purchase of sixteen 800 MHz radios, three repeater station upgrades, other equipment, and planning and development labor costs.20 Cost: $151,700 (1998) Annual O&M cost: $2,860 (1998)

Photo of vehicles approaching toll booth.

Photo of woman using Smart Card.
 ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS
Electronic Toll Icon.Electronic Smart Card Icon. Electronic payment systems employ various communication and electronic technologies to facilitate commerce between travelers and transportation agencies, typically for the purpose of paying tolls and transit fares.


Benefits
Evaluation of the smart card electronic payment system in Ventura, California, indicated potential savings of $9.5 million per year in reduced fare evasion, $5 million in reduced data collection costs, and $990,000 in transfer slip elimination. 21
Costs

System Cost
The Ventura County Transportation Commission, in California, implemented an electronic fare payment system on its buses. The "Go Ventura" card allows transit riders to use a smart card for fare payment. The card can be used on buses run by the county's six transit systems. 22 Project cost: $1.7 million (2001)

Photo of Montana billboard advertsising 511  TRAVELER INFORMATION
Traveler Information Icon. Traveler information applications use a variety of technologies, including Internet websites, telephone hotlines, as well as television and radio, to allow users to make more informed decisions regarding trip departures, routes, and mode of travel. Ongoing implementation of the designated 511 telephone number will improve access to traveler information across the country.

Benefits

In a 1999 survey, individuals using the Advanced Regional Traffic Interactive Management and Information System (ARTIMIS) telephone traveler information service in the Cincinnati, Ohio, area rated the system highly:

  • More than 99% of those surveyed said they benefited by avoiding traffic problems, saving time, reducing frustration, and arriving at destinations on time.
  • 81% said they had recommended the service to someone else. 23
Costs

System Cost
Nebraska's Department of Roads and the Nebraska State Patrol have teamed up to deploy a statewide 511 Traveler Information system. The new 511 system replaces the toll-free weather and road condition system formerly operated by the State Patrol. 24 Initial cost: $120,000 (2001) Estimated annual O&M cost: $110,000 (2001)

Photo of computers  INFORMATION MANAGEMENT
Information Management Icon. ITS information management supports the archiving and retrieval of data generated by other ITS applications and enables ITS applications that use archived information. Decision support systems, predictive information, and performance monitoring are some ITS applications enabled by ITS information management. In addition, ITS information management systems can assist in transportation planning, research, and safety management activities. As deployment of ITS information management matures, quantitative information on the benefits of these systems should become more readily available.

Costs

System Cost
The total cost of the Nevada DOT Freeway and Arterial System of Transportation (FAST) central system software design and development is approximately $4.225 million. The software will provide a fully automated freeway management system, plus the capability to receive, collect, archive, summarize, and distribute data generated by FAST. Of the $4.225 million, the cost to develop the design for the implementation of the Archived Data User Service (ADUS) for FAST was approximately $225,000. This cost included needs assessment, update of functional requirements, update of the regional architecture for the Las Vegas area, and system design. 11 Software design and development cost: $4.225 million (2001) ADUS design cost: $225,000 (2001)
Photo of electronic warning sign.  CRASH PREVENTION & SAFETY
Crash Prevention & Safety Icon. Crash prevention and safety systems make use of sensor technology and active warning signs, including flashers, beacons, and dynamic message signs (DMS), to warn drivers of dangerous curves, excessive speed on downhill road segments, at-grade railroad crossings, and other dangerous conditions.

Benefits
A dynamic truck downhill speed warning system installed on I-70 in Colorado, west of the Eisenhower Tunnel, decreased truck accidents 13% and reduced the use of runaway ramps 24%. 25
Costs

System Cost
A truck speed warning system was deployed on a downgrade curve along I-70 in Glenwood Canyon, Colorado. If a truck is detected (via radar) exceeding the posted speed, then the truck's speed is posted on a DMS. The system cost range is the estimated cost for a single site. 18 System cost: $25,000-$30,000 (1996)

Photo of construction vehicles along roadway.  ROADWAY OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE
Roadway Operations Icon. ITS applications in operations and maintenance focus on integrated management of maintenance fleets, specialized service vehicles, hazardous road conditions remediation, and work zone mobility and safety. These applications monitor, analyze, and disseminate roadway and infrastructure data for operational, maintenance, and managerial uses. ITS can help secure the safety of workers and travelers in a work zone while facilitating traffic flow through and around the construction area. This is often achieved through the temporary deployment of other ITS services, such as elements of traffic management and incident management programs.

Benefits
Average clearance times for incidents were reduced 44% with the implementation of motorist assistance patrols and a temporary traffic management center during a construction project at the "Big I" interchange in Albuquerque, New Mexico. 26
Costs

System Cost
Michigan DOT teamed up with FHWA and Michigan State University for an 18-month study to test the use of variable speed limits (VSL) in work zones. The equipment, 7 VSL trailers, was rented for the study. The project cost includes the equipment, technical support, and transport of the VSL trailers. 27 Project cost: $400,900 (2002)

Photo of snow plow  ROAD WEATHER MANAGEMENT
Road Weather Management Icon. Road weather management activities include road weather information systems (RWIS), winter maintenance technologies, and coordination of operations within and between state DOTs. ITS applications assist with the monitoring and forecasting of roadway and atmospheric conditions, dissemination of weather-related information to travelers, weather-related traffic control measures such as variable speed limits, and both fixed and mobile winter maintenance activities.

Benefits
An Idaho DOT study found significant speed reductions when weather-related warnings were posted on dynamic message signs. During periods of high winds and snow-covered pavement, vehicle speeds dropped 35% to 35 mph when warning messages were displayed, compared to a 9% drop to 44 mph without the dynamic message signs. 28
Costs

System Cost
Washington State DOT has implemented three highway advisory radios along the Blewett/Stevens Pass to provide weather and road condition information to travelers and maintenance crews. 11 Average cost of equipment (including installation): $20,000 (2001) Annual O&M cost: $1,000 (2001)

Photo of trucks at weigh station.  COMMERCIAL VEHICLE OPERATIONS
Commercial Vehicle Operations Icon. ITS applications for commercial vehicle operations are designed to enhance communication between motor carriers and regulatory agencies. Examples include electronic registration and permitting programs, electronic exchange of inspection data between regulating agencies for better inspection targeting, electronic screening systems, and several applications to assist operators with fleet operations and security.

Benefits
Three motor carriers surveyed during the Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and Network (CVISN) model deployment initiative evaluation indicated that electronic credentialing reduced paperwork and saved them 60 - 75% on credentialing costs. In addition, motor carriers were able to commission new vehicles 60% faster by printing their own credential paperwork and not waiting for conventional mail delivery. 29
Costs

System Cost
Kentucky and Maryland have implemented end-to-end International Registration Plan (IRP) electronic credentialing systems within their states. The costs to deploy these systems vary with the unique characteristics of each state. A significant impact on cost is whether commercial software is used or special software is developed and if third-party services will be used. 29 End-to-end IRP cost incurred by the state: $464,802-$935,906

Photo of ship in dock  INTERMODAL FREIGHT
Intermodal Freight Icon. ITS can facilitate the safe, efficient, secure, and seamless movement of freight. Applications being deployed provide for tracking of freight and carrier assets such as containers and chassis, and improve the efficiency of freight terminal processes, drayage operations, and international border crossings.

Benefits
An electronic supply chain manifest system implemented biometric and smart card devices to automate manual, paper-based cargo data transfers between manufacturers, carriers, and airports in Chicago, Illinois, and New York, New York. Although participation was limited, the system was expected to improve efficiency. The time required for truckers to accept cargo from manufacturers decreased by about four minutes per shipment, and the time required for airports to accept the deliveries decreased by about three minutes per shipment. 30
Costs

System Cost
A tracking device installed on fleet trailers can integrate Global Positioning System (GPS) technology with the Internet to provide a secure, cost-effective method for remote and accurate management of trailers. The self-powered unit has a rechargeable battery pack, a roof-mounted combination GPS and wireless antenna, and a roof-mounted solar panel.31 Cost: beginning at $800 per trailer (2000) Monthly service cost: $19 per subscriber with a 3-year contract (2000)

Photo of bus equipped with collision warning system being passed by another bus.  COLLISION WARNING SYSTEM
Collision Warning System Icon. To improve the ability of drivers to avoid accidents, vehicle-mounted collision warning systems (CWS) continue to be tested and deployed. These applications use a variety of sensors to monitor the vehicle's surroundings and alert the driver of conditions that could lead to a collision. Examples include forward collision warning, obstacle detection systems, and road departure warning systems.

Benefits
A National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) modeling study indicated collision warning systems would be effective in 42% of rear-end crash situations where the lead vehicle was decelerating, and effective in 75% of rear-end crashes where the lead vehicle was not moving. Overall, collision warning systems would be effective in 51% of crash situations.32
Costs

System Cost
A Florida-based trucking company has installed a collision warning system to reduce the number of rear-end incidents. Adaptive cruise control can be added to further reduce rear-end collisions. 33, 34 Average cost for CWS with forward-looking and side sensor: $2,500 Adaptive cruise control: $350-$400 (extra)

Photo of driver using electronic assistance system.  DRIVER ASSISTANCE SYSTEMS
Driver Assistance Systems Icon. Numerous intelligent vehicle technologies exist to assist the driver in operating the vehicle safely. Systems are available to aid with navigation, while others, such as vision enhancement and speed control systems, are intended to facilitate safe driving during adverse conditions. Other systems assist with difficult driving tasks such as transit and commercial vehicle docking.

Benefits
In-vehicle navigation units were distributed to public agencies in the San Antonio, Texas, area as part of the San Antonio Metropolitan Model Deployment Initiative (MMDI). Focus groups composed of drivers of vehicles equipped with the units indicated that the drivers most satisfied with the system were those who frequently drove different routes each day, particularly paratransit drivers and police investigators. Modeling results indicate significant potential benefits for individuals using the devices. Over a one-year period a traveler using an IVN device could experience an 8.1% reduction in delay, a 4.6% reduction in the crash rate, and a 3% reduction in fuel consumption.19
Costs

System Cost
The units deployed in San Antonio provided route guidance and real-time traffic conditions. The cost of the units (590 at approximately $2,800 each) was the most significant cost driver for the project. Most of the O&M cost is attributed to database updates.19 Capital cost for project: $2,388,691 (1998) Annual O&M cost: $102,330 (1998)

Photo of vehicle accident in the rain  COLLISION NOTIFICATION SYSTEMS
Collision Notification Systems Icon. In an effort to improve response times and save lives, collision notification systems have been designed to detect and report the location and severity of incidents to agencies and services responsible for coordinating appropriate emergency response actions. These systems can be activated manually (Mayday), or automatically with automatic collision notification (ACN), and advanced systems may transmit information on the type of crash, number of passengers, and the likelihood of injuries.

Benefits
Between July 1997 and August 2000, the impacts of advanced ACN on incident notification were tracked for vehicles with and without ACN systems in urban and suburban areas of Erie County, New York. Based on a limited number of crash events, the average notification time for vehicles equipped with ACN was less than one minute with some notification times as long as 2 minutes, and the average notification time for vehicles without ACN was about 3 minutes with some notification times as long as 9, 12, 30, and 46 minutes.35
Costs

System Cost
Numerous commercial Mayday/ACN products are available as factory-installed and after-market devices. Cost data are more prevalent for after-market devices than for factory-installed systems. Installation costs were not readily available. Annual service fees vary depending on the level of services offered.36 After-market device cost range: $400-$1,895 Monthly service fee: $10-$27



1.0 INTRODUCTION

Highway travel by Americans continues to grow as population increases, particularly in metropolitan areas. Construction of new highway capacity to accommodate this growth in travel has not kept pace. Between 1980 and 1999, vehicle miles of travel increased 76 percent while road expansion to meet this demand has lagged behind. The Texas Transportation Institute estimates that, in 2000, the 75 largest metropolitan areas experienced 3.6 billion vehicle-hours of delay, resulting in 5.7 billion gallons in wasted fuel and $67.5 billion in lost productivity. 37

Transit ridership is also on the rise, reaching 9.4 billion trips in 2000, the highest level in 40 years. 38 Freight volumes are forecast to grow by about 69 percent between 1998 and 2020, from 15.3 billion tons, to 25.8 billion tons annually. 39 Largely considered a big-city problem, congestion and related delays are becoming increasingly common in small cities and some rural areas as well. This increasing demand for transportation is causing the transportation system to reach the limits of its existing capacity. Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) can help ease this strain through the application of modern information technology and communications.

The goal of ITS is to improve the transportation system to make it more effective, efficient, and safe. Building new transportation infrastructure is expensive and can be detrimental to the environment. In most urban areas where more capacity is needed, it is becoming physically impossible to build enough new roads or new lanes to meet transportation demand. By applying the latest technological advances to our transportation system, ITS can help meet increasing demand for transportation by improving the quality, safety, and effective capacity of our existing infrastructure.

ITS represents a wide collection of applications, from advanced traffic signal control systems, to electronic transit fare payment systems, to ramp meters, to collision warning systems. In order to apply ITS services most effectively, it is important to understand their benefits and costs. Some applications provide more cost-effective benefits than others, and as technology evolves, the choices available change. Often, several technologies are combined in a single integrated system, providing a higher level of benefits than any single technology. The costs of these technology investments not only the first-time, initial costs, but the costs to operate and maintain them are of interest to transportation agencies.

New in the 2003 report is the inclusion of cost information for representative ITS deployments.

This report is a continuation of a series of reports providing a synthesis of the information collected by the United States Department of Transportation's (U.S. DOT) ITS Joint Program Office (JPO) on the impact of ITS projects on the operation of the surface transportation network. The last report, ITS Benefits: 2001 Update, 40 was published in June of 2001. New in the 2003 report is the inclusion of cost information for representative ITS deployments. Information in the report is drawn from the ITS Benefits and Unit Costs Database, a regularly updated repository for this information, available on the Internet at www.benefitcost.its.dot.gov. The report presents material from the database according to program areas within the intelligent transportation infrastructure as well as those within the intelligent vehicle area. Also provided are example system costs from deployments within many of the program areas, as well as relevant unit cost data for components of the various applications. New in the 2003 report is the inclusion of cost information for representative ITS deployments.

This report presents an assessment of the effect of ITS applications on several important impact areas. These assessments are built from findings in the benefits portion of the database, incorporating additions since the completion of the last report. While the assessments are based on the authors' review of all study findings, the highlighted examples are only a portion of the total number of studies documented in the ITS Benefits Database. The impact assessments for each ITS application area are presented through a rating system, as shown in Table 1.0.1. These ratings were developed through individual review of the database content by the authors, with additional discussion among the authors to establish the final ratings presented in this report. A particular rating was assigned if one or more of the reasons in the rationale column in Table 1.0.1 was evident in reviewing the evaluations of a given ITS application in the Benefits Database.


TABLE 1.0.1
DEFINITION OF IMPACT RATINGS FOR ASSESSMENT OF ITS APPLICATIONS

Symbol Impact Rating Rationale
++ substantial positive impacts
  • several studies with positive findings
  • documented impact of relatively large magnitude
+ positive impacts
  • several studies documenting positive findings though the impact may be small or moderate
  • single, relatively rigorous study documented a positive impact
o negligible impact
  • studies performed found little significant impact
+/- mixed results
  • studies have found both positive and negative impacts on a given measure
? not enough data
  • usually, only a single study is available, and results cannot be taken to indicate a trend
  • studies in database have limited sample sizes, or study durations
  • studies in database are from a single location, and impacts are expected to vary in different locations
- negative impacts
  • several studies documenting negative findings
  • single, relatively rigorous study documenting a negative impact


The majority of published evaluations of ITS implementations document positive impacts on the transportation system, and the assessments provided in this report reflect this fact. However, every attempt has been made to incorporate positive, negative, and neutral findings. A small number of negative findings appear in this report: for example, Section 2.6 documents increases in crashes at toll plazas with electronic toll collection, likely due to driver uncertainty regarding plaza configuration and the variations in the speeds of vehicles within the plazas. This report also documents a few evaluations which found that an ITS implementation did not have an impact on a particular measure of effectiveness, including two studies that found traveler information did not have a significant impact on capacity, while it did reduce traveler delay. Mixed results are also noted in the few instances where studies have found both positive and negative impacts in a given area. There is a continuing need for ongoing evaluation of ITS, as indicated by the large number of application areas within this report for which there are not enough evaluation data to make an assessment of the system's impact on many of the relevant performance measures.

This interactive report includes links from sections of the report to relevant portions of the ITS Benefits and Unit Costs Database.

Interested readers are encouraged to check the database from time to time for the latest findings on the benefits and costs of ITS. This report is intended to be a reference report; it highlights impacts and system cost data identified by other authors. The interested reader is encouraged to obtain source documents to appreciate the assumptions and constraints placed upon interpretation of results. This interactive report includes links from sections of the report to relevant portions of the ITS Benefits and Unit Costs Database. Within the data tables provided for the various ITS application areas, "Benefits" links provide access to relevant documents in the Benefits database, and the Unit Cost subsystem entries provide links to the related portions of the database. The database includes more detailed summaries of the evaluations cited in this report as well as links to source documents, when available online.

While this report focuses on documenting and assessing the impacts of ITS implementations on the transportation system as well as the costs of these implementations, the ITS JPO has also published a number of other documents to convey lessons learned in the implementation of ITS. The report, What Have We Learned About Intelligent Transportation Systems?, published in 2000, contains a more comprehensive examination of which ITS technologies have been successful over the 10-year history of the National ITS Program, which ITS technologies have not been successful, and what are the underlying factors that determine success or failure.41

The ITS JPO's website is another valuable resource for information on the various applications of ITS. The website, http://www.its.dot.gov, also includes links to many of the resources highlighted within this report, including an electronic document library, which contains electronic copies of many of the reports made available by the JPO.

In addition, for those ITS technologies with a well-established track record, the U.S. DOT has developed a series of reports that help decision-makers learn about how those ITS solutions can address local and regional transportation needs. There are several different types of reports in the series, each designed to communicate with target audiences at various levels:

  • ITS Benefits Brochures let experienced community leaders and transportation professionals explain in their own words how specific ITS technologies have benefited their areas.
  • Cross-Cutting Studies examine various ITS approaches that can be taken to meet a community's goals.
  • Case Studies provide in-depth coverage of specific approaches taken by communities across the U.S.
  • Implementation Guides serve as "how to" manuals to assist project staff in the technical details of implementing ITS.
  • Technical Reports are easy-to-read excerpts from more detailed evaluation reports.

Photo of the several types of ITS reports.

In addition to lessons learned and other reports developed to assist transportation decision-makers, information is available on how much and what types of ITS deployment have taken place. The ITS Metropolitan Deployment Tracking project began in 1996 with the goal of tracking the level of ITS deployment and integration in 75 of the nation's largest metropolitan areas. The number of metropolitan areas was later increased to 78. In 1997, and again in 1999 and 2000, data were collected based on a series of surveys targeted at 78 of the largest metropolitan areas. Beginning in 2002, the target areas were expanded to include 30 medium-sized, high-congestion areas, 20 tourist areas, and 50 statewide/rural areas. Results of the data collected for 2002 will be available at the ITS Deployment Tracking web site, www.itsdeployment.its.dot.gov, in early summer 2003.


1.1 BENEFITS DATABASE GOALS AND OVERVIEW

To expand the understanding of ITS benefits, the U.S. DOT's ITS JPO has been actively collecting information regarding the impact of ITS implementations over the past decade. In support of this effort, the JPO sponsored the development of the ITS Benefits Database. The database is available to the public at www.benefitcost.its.dot.gov. The database contains the most recent data collected by the JPO. Its purpose is to transmit existing knowledge of ITS benefits to the transportation professionals. The database also provides the research community with information on ITS areas where further analysis may be required.

The Benefits Database website contains detailed summaries of each of the ITS evaluation reports reviewed by the JPO that met the acceptance criteria. Summaries on the web pages provide additional background on the context of the evaluations, the evaluation methodologies used, and links to the source documentation (when available online). While the JPO publishes reports such as this periodically, the online database is updated quarterly to reflect the most recent reports reviewed. Documents reviewed for inclusion in the database include the results of federal evaluation projects, as well as papers, journal articles, and state or local evaluation reports identified through review of conference proceedings and journals, or through e-mail submission via the website. The collection of evaluation reports is an ongoing program, and readers are encouraged to submit relevant documents via the database website.

The online database also provides several capabilities to simplify access to information relevant to a researcher's interest. In addition to using the classification system in this report, interested researchers can access document summaries classified by project location and ITS goal areas addressed in the evaluations, or search the database for relevant keywords. These capabilities of the online database simplify access to the most recently available data on ITS benefits identified by the JPO. The website also contains a discussion of the criteria and sources used to determine whether or not a report should be added to the ITS Benefits Database.


1.2 UNIT COSTS DATABASE GOALS AND OVERVIEW

The ITS JPO also collects information on ITS costs, and maintains this information in the ITS Unit Costs Database. The database, a companion to the Benefits Database, is available to the public at the same website, www.benefitcost.its.dot.gov, (and also presented in Appendix A). The database is a central site for ITS cost data and is based on the most recent data collected by the JPO. Its purpose is to make cost data available to public and private organizations. The database also provides data that the ITS JPO can use for programmatic and policy decisions, and education of ITS stakeholders.

The ITS Unit Costs Database consists of a range of reported costs for a set of ITS elements. The cost data are organized by "subsystem" and generally follow the structure of the National ITS Architecture. The cost estimates are categorized as capital and operating and maintenance (O&M) costs. Capital costs are the costs expended for one-time, non-recurring purchases. Operations and maintenance costs, often referred to as recurring costs, are the annual costs incurred on an ongoing basis. Costs are presented in a range to capture the lows and highs of the cost elements from the different data sources. A "Notes" field provides a brief narrative describing the particular unit cost element and its components. The cost data are useful in developing project cost estimates during the planning process. However, the user is encouraged to find local/regional data sources and current vendor data in order to perform a more detailed cost estimate.

Currently, example system costs from deployments are not contained in the Unit Costs Database or on the website. The collection of cost data is an ongoing program, and readers are encouraged to submit relevant cost data (and benefits data) via the database website. As new cost data become available, existing costs for the unit cost elements will be revised and new unit cost elements will be added.


1.3 A FEW GOOD MEASURES

In the spring of 1996, the ITS JPO established a set of ITS program goal areas directly related to the ITS strategic plan.42 The goal areas include improving traveler safety, improving traveler mobility, improving system efficiency, increasing the productivity of transportation providers, and conserving energy while protecting the environment. The JPO also identified several measures of effectiveness to evaluate the performance of ITS services in each goal area. The measures are known as the "Few Good Measures" and are intended to enable project managers to gauge the effects and impacts of ITS. The following is an overview of the various measures of effectiveness within each goal area.

Safety

Safety Icon

An explicit objective of the transportation system is to provide a safe environment for travel while continuing to strive to improve the performance of the system. Although undesirable, crashes and fatalities are an inevitable occurrence. Several ITS services aim to minimize the risk of crash occurrence. This goal area focuses on reducing the number of crashes, and lessening the probability of a fatality should a crash occur. Typical measures of effectiveness used to quantify safety performance include the overall crash rate, fatality crash rate, and injury crash rate. Surrogate measures are also used, including vehicle speeds, speed variability, or changes in the number of violations of traffic safety laws.

Mobility

Mobility Icon

Improving mobility by reducing delay and travel time is a major goal of many ITS components. Measures of effectiveness typically used to evaluate mobility include the amount of delay time and the variability in travel time.

Delay can be measured in many different ways depending on the type of transportation system being analyzed. Delay of a system is typically measured in seconds or minutes of delay per vehicle. Also, delay for users of the system may be measured in person-hours. Delay for freight shipments could be measured in time past scheduled arrival time of the shipment. Delay can also be measured by observing the number of stops experienced by drivers before and after a project is deployed or implemented.

Travel time variability indicates the variability in overall travel time from an origin to a destination in the system, including any modal transfers or en-route stops. This measure of effectiveness can be readily applied to intermodal freight (goods) movement as well as personal travel. Reducing the variability of travel time improves the reliability of arrival time estimates that travelers or companies use to make planning and scheduling decisions. By improving operations, improving incident response, and providing information on delays, ITS services can reduce the variability of travel time in transportation networks. For example, traveler information products can be used in trip planning to help re-route commercial drivers around congested areas resulting in less variability in travel time.

Capacity/Throughput

Capacity/Throughput Icon

Many ITS components seek to optimize the efficiency of existing facilities and use of rights-of-way so that mobility and commerce needs can be met while reducing the need to construct or expand facilities. This is accomplished by increasing the effective capacity of the transportation system. Effective capacity is the "maximum potential rate at which persons or vehicles may traverse a link, node, or network under a representative composite of roadway conditions," including "weather, incidents, and variation in traffic demand patterns." 43 Capacity, as defined by the Highway Capacity Manual, is the "maximum hourly rate at which persons or vehicles can reasonably be expected to traverse a given point or uniform section of a lane or roadway during a given time period under prevailing roadway, traffic, and control conditions." 44 The major difference between effective capacity and capacity is that capacity is generally measured under typical conditions for the facility, such as good weather and pavement conditions, with no incidents affecting the system, while effective capacity can vary depending upon these conditions and the use of management and operational strategies. Throughput is defined as the number of persons, goods, or vehicles traversing a roadway section or network per unit time. Increases in throughput are sometimes realizations of increases in effective capacity. Under certain conditions, it may reflect the maximum number of travelers that can be accommodated by a transportation system. Throughput is more easily measured than effective capacity and therefore can be used as a surrogate measure when analyzing the performance of an ITS project.

Customer Satisfaction

Customer Satisfaction Icon

Given that many ITS projects and programs were specifically developed to serve the public, it is important to ensure that traveler expectations are being met or surpassed. Customer satisfaction measures characterize the difference between users' expectations and experiences in relation to a service or product. The central question in a customer satisfaction evaluation is, "Does the product deliver sufficient value (or benefits) in exchange for the customer's investment, whether the investment is measured in money or time?" Typical results reported in evaluating the impacts of customer satisfaction with a product or service include product awareness, expectations of product benefit(s), product use, response (decision-making or behavior change), realization of benefits, and assessment of value. Although satisfaction is difficult to measure directly, measures related to satisfaction can be observed, including amount of travel in various modes, mode choices, and the quality of service as well as the volume of complaints and/or compliments received by the service provider.

In addition to user or customer satisfaction, it is necessary to evaluate the satisfaction of the transportation system provider or manager. For example, many ITS projects are implemented to better coordinate between various stakeholders in the transportation arena. In such projects, it is important to measure the satisfaction of the transportation provider to ensure the best use of limited funding. One way to measure the performance of such a project is to survey transportation providers before and after a project has been implemented to see if coordination was improved. It may also be possible to bring together providers from each of the stakeholder groups to evaluate their satisfaction with the system before and after the implementation of an ITS project.

Productivity

Productivity Icon

ITS implementations can reduce operating costs and allow productivity improvements. Some applications may save time in completing business or regulatory processes, enabling businesses to increase their economic efficiency. For public agencies, ITS alternatives for transportation improvements may have lower acquisition costs and life cycle costs when compared to traditional transportation improvements. Other ITS applications enable the collection and synthesis of data that can translate into cost savings and performance improvements. Operational efficiencies and cost savings made possible by ITS implementation can help both public and private entities make the most productive use of their resources. The measure of effectiveness for this goal area is cost savings as a result of implementing ITS.

Energy and Environment

Energy and Environment Icon

The air quality and energy impacts of ITS services are very important considerations, particularly for nonattainment areas. In most cases, environmental benefits can only be estimated by the use of analysis and simulation. The problems related to regional measurement include the small impact of individual projects and large numbers of exogenous variables including weather, contributions from non-mobile sources, air pollution drifting into an area from other regions, as well as the time-evolving nature of ozone pollution. Small-scale studies generally show positive impacts on the environment. These impacts result from smoother and more efficient flows in the transportation system. However, environmental impacts of travelers reacting to large-scale deployment in the long term are not well understood.

Decreases in emission levels and energy consumption have been identified as measures of effectiveness for this goal area. Specific measures of effectiveness for emission levels and fuel use include:

  • Emission levels (kilograms or tons of pollutants including carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC), and volatile organic compounds)
  • Fuel use (liters or gallons)
  • Fuel economy (km/L or miles/gal)

1.4 REPORT ORGANIZATION

This report follows a taxonomy for reporting ITS benefits and costs data. The ITS taxonomy used in this report groups benefits and costs data into two major components: Intelligent Infrastructure and Intelligent Vehicles. These components are then divided into program areas and specific ITS application areas. Figures 1.4.1 through 1.4.3 present an overview of this taxonomy. Subsequent sections of this report provide additional detail within each segment of the taxonomy. Intelligent Transportation Systems

Figure 1.4.1 Taxonomy for ITS, follow link for detailed description.

The taxonomy cannot represent all aspects of ITS. For example, many of the program areas can be dependent on or heavily influenced by other areas. This dependency is not well shown in the taxonomy. Also note that many ITS program areas share information and operate in a cooperative manner which is difficult to capture in this format. For example, traveler information systems, especially those regional or multimodal in nature, must rely on surveillance data collected by other ITS applications such as freeway, arterial, and transit management systems. In addition, in-vehicle driver assistance systems, such as navigation, can be augmented by a cooperative infrastructure to provide routing and/or travel time information to vehicle systems. Within this report, in cases of integrated deployment of more than one application, system cost and impact data appear under the program area that the implementation most directly supports.

Sections 2 and 3 begin with a brief description of the ITS taxonomy components, Intelligent Infrastructure and Intelligent Vehicles, respectively. Subsequent subsections within these two sections include a brief description of each program area and specific ITS application area. The benefits and costs data are presented in tabular format based on the taxonomy structure for each program area. Within these tables, impact information is presented by goal area (e.g., safety, mobility, etc.) followed by a listing of relevant unit cost elements (refer to Appendix A) and concluding with available examples of system cost data.

Impact Legend, follow link for text version.

Figure 1.4.4 is an excerpt of Table 2.1.1 discussing the benefits and costs of arterial management systems; this portion presents the benefits and costs of adaptive signal control. Several pieces of information are provided in the benefits portion of the data table in each section of this report. The "Goal Area," one of the "Few Good Measures" discussed earlier in Section 1.3, is followed by the "Number of Studies" in the database identifying impacts within that goal area for a given application of ITS. The "Impact" rating in the third column represents an assessment of the application's impact on the performance goal area, considering the collection of reports in the database (a more complete discussion is provided in Table 1.0.1). Impact ratings fall into one of the six categories defined in the Impact Legend to the left, which is also repeated in each subsection within Sections 2 and 3 of this report. Example impacts for each application are included in the final column of the table, drawn from representative studies within the database.

ITS Unit Costs Database Icon

The costs portion of the data tables in each section includes a listing of relevant unit cost subsystems for the application. The icon to the left identifies applicable subsystems in the ITS Unit Costs Database for the given application area, which can be used to refer to unit cost information in Appendix A. The Unit Costs Database is regularly updated, with the most recent data available at www.benefitcost.its.dot.gov.

System Cost Icon

Sample system cost information, along with a brief description of the implemented system, follows the unit cost information in each data table and is identified by the icon to the left. The purpose of presenting system cost information is to give the reader an example of systems that have been deployed along with the costs of each particular implementation. The reader is reminded that the costs represented are taken from the source documents and have not been adjusted to reflect 2003 dollars. The parenthetical date following the system cost information represents the year the cost data are based on, when known.

A summary of the data presented in this report is provided in Section 4. A list of references and endnotes follows Section 4. Appendix A contains the ITS Unit Costs Database in table format, as of 30 September 2002. Appendix B contains a listing of acronyms used throughout the report.

 Figure 1.4.2 Taxonomy for the Intelligent Infrastructure, follow link for detailed description


Figure 1.4.3 Taxonomy for Intelligent Vehicles, follow link for detailed description.


Figure 1.4.4, follow link for detailed description.


2.0 BENEFITS AND COSTS OF THE INTELLIGENT INFRASTRUCTURE

Photo of intricate intersection of freeways, overpasses, and access ramps.

The Intelligent Infrastructure consists of a wide variety of applications intended to improve the safety and mobility of the traveling public, while enabling organizations responsible for providing transportation facilities and services to do so more efficiently. Sections 2.1 to 2.13 of this report will discuss specific applications within the 13 program areas that make up the Intelligent Infrastructure listed in Figure 2.0. ITS can be deployed to improve the operation of freeways, arterials, and transit systems. Several applications can support critical transportation functions during emergency situations. Other applications facilitate convenient payment for highway tolls and transit fares. Traveler information programs synthesize information collected by ITS and disseminate it to travelers for their benefit in making travel decisions. Information management programs help transportation organizations manage and analyze the flow of data from deployed ITS and use it to improve transportation operations. Crash prevention and safety applications provide a variety of countermeasures, often location-specific, to address transportation safety concerns. Road weather management implementations improve the ability of the highway transportation system to react to adverse weather conditions. Several applications can improve the daily operation and continuing maintenance of the highway system. ITS for commercial vehicle operations (ITS/CVO) and intermodal freight applications help facilitate the smooth and safe flow of freight throughout the country and at our borders.

Several metropolitan areas are implementing ITS services that are very highly integrated. Integration is accomplished by creating a number of interfaces or "links" between components, systems, services, or program areas. These links are used to share operational information and allow better use of infrastructure across jurisdictional boundaries. One example is sharing arterial traffic condition information originating from a traffic signal system with a freeway management system, allowing the freeway management system to provide expected travel times on alternate routes during congested periods. There are numerous other ways of integrating various implementations of ITS to achieve benefits greater than those of the individual system. The online Benefits Database contains a section presenting the evaluation reports that discuss integrated systems.

For a more complete understanding of the integration of ITS components, consult the following documents:

  • Metropolitan ITS Integration: A Cross-Cutting Study. FHWA Report (FHWA-OP-02-083), FTA Report (FTA-TRI-11-02-05). Electronic Document Number 13672.
  • Tracking the Deployment of Integrated Metropolitan Intelligent Transportation Systems Infrastructure in the USA: FY99 Results. FHWA Report (FHWA-OP-00-016). March 2000. Electronic Document Number 13159.
  • "Measuring ITS Deployment and Integration." Prepared for the FHWA ITS JPO. January 1999. Electronic Document Number 4372.

These documents are electronically available on the FHWA electronic document library at www.its.dot.gov/itsweb/welcome.htm. The JPO-sponsored deployment tracking website, itsdeployment.ed.ornl.gov, contains updated information on ITS deployment in the United States.

 Figure 2.0 Taxonomy for the Intelligent Infrastructure, follow link for detailed description.



2.1 ARTERIAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

Arterial management systems manage traffic along arterial roadways, employing traffic detectors, traffic signals, and various means of communicating information to travelers. These systems make use of information collected by traffic surveillance devices to smooth the flow of traffic along travel corridors. They also disseminate important information about travel conditions to travelers via technologies such as dynamic message signs (DMS) or highway advisory radio (HAR).

Photo of traffic at intersection

Figure 2.1.1, showing a portion of the ITS taxonomy, lists the variety of systems that may be employed as part of arterial management systems. Many of the services possible through arterial management systems are enabled by traffic surveillance technologies, such as sensors or cameras monitoring traffic flow.

Traffic signal control systems address a number of objectives, primarily improving traffic flow and safety. Transit signal priority systems can ease the travel of buses or light-rail vehicles traveling arterial corridors and improve on-time performance. Signal preemption for emergency vehicles enhances the safety of emergency responders, reducing the likelihood of crashes while improving response times. Adaptive signal control systems coordinate control of traffic signals across metropolitan areas, adjusting the lengths of signal phases based on prevailing traffic conditions. Advanced signal systems include coordinated signal operations across neighboring jurisdictions, as well as centralized control of traffic signals which may include some necessary technologies for the later development of adaptive signal control. Pedestrian detectors, specialized signal heads, and bicycle-actuated signals can improve the safety of all road users at signalized intersections. Arterial management systems with unique operating schemes can also smooth traffic flow during special events.

A variety of techniques are available to manage the travel lanes available on arterial roadways, and ITS applications can support many of these strategies. Examples include dynamic posting of high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) restrictions and the use of reversible flow lanes allowing more lanes of travel in the peak direction of travel during rush hours. Parking management systems, most commonly deployed in urban centers or at modal transfer points such as airports, monitor the availability of parking and disseminate the information to drivers, reducing traveler frustration and congestion associated with searching for parking. Organizations operating ITS can share information collected by detectors associated with arterial management systems with road users through technologies within the arterial network, such as dynamic message signs or highway advisory radio. Arterial management systems may also include automated enforcement programs that increase compliance with speed limits, traffic signals, or other traffic control devices.

Sharing information with other components of the ITS infrastructure can also have a positive impact on the operation of the transportation system. Examples include coordinating operations with a freeway management system, or providing arterial information to a traveler information system covering multiple roadway and public transit facilities.

Impact Legend

For a summary of arterial management systems deployments across the U.S., refer to www.itsdeployment.its.dot.gov.

Table 2.1.1 provides information on the benefits and costs of arterial management systems. Information provided on the impacts of these systems is indicated by using the symbols in the Impact Legend at the bottom corner of each page.

 Figure 2.1.1 Taxonomy for Arterial Management Systems, follow link for detailed description.

Arterial Management Icon.

TABLE 2.1.1
BENEFITS AND COSTS OF ARTERIAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

Traffic Surveillance
Benefits
Supporting role, no benefits information.
Costs

Unit Costs Database
Roadside Telecommunications subsystem
Roadside Detection subsystem
Transportation Management Center subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
Washington State DOT's Northwest Region installed cameras at two intersections in the town of Kenmore. The main purpose for installing the cameras is to improve signal operations on arterials. In addition, WSDOT engineers can observe traffic conditions and detect incidents. The total cost includes five cameras, telecommunication/video equipment, and labor. 45 Project cost: $65,000 (2002)
  

Traffic Control Transit Signal Priority
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Mobility
13 ++ Experience in 10 cities in the U.S. and abroad show -2% to 20% improvement in bus travel time. 46, 47, 48, 50, 51 Several studies show significant reduction in travel time variability, with a corresponding improvement in on-time performance.

Productivity
13 + On a Toronto, Canada light-rail transit line, signal priority allowed same level-of-service with less rolling stock. 52

Energy/
Environment
13 + Simulation of a priority system implemented on a Helsinki, Finland, bus line indicated reductions of HC, CO, and NOx, as well as a 3.6% reduction in fuel consumption. 49
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Telecommunications subsystem
Roadside Control subsystem
Transit Management Center subsystem
Transit Vehicle On-board subsystem
Transportation Management Center subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
A state grant was used to purchase signal priority transmitters for approximately 27 buses and receivers for 10 traffic lights in Chattanooga, Tennessee. 53 Cost: $250,000 (2001)

System Cost
The city of Los Angeles, California, in collaboration with the LA County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA), implemented a transit priority system for buses along two major transit corridors. Initial deployment began in June 2000. The project consisted of 331 loop transponders at 210 intersections, 150 transponder equipped buses, and central control software. The cost per signalized intersection included the average roadway equipment, intersection and software costs. 54 Average cost: $13,500 per signalized intersection (2000) Transponder cost: Approximately $75 per bus (2000)

(See sidebar for more detail)

System Cost
The cost of transit signal priority systems varies based on many factors such as system design and functionality, and type of equipment. Based on information reported in a recent ITS America report, the per intersection cost of a transit priority system covers a wide range. 55 Cost range: $8,000-$35,000 per intersection

Traffic Control: Emergency Vehicle Preemption
Benefits
No data to report.
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Telecommunications subsystem
Roadside Control subsystem
Emergency Response Center subsystem
Emergency Vehicle On-board subsystem
Transportation Management Center subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
Several intersections in British Columbia, Canada, were equipped for emergency vehicle preemption. The siren of an emergency vehicle is detected and initiates a green signal for the oncoming vehicle. Pedestrian crossing signals are switched to "Don't Walk." A visual verification system (set of blue-and-white lights) indicates that the intersection is controlled by an emergency vehicle preemption system and when the system has been activated. 18 Cost: $4,000 per intersection (can be less if multiple intersections are equipped)


Traffic Control: Adaptive Signal Control
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Mobility
15 ++ Studies from 6 cities in Canada, Brazil, Spain, and Scotland indicated delay reductions from 5%-42% after installation of adaptive signal control. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

Energy/
Environment
4 + Adaptive signal control in Toronto, Canada, has yielded emission reductions of 3%-6% and fuel savings of 4%-7%. 4
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Telecommunications subsystem
Roadside Control subsystem
Transportation Management Center subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
Arlington County, Virginia, Department of Public Works, Traffic Engineering Division, recently brought 65 intersections (expandable to 235) under an adaptive signal control system. The cost included software, hardware, roadside equipment, cabling, mobilization and maintenance of traffic, installation, training, maintenance and test equipment, and system documentation. 6 Project cost: $2.43 million (2001)

Traffic Control: Advanced Signal Systems
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Safety
2 + Signal coordination along a Phoenix, Arizona, corridor resulted in a 6.7% reduction in crash risk, calculated based on improved travel speeds and a reduction in the average number of stops. 57

Mobility
12 ++ Implementation of signal coordination along 76 corridors in California cities reduced vehicle delay when traveling the corridors by 25%. 58

Productivity
3 + Assigning a monetary value to reductions in delay, fuel use, and emissions achieved during a $4.7 million dollar upgrade of the Richmond, Virginia, signal system yielded benefits of $4.2 million annually. 59

Energy/
Environment
6 + Modeling results after the implementation of coordinated signal control in four U.S. localities found reductions in fuel use ranging from a 2% savings in Phoenix, Arizona, to a 12% decline in Richmond, Virginia. 57, 60
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Telecommunications subsystem
Roadside Control subsystem
Transportation Management Center subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
The North Seattle Advanced Traffic Management System (ATMS) was enhanced to allow the integration of 19 metropolitan North Seattle, Washington, city signal systems. The enhancement also included interconnection with the Traffic Control Centers (TCCs) of nine cities, three transit agencies, and Washington State DOT's arterial signal and freeway ramp metering systems as well as the East and South Seattle ATMSs. The ATMS also collects regional traffic data. 20 Capital cost: $1.7 million ($200K for detection devices) (1998) O&M cost: $140,000 (1998)

System Cost
The city of Indianapolis, Indiana, upgraded 220 intersections in downtown and connected the intersections to a central computer system. The upgrade involved synchronizing the traffic signals along the city's busiest intersections. 61 Cost: $5.1 million

Traffic Control: Bicycle & Pedestrian
Benefits
No data to report.
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Telecommunications subsystem
Roadside Detection subsystem
Roadside Information subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
A downtown Boulder, Colorado, intersection has been equipped with a series of four flashing in-pavement lights per lane. This high pedestrian-volume intersection is also equipped with two flashing pedestrian signs. The lights and signs are activated manually. Project cost includes equipment and installation costs. 18 Project cost: $8,000-$16,000

Parking Management
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Capacity/
Throughput
1 ? Experience with parking management systems in Europe indicate a 25% reduction in downtown traffic volumes related to the search for parking. 62
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Telecommunications subsystem
Parking Management subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
A real-time parking availability information system for ten parking facilities was implemented in the downtown St. Paul, Minnesota, area. The initial cost included system design and development, management and coordination, and equipment and installation. 63 Capital cost: $992,000 (1995) O&M cost: $36,350 (1995)

Information Dissemination: Dynamic Message Signs
Benefits
No data to report (for applications on arterials).
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Telecommunications subsystem
Roadside Information subsystem
Transportation Management Center subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
No data to report (for applications on arterials)  

Information Dissemination: In-Vehicle Systems (IVS)
Benefits
No data to report.
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Vehicle On-Board subsystem See Appendix A    

System Cost
No data to report.  

Enforcement: Speed Enforcement
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Safety
4 + An Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) synthesis study on automated enforcement lists two U.S. cities with automated speed limit enforcement programs, with documented crash reductions of 40% in Paradise Valley, Arizona, and 51% in National City, California. 64
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Telecommunications subsystem
Roadside Detection subsystem
Roadside Information subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
A one-year pilot for automated speed enforcement was implemented in Denmark. The pilot program involved nine vehicle-mounted cameras. 65 Cost: 5.9 million euros (approx. $5.9 million United States Dollars [USD])

Enforcement: Stop/Yield Enforcement
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Safety
11 ? Red light camera programs have resulted in reported violation reductions ranging from 20-87%, inconclusive findings on crash impacts. 66

Customer
Satisfaction
2 ++ Public opinion surveys indicated 60-80% support for red light camera programs. 66
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Telecommunications subsystem
Roadside Detection subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
Red light enforcement cameras have been implemented in numerous cities throughout the U.S. The cost of equipping an intersection for red light enforcement depends on the geometry of the intersection and the number of lanes monitored. Typical implementation costs include camera, poles, loops, wires, and installation. The cost range represents the costs incurred per intersection for the city of Jackson, Michigan, (low-end) and the City of San Francisco, California, (high-end). 67 Costs per intersection: $67,000-$80,000

System Cost Icon The Los Angeles DOT (LADOT) implemented a $10 million bus signal priority demonstration project along two corridors (Ventura Boulevard and the Santa Monica-Beverly Hills- Montebello route) in the City of Los Angeles, California. The initial deployment began in June 2000. The system consists of 331 loop detectors, 210 intersections equipped with AVI sensors at the controller cabinet, and 150 transponder-equipped buses. Loop detection technology is used to detect the presence of a bus approaching the intersection. The bus identification is detected by the AVI sensor and sent to the transit management computer located at the LADOT transportation management center. The system checks the bus' schedule and headway to determine if it is early or on time. If the bus is behind schedule, one of four types of priority modes is granted. Loop detection was selected as the most reliable, accurate, and cost-effective detection technology, over radio-frequency antenna-transponder detection and infrared beacon system. 50, 56 (2000)




2.2 FREEWAY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

Photo of traffic surveillance center.

There are six major ITS functions that make up freeway management systems, as shown in Figure 2.2.1. Traffic surveillance systems use detectors and video equipment to support the most advanced freeway management applications. Traffic control measures on freeway entrance ramps, such as ramp meters, can use sensor data to optimize freeway travel speeds and ramp meter wait times. Lane management applications can address the effective capacity of freeways and promote the use of high-occupancy commute modes. Special event transportation management systems can help control the impact of congestion at stadiums or convention centers. In areas with frequent events, large changeable destination signs or other lane control equipment can be installed. In areas with occasional or one-time events, portable equipment can help smooth traffic flow. Advanced communications have improved the dissemination of information to the traveling public. Motorists are now able to receive relevant information on locationspecific traffic conditions in a number of ways, including dynamic message signs, highway advisory radio, in-vehicle signing, or specialized information transmitted only to a specific set of vehicles. Other methods of providing traveler information, including those covering multiple modes or travel corridors, are discussed in Section 2.7 - Traveler Information. In the application area of automated enforcement, enforcement of speed limits and aggressive driving laws can lead to safety benefits.

Impact Legend

For a summary of freeway management systems deployments across the U.S., refer to www.itsdeployment.its.dot.gov.

Table 2.2.1 provides information on the benefits and costs of freeway management systems. Information provided on the impacts of these systems is indicated using the symbols in the Impact Legend at the bottom corner of each page.


Freeway Management Icon.

TABLE 2.2.1
BENEFITS AND COSTS OF FREEWAY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

Traffic Surveillance
Benefits
Supporting role, no benefits information.
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Telecommunications subsystem
Roadside Detection subsystem
Transportation Management Center subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
The TRANSCOM's System for Managing Incidents and Traffic (TRANSMIT) system operating in New Jersey and New York utilizes electronic toll collection and traffic management equipment compatible with the E-ZPass System for traffic surveillance and incident detection. The system consists of a central computer and communications system and approximately 22 roadside detection stations. 68 Capital costs: $975,200 (1996) Annual O&M costs: $300,680 (1996)
 Figure 2.2.1 Taxonomy for Freeway Management Systems, follow link for detailed description.


Ramp Control: Ramp Metering
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Safety
6 + A study of the six-week shutdown of the ramp meters in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, found that ramp meters were responsible for a 21% crash reduction. 7

(See sidebar for more detail)

Mobility
7 ++ Two studies in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, and one in Long Island, New York, place mainline speed increases on freeways with ramp metering between 8% and 26%. 7, 9, 69

Capacity/
Throughput
4 ++ The Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, shutdown study found that freeway volumes were 10% higher with ramp meters than they were during the shutdown. 7

Customer
Satisfaction
3 ++ Support for complete shutdown of the Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, ramp metering system dropped from 21% in 2000 to just 14% of survey respondents after implementation of a modified operating strategy in 2001. 7 59% of survey respondents in Glasgow, Scotland, found ramp metering to be a helpful strategy. 5

Energy/
Environment
1 ? A simulation study of the Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, system found 2-55% fuel savings for vehicles traveling along two modeled corridors under varying levels of travel demand. 9
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Control subsystem See Appendix A

System Cost
Colorado DOT (CDOT) has implemented ramp metering to regulate the flow of traffic onto freeways as part of the T-REX (Transportation Expansion) project. 10, 11 Cost: $50,000 for each site installed with controller (2001)

System Cost
The cost of Minnesota DOT (Mn/DOT) ramp metering operations in fiscal year (FY) 2000 included staff to monitor and adjust meter settings, conduct field reviews, and respond to inquiries from the public and media. 70 Annual O&M Cost: $210,000 (2000)

Lane Management: Lane Control
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Safety
1 ? Traffic surveillance, lane control signs, variable speed limits, and dynamic message signs in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, have led to a 23% decline in the accident rate. 62
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
No data to report.

System Cost
No data to report.

Lane Management: Variable Speed Limits
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Safety
1 ? In England, variable speed limits supplemented with automated speed enforcement have reduced rear-end accidents on approaches to freeway queues 25%-30%. 62

Capacity/
Throughput
1 ? Combined with automated speed limit enforcement, an English variable speed limit system has increased freeway capacity 5%-10%. 62
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Telecommunications subsystem
Roadside Control subsystem
Roadside Detection subsystem
Roadside Information subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
Washington State DOT (WSDOT) implemented Travel Aid, a variable speed limit (VSL) system that changes as the weather does, along the Snoqualmie Pass (I-90) east of Seattle, Washington. Approximately 13 miles are operated as VSL during the winter months. The system consists of radar detection, six weather stations, nine dynamic message signs, and radio and microwave transmission systems. 18, 71, 72 Design and implementation cost: $5 million (1997)

Special Event Transportation Management
Benefits
No data to report.
Costs
Unit Cost Image
Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Telecommunications subsystem
Roadside Information subsystem
Parking Management subsystem
See Appendix A
System Cost Image
System Cost
No data to report.

Information Dissemination
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example
Safety Image
Safety
1 ? A San Antonio, Texas, deployment of dynamic message signs, combined with an incident management program resulted in a 2.8% decrease in crashes. 19

Mobility
6 + A simulation study of the system deployed on the John C. Lodge freeway in Detroit, Michigan, estimated that HAR and dynamic message signs in combination with ramp metering may reduce vehicle delay by up to 22%. 97

Customer
Satisfaction
3 + European studies find 30%-90% of travelers notice dynamic message signs, 51 and a Glasgow, Scotland, survey found 40% of respondents changed route as recommended by dynamic message signs. 5
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Telecommunications subsystem
Roadside Information subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
Metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, has deployed approximately 65 dynamic message signs since the early 1980s. The total cost includes expansion of the signs from the initial installation and improving the information system. 73 Cost of expanding to 65 signs and improving system: $49 million O&M cost for 2001: $6 million O&M cost for 2002: $7 million

System Cost
Washington State DOT has implemented three highway advisory radios along the Blewett/Stevens Pass to provide weather and road condition information to travelers and maintenance crews. Annual O&M costs are based on prior experience to operate and maintain. 11 Average cost of equipment (including installation): $20,000 (2001) Annual O&M cost: $1,000 (2001)

Enforcement
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Safety
8 ++ A study of speed enforcement cameras along segments of Norwegian highways which met certain warrants regarding traffic speeds and accident rates prior to the deployment of cameras found a 26% decline in injury accidents. 74

Customer
Satisfaction
2 ? 82% of survey respondents in the Washington, DC, area favored video technology used to enforce aggressive driving laws such as speeding and following too closely. 75
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Telecommunications subsystem
Roadside Detection subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
An automatic speed enforcement system was implemented on a 50-km stretch of highway in Finland. The system consisted of camera equipment and detectors at 12 camera sites. 65 Cost: 178,000 euros (Approximately $178,000 USD)


Safety Icon Customer Satisfaction Icon At the conclusion of the ramp meter shutdown experiment in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, during December of 2000, the following interim ramp metering strategies were implemented:

  • A number of meters were left turned off;
  • Ramp meter operations were reduced to four hours each day; and
  • Faster metering rates were used.

A follow-up evaluation of the freeway system found that despite the resumption of ramp metering at select locations in each corridor, traffic operations and safety performance remained degraded and were unable to be restored to pre-shutdown (full metering) levels by the end of the evaluation period. The number of crashes recorded during the first seven months of 2001 (post-shutdown period with reduced ramp metering operation) was 15% higher than the average number of crashes measured for the first seven months of 1998, 1999, and 2000 (fully metered period). Freeway travel speeds under the modified operating strategy decreased 5-10% when compared to the pre-shutdown strategy and freeway travel times increased 5-10%. The Phase II report ended the ramp meter study; however, the Mn/DOT will continue to monitor performance and make changes to ramp meter timing as necessary based on evolving traffic conditions. 8




2.3 TRANSIT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

Transit ITS services include a number of ITS applications that can help transit agencies increase safety and improve the operational efficiency of the nation's transit systems. Advanced software and communications enable data as well as voice to be transferred between transit management centers and transit vehicles for increased safety and security, improved transit demand management, and more efficient fleet operations. Transit management centers in several cities now monitor in-vehicle and in-terminal surveillance systems to improve quality of service and improve the safety and security of passengers and operators.

Photo of buses at terminal

Transit demand management services increase public access to transit resources where coverage is limited. Fleet management systems improve transit reliability through implementation of automated vehicle location (AVL) and computer-aided dispatch (CAD) systems which can reduce passenger wait times. These systems have sometimes been implemented with in-vehicle self-diagnostic equipment to automatically alert maintenance personnel of potential problems.

Overall, the dissemination of transit information has improved. Passengers can use a wide variety of communication devices to confirm scheduling information, improve transfer coordination, and reduce wait times.

Figure 2.3.1 shows the classification of benefits and costs information for transit management systems. Transit signal priority and electronic payment systems, discussed in sections 2.1 and 2.6, respectively, also provide significant benefits to transit operations.

For a summary of transit management systems deployments across the U.S., refer to www.itsdeployment.its.dot.gov.

Table 2.3.1 provides information on the benefits and costs of transit management systems. Information provided on the impacts of these is indicated using the symbols in the Impact Legend at the bottom corner of each page.

Impact Legend
 Figure 2.3.1 Taxonomy for Transit Management Systems, follow link for detailed description.

Transit Management Icon.

TABLE 2.3.1
BENEFITS AND COSTS OF TRANSIT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

Safety & Security: On-Vehicle Surveillance
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Customer
Satisfaction
1 ? The Ann Arbor, Michigan, transit onboard camera systems were often noticed by passengers, but the system only provided a significant feeling of additional security when respondents were traveling at night. 76
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Transit Management Center subsystem
Transit Vehicle On-Board subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
The Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority operating in Clearwater and St. Petersburg, Florida, has equipped 16 of its buses with five cameras and one microphone each for recording of video and audio activity onboard the bus. The transit agency plans to use a $1.1 million grant to equip 100 more buses. 77 Cost per bus:$9,700 (2001)

Safety & Security: Facility Surveillance
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Customer
Satisfaction
1 ? When respondents in Ann Arbor, Michigan, rated the degree to which improvements increased their sense of security, police presence showed the greatest influence, followed closely by increased lighting. Emergency phones and video cameras had less influence. 76
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Transit Management Center subsystem
Transit Vehicle On-Board subsystem
Remote Location subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
No data to report.  

Transit Demand Management: Dynamic Routing/Scheduling
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Mobility
1 ? In Eindhoven, The Netherlands, onboard computers recorded daily transit performance. This information was used to plan minimum transit route times, and increase schedule reliability. 78

Productivity
4 + In San Jose, California, the Outreach paratransit program installed AVL on 40 vehicles. The automated scheduling and routing system enabled shared rides to increase from 38% to 55%, allowing the fleet size to decrease from 200 to 130 vehicles. 79

Customer
Satisfaction
1 ? A paratransit driver in San Jose, California, commented that she was satisfied with the system. In particular, she cited its usefulness in settling driver-passenger disputes concerning on-time performance. 79
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Transit Management Center subsystem
Transit Vehicle On-Board subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
The cost of demand-responsive operational software and computer-aided dispatching systems varies depending on the transit mode, application, and system functionality. Low-end systems can facilitate scheduling, accounting, and report generation activities. High-end systems generally have more advanced transit demand management features and can automate passenger registration, schedule trips in real time, interface with GIS and AVL systems, and communicate with digital mobile messaging systems. 80 Cost range: $10,000-$50,000+ per system implementation

Transit Demand Management: Service Coordination
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Productivity
3 + Travel dispatch centers in Europe used service coordination systems to decrease paratransit operations costs 2-3%. This compared favorably to the previous 15% annual increase. 51
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Transit Management Center subsystem
Transit Vehicle On-Board subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
No data to report.  

Fleet Management: AVL/CAD
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Productivity
7 ++ After an extended analysis of travel times, Kansas City, Missouri, used an AVL/CAD system to reduce up to 10% of the vehicles required for some bus routes with no reduction in customer service. 81

Customer
Satisfaction
3 + The GPS-based vehicle location system in Denver, Colorado, rated very well with Regional Transportation District (RTD) dispatchers. Operators and dispatchers were able to communicate more quickly and efficiently. Approximately 80% of dispatchers found the system "easy" or "very easy" to use, and about 50% of operators and street supervisors felt likewise. 12

Mobility
8 ++ The Denver, Colorado, RTD implemented its AVL system to improve bus service, and succeeded in decreasing passenger late arrivals by 21%. 12
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Telecommunications subsystem
Transit Management Center subsystem
Transit Vehicle On-Board subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
The AVL system installed by the Denver, Colorado, RTD on its 1,355 vehicle fleet is GPS-based. The capital cost includes system software, dispatch center hardware, in-vehicle hardware, field communication equipment, initial training, and planning and implementation. 12 Capital cost: $10.4 million (approximately) Annual O&M cost: $1.9 million (approximately)(1997)

Fleet Management: Maintenance
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Productivity
2 + A demonstration project in Valencia, Spain, incorporated remote maintenance bus monitoring with dynamic scheduling. The system decreased non-revenue service time through a 20-30% reduction in the time to detect and correct vehicle faults. 51
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Transit Management Center subsystem
Transit Vehicle On-Board subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
No data to report.  

Information Dissemination: In-Vehicle Systems
Benefits
No data to report.
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Transit Management Center subsystem
Transit Vehicle On-Board subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
Transport of Rockland, New York, has equipped the first three of 27 buses with equipment that announces and displays the route and each stop along the route. 83 Cost per bus: $7,000 (2000)

Information Dissemination: In-Terminal/Wayside
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Customer
Satisfaction
2 + In-terminal real-time transit information displays were regarded as useful by 95% of those surveyed in Helsinki, Finland. The most desirable features were displays of remaining wait time and knowing if an expected vehicle had already passed. 49
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Telecommunications subsystem
Transit Management Center subsystem
Transit Vehicle On-Board subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
Transit riders at Bellevue and Northgate Transit Centers (Seattle, Washington) are provided with bus arrival/departure times, bay number, and expected actual departure times for all bus routes using the transfer center. The system, TransitWatch, obtains actual times from an AVI system and presents the information on monitors at the transit centers. Approximately 12% of the capital cost and 25% of the O&M cost were shared with other Seattle Smart Trek Model Deployment Initiative (MMDI) projects. 20 Capital cost: $722,877 (1998) Annual O&M cost: $179,652 (1998)

Information Dissemination: Internet/Wireless/Phone
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Customer
Satisfaction
1 ? The ROUTES (Rail, Omnibus, Underground, Travel Enquiry System) computerized travel enquiry system used by the London Transport in London, England, helped 13% of travelers change their travel modes to transit, which generated an estimated 1.3 million pounds sterling (approximately $2 million USD) of additional revenue for bus companies, 1.2 million pounds (approximately $1.9 million USD) for the underground, and 1 million pounds (approximately $1.6 million USD) for railways. 84
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Transit Management Center subsystem
Transit Vehicle On-Board subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
BusView is a component of Metro Online, the King County, Washington, transit website. BusView displays bus progress and routes on a map. Roughly 25% of the capital cost and 25% of the O&M cost were shared with other Seattle Smart Trek MMDI projects. 20 Capital cost: $333,118 (1998) Annual O&M cost: $175,552 (1998)

System Cost
The Regional Transportation District in Denver, Colorado, has implemented a voice recognition call-in system called Talk-n-Ride which enables transit riders to call a toll-free number and check if their bus or train is on time and the scheduled arrivals of the next three buses. The cost to implement the system does not include the cost for tracking bus location. 85 System cost: $40,000 (2001)

System Cost Icon In 1997, the Ann Arbor Transportation Authority, in Ann Arbor, Michigan, began implementing an advanced public transportation system for its fixed route and paratransit bus operations. The system integrated a number of applications. For paratransit vehicles, the system facilitated reservations and scheduling. For transit vehicles, AVL was deployed to track vehicle location using GPS and in-vehicle mobile data terminals. These in-vehicle terminals were installed to automatically monitor vehicle location, schedule adherence, passenger counts, and engine performance. If a bus was behind schedule or was developing engine problems, the in-vehicle terminal would automatically notify the operations center and ask connecting buses to hold for late transfers. Updated schedules were then made available to passengers via the internet, telephone, or on kiosks at selected bus stops. To improve safety on each route, onboard camera surveillance systems were also installed. Drivers were able to activate onboard emergency systems to alert dispatchers of life-threatening situations. The system enabled dispatchers to quickly alert the authorities and communicate with passengers using an in-vehicle public address system. The cost of the overall integrated transit management system was about $35,200 per bus for a fleet of 75 buses. 82 (1995)



2.4 INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

Incident management systems can reduce the effects of incident-related congestion by decreasing the time to detect incidents, reducing the time for responding vehicles to arrive, and decreasing the time required for traffic to return to normal conditions. The classification of benefit and cost data for incident management systems is summarized in Figure 2.4.1.

Photo of vehicle crash rescue

A variety of surveillance and detection technologies can help detect incidents quickly, including inductive loop or acoustic roadway detectors, and camera systems providing frequent still images or full-motion video. Information from wireless enhanced 911 systems, mayday and automated collision notification systems, as well as roadside call boxes can also help incident management system personnel identify incidents quickly. Mobilization and response may include automated vehicle location and computeraided dispatch systems, as well as response routing systems, to help incident response teams arrive swiftly. Motorist assistance patrols, occasionally initiated prior to the emergence of ITS technologies, are now frequently incorporated into traffic management systems. These patrols significantly reduce the time to clear incidents, especially minor ones.

Several components of incident management systems help travelers safely negotiate travel around incidents on the roadway and facilitate the rapid and safe clearance of incidents and reopening of travel lanes. In some locations, incident management personnel can directly post incident-related information to roadside traveler information devices such as dynamic message signs or highway advisory radio. On-site, or transportation management center-based personnel can also relay messages to traveler information, freeway management, or arterial management systems, providing incident information to travelers via additional means including 511 systems and traveler information websites. Several technologies are available to speed the investigation of incident scenes and record necessary information for later analysis. Temporary traffic control devices help ensure the safety of incident responders and provide for the safe travel of vehicles around the incident site.

It is generally understood that incident management systems are implemented concurrently with freeway management systems, but it is important to keep in mind that arterials can be included in incident management programs as well. Coverage of arterials by incident management programs is increasing, particularly in areas with well-established programs.

Table 2.4.1 summarizes much of the data collected for incident management impacts. Incident management programs have shown the potential to reduce the number of accidents and the time required for the detection and clearance of incidents. These programs show significant savings in the cost of congestion and are cost-effective. In addition, the public response to these programs has been very positive.

Impact Legend

For a summary of incident management systems deployments across the U.S., refer to www.itsdeployment.its.dot.gov.

Table 2.4.1 provides information on the benefits and costs of incident management systems. Information provided on the impacts of these systems is indicated using the symbols in the Impact Legend at the bottom of each page.


Collision Warning Icon.

TABLE 2.4.1
BENEFITS AND COSTS OF INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

Surveillance & Detection
Benefits
No data to report.
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Telecommunications subsystem
Roadside Detection subsystem
Transportation Management Center subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
The Georgia DOT installed 147 call boxes along a 39-mile rural section of I-185 as part of a pilot project. The total project cost included 147 call boxes, 3 computer systems at the answer center, and 1 computer at the maintenance center. 86 Total project cost: $911,873 Average cost per call box including construction: $5,590 (1999) Annual O&M breakdown: Maintenance cost for one year: $51,450 (1999) Cellular service cost for one year: $38,808 (1999)
 Figure 2.4.1 Taxonomy for Incident Management Systems, follow link for detailed description.

Mobilization & Response
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Safety
6 + In San Antonio, Texas, combined incident management and freeway management systems along the Medical Center corridor reduced crashes 2.8%. 19

(See sidebar for more detail)

Mobility
9 ++ A study of the Coordinated Highways Action Response Team (CHART) in Maryland found that the system reduced average incident duration 57% in 2000 and 55% in 1999. 13

Customer
Satisfaction
1 + Motorist assistance patrols are well-received by the public. The Virginia Department of Transportation has published hundreds of "thank you" letters received regarding their Safety Service Patrol. 17

Productivity
5 + Delay savings identified in studies of systems in Minnesota, Colorado, and Indiana represent benefits of $1.2 to $1.8 million. 14, 15, 16

Energy/
Environment
5 + Reductions in incident-related delay also lead to fuel savings and related emissions reductions. A simulation study of the San Antonio, Texas, TransGuide system of freeway and incident management found the system saved an average 2,600 gallons of fuel during major incidents. 87
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Transportation Management Center subsystem See Appendix A

System Cost
Dane County, Wisconsin, implemented an interagency dispatch and reporting coordination system to improve response to incidents and emergencies. Police vehicles are equipped with on-board computers used to transmit incident data to a central dispatching database. 18 Cost per vehicle: $8,000-$10,000

System Cost
Colorado DOT has implemented enhanced courtesy patrols in the T-REX (Transportation Expansion) construction zone to assist stranded motorists. 10, 11 Cost: $55 per vehicle hour (2001)

Information Dissemination
Benefits
No data to report.
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Information subsystem See Appendix A

System Cost
Metropolitan Detroit has deployed approximately 65 dynamic message signs since the early 1980s. The total cost includes expansion of the signs from the initial installation and improving the information system. 73 Cost of expanding to 65 signs and improving system: $49 million O&M cost for 2001: $6 million O&M cost for 2002: $7 million

Clearance & Recovery: Investigation
Benefits
No data to report.
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Transportation Management subsystem See Appendix A

System Cost
Computer-aided incident investigation equipment was purchased as part of the Phoenix, Arizona, MMDI to reduce incident clearance time and improve the quality of accident investigations. The initial cost of the project included hardware, software, and training. 57 Total start-up cost: $147,000 (1998) Annual O&M costs: $4,305 (not including labor) (1998)

System Cost
Minnesota DOT and the Minnesota State Patrol have implemented a pilot automated field reporting system that enables law enforcement officials to use an in-vehicle computer to record and submit incident information. 18 Cost per vehicle: $8,000-$10,000

System Cost Icon In San Antonio, Texas, an integrated freeway/incident management system was developed as part of a freeway expansion project. The project covered a 28.9-mile stretch of I-10, I-410, and US 281 in the northern region of San Antonio. The cost of the freeway and incident management expansion project was approximately $26.6 million with an estimated annual O&M cost of $852,000. The majority of the cost was for surveillance, detection, and information equipment and communications hardware. Detection technologies such as acoustic sensors, loops, and digital detectors, closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras, dynamic message signs and lane control systems, and supporting fiber optic communications infrastructure were deployed. The cost of mobilization (e.g., keeping traffic moving during deployment) during the expansion was approximately $2 million. This cost was kept low based on the planning decision to deploy the ITS components as part of the highway reconstruction. 19 (1998)



2.5 EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

Benefits of emergency management include those derived from improved notification, dispatch, and guidance of emergency responders to the scene of an incident. Figure 2.5.1 shows the current classification of benefits and costs for emergency management systems. These benefits are sometimes highly dependent on the ability of an incident management system to detect the need for emergency management on the transportation network. ITS applications in emergency management cover hazardous materials management, the deployment of emergency medical systems, and large and small-scale emergency response and evacuation operations. Each of these systems can improve public safety by decreasing response times and increasing the operational efficiency of safety professionals during emergency situations, such as hurricane evacuations.

Photo of ambulance.

Across the U.S., federal, state, and local governments are working to support first responders, secure our borders, and improve technology for national security. As these programs come to fruition, improved information will become available on the benefits of ITS for emergency management activities.

Advanced automated collision notification (ACN) and telemedicine address the detection of and response to incidents such as vehicle accidents or other accidents requiring emergency responders. In rural areas, response time for emergency medical services is greater than in metropolitan areas, resulting in more severe consequences or impacts. Advanced automated collision notification systems can notify emergency personnel and provide them with valuable information on the crash, including location, crash characteristics, and possibly relevant medical information regarding the vehicle occupants. Telemedicine systems provide a link between responding ambulances and nearby emergency medical facilities, enabling doctors to advise emergency medical personnel regarding treatment of patients en route to the hospital.

Evacuation operations often require a coordinated emergency response involvingm multiple agencies, various emergency centers, and numerous response plans. Response management may include the tracking of emergency vehicle fleets using automated vehicle location (AVL) technology and two-way communications between emergency vehicles and dispatchers. Integration with traffic and transit management systems enables emergency information to be shared between public and private agencies and the traveling public.

Impact Legend

For a summary of emergency management systems deployments across the U.S., refer to www.itsdeployment.its.dot.gov.

Table 2.5.1 provides information on the benefits and costs of emergency management systems. Information provided on the impacts of these systems is indicated using the symbols in the Impact Legend at the bottom corner of each page.


Emergency Management Icon.

TABLE 2.5.1
BENEFITS AND COSTS OF EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

Hazardous Materials Management
Benefits
No data to report.
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Emergency Response Center subsystem
Emergency Vehicle On-board subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
No data to report.

Emergency Medical Services: Advanced ACN
Benefits
No data to report.
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Emergency Response Center subsystem
Emergency Vehicle On-Board subsystem
Vehicle On-Board subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
No data to report.

Emergency Medical Services: Telemedicine
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Customer
Satisfaction
1 +/- The LifeLink project in San Antonio, Texas, enabled emergency room doctors to communicate with emergency medical technicians (EMTs) using 2-way video, audio, and data communications. EMTs and doctors had mixed opinions about the system; however, it was expected that this technology would have more positive impacts in rural areas. 19
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Telecommunications subsystem
Emergency Response Center subsystem
Emergency Vehicle On-Board subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
The LifeLink project (San Antonio, Texas) was deployed to provide improved emergency services. The system supports voice and video teleconferencing between University Hospital and 10 of the ambulances in the San Antonio Fire Department. Much of the cost of the project is attributed to research and development. 19 Project cost: $3.25 million (1998) Annual O&M cost: $25,325 (1998)
 Figure 2.5.1 Taxonomy for Emergency Management Systems, follow link for detailed description.

Response and Recovery: Response Management
Benefits
No data to report.
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Emergency Response Center subsystem
Emergency Vehicle On-Board subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
To overcome the lack of shared communication among Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs) in the Seattle, Washington, metropolitan area, the Smart Trek project purchased and distributed to each EOC communications equipment that operated on the same frequency. The project cost included the purchase of sixteen 800 MHz radios, three repeater station upgrades, other equipment, and planning and development labor costs. 20 Cost: $151,700 (1998) Annual O&M cost: $2,860 (1998)

System Cost Icon Palm Beach County, Florida, deployed an emergency response management system to reduce emergency vehicle response times. The system used GPS technology and emergency vehicle signal preemption to enable dispatchers to determine which vehicles were closest to an emergency. The cost of the system was about $4,000 per intersection and $2,000 per vehicle. 88 (1997)



2.6 ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS

Electronic payment systems employ various communication and electronic technologies to facilitate commerce between travelers and transportation agencies. Figure 2.6.1 outlines the most common systems deployed.

Photo of vehicles approaching toll booth.

Electronic toll collection (ETC) supports the collection of payment at toll plazas using automated systems to increase the operational efficiency and convenience of toll collection. ETC is one of the most successful ITS applications with numerous benefits related to delay reductions, improved throughput, and reduced fuel consumption and vehicle emissions at toll plazas. Studies have also documented increases in crashes at toll plazas with ETC, likely due to driver uncertainty regarding plaza configuration and speed variability between vehicles with and without ETC transponders. The most advanced ETC technologies can identify and process vehicles traveling at high speeds. This enables cars to travel on the mainline without having to slow down and negotiate tollbooths.

Photo of woman using Smart Card.

Transit fare payment systems can provide increased convenience to customers and generate significant cost savings to transportation agencies by increasing the efficiency of money-handling processes and improving administrative controls.

Multi-use payment systems can make transit payment more convenient. Payment for bus, rail, and other public or private sector goods and services can be made simply by passing a smart-card-sized device over an automated transaction point located at terminal gates, or at check-out counters and phone booths of participating merchants located near transit stations. Multi-use systems may also incorporate the ability to pay highway tolls with the same card. Additional performance data on these systems should become available as these systems are deployed.

For a summary of electronic payment systems deployments across the U.S., refer to www.itsdeployment.its.dot.gov.

Impact Legend

Table 2.6.1 provides information on the benefits and costs of electronic payment systems. Information provided on the impacts of these systems is indicated using the symbols in the Impact Legend at the bottom corner of each page.




Electronic Toll Icon. Electronic Smart Card Icon.

TABLE 2.6.1
BENEFITS AND COSTS OF ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEMS

Toll Collection
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Safety
2 - In Florida, driver uncertainty about congestion at Express Pass (E-PASS) toll stations contributed to a 48% increase in accidents. 89

Mobility
4 ++ Implementation of the E-ZPass system by the New Jersey Turnpike Authority (NJTA) reduced delay for all vehicles at toll plazas by 85%. 90

Capacity/
Throughput
1 + A study of ETC on the Tappan Zee Bridge in New York City showed an ETC lane could process 1,000 vehicles/hour (vph), while a manual lane could handle only 400 - 450 vph. 91

Customer
Satisfaction
1 ? 20% of travelers on two bridges in Lee County, Florida, adjusted their departure times as a result of value pricing and electronic tolls. 92

Productivity
3 + Based on changes in traffic conditions after deployment of E-ZPass, passenger cars on the New Jersey turnpike saved an estimated $19 million in delay costs and $1.5 million in fuel costs each year. 90

Energy/
Environment
4 +/- Model calculations of emissions using the EPA Mobile-5a model and traffic field data indicated ETC decreased CO by 7.3%, decreased hydrocarbons by 7.2%, and increased NOx by 33.8% at the Holland East Toll Plaza in Florida. NOx increased as a result of higher engine speeds. 93
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Toll Plaza subsystem
Toll Administration subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
The cost for the Oklahoma Turnpike Authority to operate an electronic toll collection lane is approximately 91% less than to staff and operate a traditional toll lane. 94 Annual O&M cost: $16,000 per lane
 Figure 2.6.1 Taxonomy for Electronic Payment Systems, follow link for detailed description.

Transit Fare Payment
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Customer
Satisfaction
3 + Chicago, Illinois, transit riders participating in a pilot program rated convenience, rail use, and speed the most preferred features of the SmartCard. 95

(See sidebar for more detail)

Productivity
3 + The smart card electronic payment system in Ventura, California, saved an estimated $9.5 million per year in reduced fare evasion, $5 million in reduced data collection costs, and $990,000 by eliminating transfer slips. 21
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Transit Management Center subsystem
Transit Vehicle On-Board subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
The Ventura County Transportation Commission, in California, implemented an electronic fare payment system on its buses. The "Go Ventura" card allows transit riders to use a smart card for fare payment on buses run by the county's six transit systems. 22 Project cost: $1.7 million (2001)

Multi-use Payment Systems
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Customer
Satisfaction
1 + Three projects in Europe demonstrated the coordinated use of a smart card as a payment system for public transit, shops, libraries, swimming pools, and/or other city services. User acceptance and satisfaction with these systems was very high, ranging from 71%-87%. 51
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Transit Vehicle On-Board subsystem See Appendix A

System Cost
No data to report.

Customer Satisfaction Icon Transit riders in Chicago, Illinois, were surveyed to evaluate the technological feasibility and customer acceptance of the SmartCard fare payment system. The SmartCard differs from the magnetic stripe farecard deployed across the Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) system in 1997 in that passengers need only pass the card in close proximity to a radio signal reader mounted on turnstiles and bus fareboxes. 3,500 CTA customers purchased the $5 cards and participated in the pilot program, and 1,300 customer surveys were evaluated. Respondents most liked features related to convenience, rail use, and speed. 21% rated convenience over the magnetic stripe card as their single favorite feature of the system; 15% liked being able to use the cards for train travel; 13% liked the reduced time to register rail fare; and, 8% liked the convenience of the system over using cash to pay fares. The least-liked features were the $5 fee, the need to add value to the card after paying the $5 fee, and inaccuracies in calculating bonus fare when adding $10 or more to the card. Features that would simplify adding value to the card were the most popular potential additional features of the program. Most desired were: the ability to recharge via the Internet and credit card (desired most by 17% of respondents); the ability to pay fares on the Metra commuter rail system as well as CTA (11%); autorecharge via credit card (8%); recharge at ATMs (8%); and, ability to move value from a magnetic fare card to the Smart Card (7%). 95


2.7 TRAVELER INFORMATION

Photo of Montana billboard advertising 511.

Providing traveler information on several modes of travel can be beneficial to both the traveler and service providers. Several transit agencies have started using traveler information websites to provide schedules, expected arrival times, expected trip times, and route planning services to patrons. See www.transitweb.its.dot.gov for a listing of, and access to, such sites. Also, many state DOT and local transportation agencies are providing current traffic conditions and expected travel times using similar approaches. Ongoing implementations of the designated 511 telephone number will improve access to traveler information. Each of these services allows users to make a more informed decision for trip departures, routes, and mode of travel, especially in bad weather. They have been shown to increase transit usage, and may help to reduce congestion when travelers choose to defer or postpone trips, or to select alternate routes. Information on impacts and costs of traveler information systems are separated into those which provide pre-trip information, and those that provide en route information, as shown in Figure 2.7.1.

Note that the traveler information programs discussed in this section of the report, and documented in the corresponding portions of the database, are generally regional, and occasionally multimodal in nature. Roadside or transit facility-based traveler information components such as DMS, HAR, and in-terminal displays are most often deployed, operated, and controlled by arterial, freeway, transit, or incident management systems. Earlier sections of this report discuss evaluations of these information dissemination technologies.

Evaluation of implemented traveler information systems reveals that the systems are well-received by those who make use of them. The number of travelers using the information generally represents a small portion of the total travelers in a region. Consequently, the evaluated systems have little, if any, impact on travel times across the regional transportation network. Nevertheless, individual users of the systems do perceive significant benefit from them and are generally satisfied with the service.

Tourism and event-related travel information focuses on the needs of travelers in areas unfamiliar to them or when traveling to events such as sporting activities or concerts. These services address issues of mobility and traveler convenience. Many of the tourism-related services are in the planning and development stages and few data regarding benefits for these services are available. Several national parks are currently leading operational tests or are examining the possible impacts of these services. Information services could include electronic yellow pages, transit, and parking availability. The systems may also include mobility services such as pre-trip route selection or en route navigation.

Impact Legend

For a summary of traveler information deployments across the U.S., refer to www.itsdeployment.its.dot.gov.

Table 2.7.1 provides information on the benefits and costs of traveler information systems. Information provided on the impacts of these systems is indicated using the symbols in the Impact Legend at the bottom corner of each page.

 Figure 2.7.1 Taxonomy for Traveler Information, follow link for detailed description.


Traveler Information Icon.

TABLE 2.7.1
BENEFITS AND COSTS OF TRAVELER INFORMATION

Pre-trip Information
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Mobility
6 + A simulation study of the Washington, DC, metropolitan area found that individuals using traveler information services could improve their on-time reliability while reducing the risk of running late. Individuals using traveler information improved their on-time reliability by 5-16 percentage points when compared to travelers not using the service. 96

(See sidebar for more detail)

Energy/
Capacity/
Throughput
4 o Modeling studies in Detroit, Michigan, and Seattle, Washington, have shown slight improvements in corridor capacity with the provision of traveler information. 97, 98

Customer
Satisfaction
14 ++ While market penetration was low, 45% of San Francisco, California, travelers receiving information from the Travel Advisory Telephone System changed their travel plans and 81% of travelers receiving specific route information from the TravInfo Internet site changed their travel behavior. This compared to 25% of travelers altering their plans based on television or radio broadcasts. 99

Energy/
Environment
1 ? A 1993 prospective study of traveler information in Boston, Massachusetts, found that the system would reduce vehicle emissions from participating travelers. The study estimated a 25% reduction in volatile organic compounds, a 1.5% reduction in oxides of nitrogen, and a 33% reduction in carbon monoxide. 100
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Information Service Provider subsystem
Remote Location subsystem
Transportation Management Center subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
The Arizona DOT enhanced its traveler information system, Trailmaster, as part of the AZTech MMDI project. The cost of the enhancement included hardware and software upgrades, and web page redesign. The project team estimated that the original Trailmaster website cost was approximately 10 times as much as that of the redesign. 57 Cost: $135,782 (1998)
Annual O&M cost:
$116,551 (1998)

System Cost
Real-time traffic condition information similar to the information provided on the Trailmaster website (see above) is available at kiosks located at selected public and commercial sites. Approximately 28 kiosks are deployed in the Phoenix, Arizona, region. 57 Project cost:
$459,732 (1998)
Annual O&M cost:
$153,519 (1998)

En-route Information
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Mobility
4 + Enhancements to the traveler information system in San Antonio, Texas, during the MMDI included improvements to the Internet website, and the installation of in-vehicle navigation (IVN) devices in vehicles operated by public agencies in the area. Modeling results indicate significant potential benefits for individuals using the devices. Over a one-year period, a traveler using an IVN device could experience an 8.1% reduction in delay. 19

Customer
Satisfaction
11 + Surveys indicate that travelers generally find telephone traveler information systems to be useful. Several pilot studies have also investigated provision of traveler information via portable, or in-vehicle devices. These systems were wellreceived by drivers for public agencies in the San Antonio, Texas, area, particularly paratransit drivers and police investigators who are often requested to drive in unfamiliar areas. 19
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Telecommunications subsystem
Roadside Information subsystem
Transportation Management Center subsystem
Vehicle On-Board subsystem
Personal Devices subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
Nebraska's Department of Roads and the Nebraska State Patrol have teamed up to deploy a statewide 511 Traveler Information system. The new 511 system replaces the toll-free weather and road condition system formerly operated by the State Patrol. 24 Initial cost: $120,000 (2001) Estimated annual O&M cost: $110,000 (2001)

Tourism & Events
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Customer
Satisfaction
1 + Surveys taken in popular vacationing destinations of Branson, Missouri, and along Interstate 40 in Arizona found that over 50% of travelers in the areas felt that information from the recently installed traveler information systems saved them time. 101
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Telecommunications subsystem
Roadside Information subsystem
Parking Management subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
The Seattle Center Advanced Parking Information System, in Seattle, Washington, provides information and routing directions to three major parking centers via dynamic message signs. This information is also available via the Internet, phone, and pagers to travelers prior to leaving for an event as well as travelers en route. 20 System cost: $925,265 (1998) Annual O&M cost: $50,523 (1998)
  Mobility Icon.


A case study in Washington, DC, simulated the experience of commuters with a need to be on time using a prospective pre-trip traveler information system during the months of August and September 1999. Overall, use of the advanced traveler information system (ATIS) proved advantageous in efficiently managing the traveler's time. Specific quantitative examples selected from the case study include: "Peak-period commuters who do not use ATIS were three to six times more likely to arrive late compared to counterparts who use ATIS;

  • Cases where ATIS clearly benefits the user (e.g., ATIS user on time, non-user late) outweighed cases where ATIS clearly disadvantages the user by five to one;
  • ATIS users in peak periods are more frequently on time than conservative nonusers, yet they experience only two-thirds as much early schedule delay as non-users;
  • Late shock, the surprise of arriving late, is reduced by 81% through ATIS use. 96



2.8 INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

Photo of computers.

Data collected by ITS applications can be used to evaluate the historical performance of a transportation system using a variety of performance measures. In addition to supporting operational improvements, data collected by means of information management systems can assist in transportation planning, research, and safety management activities. The National ITS Program Plan released by the U.S. DOT in August 2000 has described the function of ITS data archiving as addressing "the collection, storage, and distribution of ITS data for transportation planning, administration, policy, operation, safety analyses, and research." The 1999 addition of the Archived Data User Service (ADUS) to the National ITS Architecture and subsequent program of federal activities to increase awareness of and professional capacity to implement Archived Data Management Systems (ADMS) underscores the value of retaining and analyzing data collected by ITS.


Figure 2.8.1 shows how data archiving applications fit into the ITS taxonomy. Operating agencies around the U.S. are in various stages of planning, implementing, and operating archived data management systems. As the performance of these systems is evaluated, examples of their effectiveness will become available.

Impact Legend

For a summary of deployments of ADUS and ADMS across the U.S., refer to www.itsdeployment.its.dot.gov.

Table 2.8.1 provides available information on the costs of information management systems.



Information Management Icon.

TABLE 2.8.1
COSTS OF INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

Data Archiving
Benefits
No data to report.
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
No data to report.

System Cost
The total cost of the Nevada DOT Freeway and Arterial System of Transportation (FAST) central system software design and development is approximately $4.225 million. The software will provide a fully automated freeway management system, plus the capability to receive, collect, archive, summarize, and distribute data generated by FAST. Of the $4.225 million, the cost to develop the design for the implementation of the Archived Data User Service (ADUS) for FAST was approximately $225,000. This cost included needs assessment, update of functional requirements, update of the regional architecture for the Las Vegas area, and system design. 11 Software design and development cost: $4.225 million (2001) ADUS design cost: $225,000 (2001)
 Figure 2.8.1 Taxonomy for Information Management, follow link for detailed description.


2.9 CRASH PREVENTION & SAFETY

Photo of electronic warning sign.

Information from crash prevention and safety applications can be used to implement roadway control strategies. A major goal of the ITS program is to improve safety and reduce risk for road users, including pedestrians, cyclists, operators, and occupants of all vehicles who must travel along a given roadway. Figure 2.9.1 depicts the current classification for collecting crash prevention and safety systems benefits and costs information. Road geometry warning systems warn drivers, typically those in commercial trucks and other heavy vehicles, of potentially dangerous conditions which may cause rollovers or other crashes on ramps, curves, or downgrades. Highway-rail crossing systems can reduce the potential for catastrophic accidents involving school buses or hazardous materials. Over the last few years, the number of accidents occurring at highway-rail intersections has decreased; however, the goal of the Highway-Rail Intersection (HRI) User Service in the National Architecture is to further improve safety at these crossings, and improve coordination between rail operations and traffic management functions.

Intersection detection systems can reduce approach speeds at rural intersections by advising drivers of the presence and direction of approaching traffic. Pedestrian safety systems can help protect pedestrians by automatically activating in-pavement lighting to alert drivers as pedestrians enter crosswalks. Bicycle warning systems can notify drivers when a cyclist is in an upcoming stretch of roadway to improve safety on narrow bridges and tunnels. Animal warning systems have been deployed in Europe and are still being tested in the United States. These systems typically use radar to detect large animals approaching the roadway, and then alert drivers by activating flashers on warning signs located upstream of high-frequency crossing areas.

Impact Legend

Table 2.9.1 provides information on the benefits and costs of crash prevention and safety systems. Information provided on the impacts of these systems is indicated using the symbols in the Impact Legend at the bottom corner of each page.




Crash Prevention Safety Icon.

TABLE 2.9.1
BENEFITS OF CRASH PREVENTION & SAFETY

Road Geometry Warning Systems: Ramp Rollover Warning
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Mobility
3 + Ramp rollover warning systems were installed at three exit ramps on the Capital Beltway around Washington, DC. Two of the systems used sensor and weigh-in-motion scales to determine vehicle speed and weight classification, and one system only used vehicle speed measurements to calculate the probability of a truck rolling over. If a truck was in danger, a roadside warning sign was activated. Prior to deployment there were 10 truck rollover accidents at these sites between 1985 and 1990. After deployment, no accidents were recorded between 1993 and 1997. 25
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Detection subsystem
Roadside Information subsystem
Roadside Telecommunications subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
As mentioned in the benefits example above, three automatic ramp rollover warning systems have been deployed around the Washington, DC, Capital Beltway. The costs of this system consist of software, construction, calibration, commissioning, testing, and design. 103 Single lane ramp cost: $166,462 (1994) Dual lane ramp cost: $268,507 (1994)

Road Geometry Warning Systems: Curve Speed Warning
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Safety
1 ? An advanced curve warning system was installed on five curves along I-5 in a mountainous portion of rural northern California. A before-and-after evaluation at two sites showed a significant reduction in truck speeds on downgrades greater than 5%. 104
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Detection subsystem
Roadside Information subsystem
Roadside Telecommunications subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
No data to report.

Road Geometry Warning Systems: Downhill Speed Warning
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Safety
3 + A dynamic truck downhill speed warning system installed on I-70 in Colorado decreased truck accidents 13% and reduced the use of runway ramps 24%. 25

Customer
Satisfaction
1 ? A small-scale study of truck drivers who experienced the dynamic truck downhill speed warning system in Colorado indicated that most drivers thought it was helpful. 105
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Detection subsystem
Roadside Information subsystem
Roadside Telecommunications subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
A truck speed warning system was deployed on a downgrade curve along I-70 in Glenwood Canyon, Colorado. If a truck is detected (via radar) exceeding the posted speed, then the truck's speed is posted on a dynamic message sign. The system cost range is the estimated cost for a single site. 18 System cost: $25,000-$30,000(1996)
 Figure 2.9.1 Taxonomy for Crash Prevention & Sefety, follow link for detailed description.

Highway Rail Crossing Systems
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Safety
3 + In San Antonio, Texas, simulations of increased traffic volume showed that DMS with railroad crossing delay information may decrease crashes by 9%. 19

Mobility
2 ? The San Antonio, Texas, simulations of increased traffic volumes indicated DMS with railroad crossing delay information may decrease system delay by 7%. 19

Customer
Satisfaction
1 ? Before implementation of an automated warning system, 77% of surveyed residents in Ames, Iowa, indicated that train horns had a "negative" or "very negative" impact on their quality of life. After deployment, 82% of residents responded that the automated horn was "no problem." 106

Energy/
Environment
2 ? Noise levels were measured at a highway-rail intersection before and after installation of the automated horn system in Ames, Iowa. Results indicated that areas impacted by noise levels greater than 80 decibels decreased by 97%. 106
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Rail Crossing subsystem
Roadside Detection subsystem
Roadside Information subsystem
Roadside Telecommunications subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
The Advanced Warning for Railroad Delays (AWARD) project was implemented as part of the San Antonio, Texas, MMDI. The project consisted of Doppler radar and acoustic sensors deployed at selected locations of railroad tracks to detect the presence, speed, and length of oncoming trains as they approach grade crossings. Data are transmitted to the TransGuide Operations Center where the data are analyzed and railroad delay information is communicated to travelers on existing dynamic message signs. 19 Capital cost: $350,800 (1998) Annual O&M cost: $34,000 (1998)

Intersection Collision Warning
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Safety
1 ? A Collision Countermeasure System (CCS) was installed at an unsignalized, two-way, stop-controlled intersection in a rural area of Aden, Virginia. Before-and-after field data indicated the system lowered approach speeds. Safer projected-times-to-collision (PTCs) were observed after system implementation. 108
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
No data to report. See Appendix A

System Cost
No data to report.

Pedestrian Safety
Benefits
No data to report.
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Detection subsystem
Roadside Information subsystem
Roadside Telecommunications subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
A downtown Boulder, Colorado, intersection has been equipped with a series of four flashing in-pavement lights per lane. This high pedestrian-volume intersection is also equipped with two flashing pedestrian signs. The lights and signs are activated manually. Project cost includes equipment and installation costs. 18 Project cost: $8,000-$16,000

Bicycle Warning Systems
Benefits
No data to report.
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
No data to report. See Appendix A

System Cost
A Bicycle in Tunnel Warning System was deployed at a tunnel on Highway 971 near Chelan, Washington. Flashing beacons on a fixed message sign are activated when a cyclist presses a push-button, and deactivate after a preset time interval has passed. The fixed message sign reads, "PEDS/BICYCLES IN TUNNEL WHEN FLASHING." The cost to implement the system was kept low due to the existing power source at the tunnel entrance. 18 System cost: $5,000 (1979)

Animal Warning Systems
Benefits
No data to report.
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
No data to report.

System Cost
An Animal Warning System has been deployed in the Greater Yellowstone Rural Intelligent Transportation Systems (GYRITS) corridor. A transmitter is installed along the road where a high number of animal-vehicle incidents have occurred. The cost per site includes transmitter, solar pack, and installation (estimated). The cost does not include off-the-shelf in-vehicle radar detectors required to receive the signal from the transmitter. 18 System cost: $3,800 per site

System Cost Icon The ITS JPO at the US DOT evaluated seven projects that implemented ITS at highway-rail crossings. Among the seven projects five functions were tested:
  • second train warning,
  • four-quadrant gates,
  • Intelligent Grade Crossing,
  • in-vehicle warning, and
  • crossing blockage information
for traffic management and traveler information. Second train warning systems were tested in Los Angeles, California, and Baltimore, Maryland. Each project entailed deployment of detection equipment and dynamic message signs at one crossing. Project costs were approximately $200,000 per project. A four-quadrant gate with automatic train stop was deployed and tested in Groton, Connecticut. The system costs including equipment installed at the crossing and in-cab totaled $977,000. A set of ITS technologies was deployed in Long Island, New York. The Intelligent Grade Crossing project included the following functions: constant warning time, transient gate control, emergency vehicle priority, minimization of gate downtimes, dynamic message signs, stalled automobile detection, and queued vehicle detection. The comprehensive technologies deployed are reflected in the approximately $9.5 million project cost. Two projects involved deployment of in-vehicle warning systems. The northern Chicago, Illinois, project included 5 crossings and 300 vehicles at a cost of approximately $700,000. The Glencoe, Minnesota, project involved 5 crossings and 30 vehicles at a total cost of approximately $1 million. Detection devices were deployed in San Antonio, Texas, to detect oncoming trains, their length, and speed. Data were analyzed and used for traffic management as well as informing travelers of possible delays. Project cost was approximately $440,000.107 (Note: This project cost for AWARD differs slightly from that reported by Carter, et al. The difference reflects an increase in the number of sensors included in this reference and the inclusion of miscellaneous private sector expenses not included in Carter, et al.)



2.10 ROADWAY OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE

Photo of construction vehicles along roadway.

Operating and maintaining transportation systems is costly. Many state DOTs are implementing ITS to better manage roadway maintenance efforts and to enhance safety on the transportation system. ITS applications in operations and maintenance focus on integrated management of maintenance fleets, specialized service vehicles, hazardous road conditions remediation, and work zone mobility and safety. Systems and processes are required to monitor, analyze, and disseminate roadway/infrastructure data for operational, maintenance, and managerial uses. ITS can help secure the safety of workers and travelers in a work zone while facilitating traffic flow through and around the construction area.

Figure 2.10.1 summarizes the classification scheme for collecting benefits and cost information for roadway operation and maintenance. Information dissemination technologies can be deployed temporarily, or the existing systems can be updated periodically to provide information on work zones or other highway maintenance activities. Several applications help state DOTs with asset management, including fleet tracking applications, as well as automated data collection applications for monitoring the condition of highway infrastructure. Applications in work zones include the temporary implementation of traffic management or incident management capabilities. These temporary systems can be stand-alone implementations, or they may supplement existing systems in the area during construction. Other applications for managing work zones include measures to control vehicle speeds and notify travelers of changes in lane configurations or travel times and delays through the work zones.

Impact Legend

Winter weather maintenance applications fall under Road Weather Management, discussed in Section 2.11.

Table 2.10.1 provides information on the benefits and costs of ITS applications in roadway operations and maintenance. Information provided on the impacts of these systems is indicated using the symbols in the Impact Legend at the bottom corner of each page.

 Figure 2.10.1 Taxonomy for Roadway Operations & Maintenance, follow link for detailed description.

Roadway Operations Icon.

TABLE 2.10.1
BENEFITS AND COSTS OF ROADWAY OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE

Information Dissemination
Benefits
No data to report.
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Information subsystem
Roadside Telecommunications subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
Dane County, Wisconsin, uses portable dynamic message signs to notify motorists of upcoming construction and maintenance projects or of alternate routes. Power can be provided via solar pack or battery. 18 Cost: $25,000 per sign

Asset Management: Fleet Management
Benefits
No data to report.
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Fleet Management subsystem See Appendix A

System Cost
A pen-based hand-held computer is used by the Indiana DOT to facilitate fleet vehicle inspections. Fleet vehicle information can be entered and retrieved from the tracking system. 18 Hand-held computer cost: $500 (approx.) (1997)

Asset Management: Infrastructure Management Benefits
Benefits
No data to report.
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Fleet Management subsystem                          See Appendix A

System Cost
No data to report.

Work Zone Management
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Mobility
1 + Average clearance times for incidents were reduced 44% with the implementation of motorist assistance patrols and a temporary traffic management center during a construction project at the "Big I" interchange in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two courtesy patrols and one wrecker were on duty during weekdays, and a police substation was operational at the work zone during A.M. and P.M. peak periods. 26

Customer
Satisfaction
1 ? An investigation into remote speed enforcement in work zones in Texas drew mixed results from project participants. While officers felt the system had the potential to allow safe enforcement of speed limits in work zones, by relaying images of offending drivers to officers downstream, some had concerns regarding the proper identification of speeding vehicles. 109
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Detection subsystem
Roadside Control subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
Ohio DOT installed web cameras in its I-70 work zone to assist in traffic management. The cost of installation was kept very low due to the use of temporary structures. Although the installations were temporary and would not meet environmental standards for permanent structures, the video images of traffic in the construction areas were beneficial to Ohio DOT. 110 System cost: $17,000 for eight cameras

System Cost
Michigan DOT teamed up with FHWA and Michigan State University for an 18-month study to test the use of variable speed limits (VSL) in work zones. The equipment, 7 VSL trailers, was rented for the study. The project cost includes the equipment, technical support, and transport of the VSL trailers. 27 Project cost: $400,900 (2002)

System Cost Icon. The purpose of the Advanced Rural Transportation Information and Coordination (ARTIC) project in Minnesota is to share application of ITS across various public agencies such as transportation, public safety, and transit utilizing a central communications center. GPS equipment was installed on fleet vehicles (i.e., plows, buses, volunteer, and trooper vehicles) for ease of location, identification, and dispatching. Mobile data terminals (MDTs) were also installed allowing for data transmission between the vehicles and the dispatch center. The project costs are estimated at $1.574 million. 18



2.11 ROAD WEATHER MANAGEMENT

Photo of snow plow.

Adverse weather conditions pose a significant threat to the infrastructure and operation of our nation's roads. The Road Weather Management Program was created to coordinate several weather-related activities in the Federal Highway Administration. The program focuses on development of improved road weather information systems (RWIS), development of improved winter maintenance technologies, and coordination of operations within and between state DOTs. Figure 2.11.1 depicts the classification of benefit and cost data associated with Road Weather Management.

Table 2.11.1 provides information on the benefits and costs of road weather management systems. Information provided on the impacts of these systems is indicated using the symbols in the Impact Legend at the bottom corner of each page.

Impact Legend

Road Weather Management Icon.

TABLE 2.11.1
BENEFITS AND COSTS OF ROAD WEATHER MANAGEMENT

Surveillance, Monitoring, & Prediction Benefits
Benefits
No data to report.
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Detection subsystem
Transportation Management subsystem
Roadside Telecommunications subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
Texas DOT implemented a Road Weather Information System (RWIS) in Abilene, Texas. The RWIS includes roadside surface and atmospheric sensors, remote processing units, and a central processing unit with road weather software. The annual O&M cost is based on the average maintenance contract per roadside (remote) site. One central unit can support multiple remote sensing sites. 111 System cost: $42,000 (1997) Annual O&M cost: $5,460 per remote site (1997)
 Figure 2.11.1 Taxonomy for Road Weather Management, follow link for detailed description.

Information Dissemination
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Safety
6 + An Idaho DOT study found significant speed reductions when weather-related warnings were posted on dynamic message signs. During periods of high winds and snow covered pavement, vehicle speeds dropped 35% to 35 mph when warning messages were displayed, compared to a 9% drop to 44 mph without the dynamic message signs. 28
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Telecommunications subsystem
Roadside Information subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
Washington State DOT has implemented three highway advisory radios along the Blewett/Stevens Pass to provide weather and road condition information to travelers and maintenance crews. Annual O&M costs based on prior experience to operate and maintain. 11 Average cost of equipment (including installation): $20,000 (2001) Annual O&M cost: $1,000 (2001)

System Cost
Nebraska's Department of Roads and the Nebraska State Patrol have teamed up to deploy a statewide 511 Traveler Information system. The new 511 system replaces the toll-free weather and road condition system formerly operated by the State Patrol. 24 Initial cost: $120,000 (2001) Estimated annual O&M cost: $110,000 (2001)

Traffic Control
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Safety
5 + A variable speed limit system implemented in the Netherlands to control traffic during foggy conditions was found to reduce average speeds 8 to 10 kph, with a slight decrease in speed variability. 112

Mobility
1 o An investigative study sponsored by the Minnesota Department of Transportation found that optimizing traffic signals along an arterial corridor to accommodate adverse winter weather conditions yielded an 8% reduction in delay. The study also noted that the existing signal timing plans were sufficient to accommodate the lower traffic volumes and lower speeds during winter weather. 113

Customer
Satisfaction
1 ? Survey results in Finland indicate that 90% of drivers found weather-controlled variable speed limit signs to be useful. 114

Productivity
2 + The Mn/DOT uses mainline and ramp closure gates to close segments of freeways during severe weather. During a 1998 storm, closure allowed Interstate 90 to be cleared 4 hours earlier than nearby Highway 75, with I-90 clearance costs 18% lower than those for Highway 75. 115
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Control subsystem
Roadside Detection subsystem
Roadside Information subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
Washington State DOT implemented Travel Aid, a variable speed limit (VSL) system that changes as the weather does, along the Snoqualmie Pass (I-90) east of Seattle. Approximately 13 miles are operated as VSL during the winter months. The system consists of radar detection, six weather stations, nine dynamic message signs, and radio and microwave transmission systems. 18, 71, 72 Design and implementation cost: $5 million (1997)

Response & Treatment
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example
Safety Image
Safety
3 ? The Finnish National Road Administration estimates that the duration of slippery road conditions has been reduced 10-30 minutes per de-icing activity with improvements to winter maintenance enabled by the implementation of an extensive road weather information system. 116

Productivity
6 + The Wisconsin DOT has found that a snow forecasting model combined with ice detection systems helps improve planning for work schedules, reducing labor-hours up to 4 hours per person during a significant storm. 117
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Roadside Control subsystem
Roadside Telecommunicatons subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
The Minnesota DOT installed an automatic bridge de-icing system on TH61 at Dresbach, Minnesota. The system consists of bridge and bridge approach spray equipment and a 200-gallon tank and shelter. The system can be activated manually or remotely via phone line. The expected lifetime of the system is 12 years. 118 System cost: $25,000 (1998) Annual O&M cost: $2,000 (1998)

System Cost
The Southeast Michigan Snow and Ice Management (SEMSIM) project is a multi-agency AVL system in which 500 highway maintenance vehicles are to be equipped with GPS receivers and sensors to monitor snow plow use, rate of application for de-icing materials, and air and road temperature. Data are transmitted via 900 MHz to a central system. 11 AVL/GPS system cost: $1.862 million (estimated) (2002)

System Cost Icon. To address weather-related accidents on a section of I-90 near Vantage, Washington, the Washington State DOT assessed the benefits and costs of deploying an automated anti-icing system to prevent the formation of pavement frost and black ice and to reduce the impact of freezing rain. Poor road surface conditions contribute to 42 percent of total accidents and 70 percent of winter accidents. The high-accident corridor includes a 955-foot radius horizontal curve and a vertical alignment transition from three to five percent within the limits of the curve. The proposed installation consists of a liquid chemical storage tank, a pump, a dispensing system with spray nozzles, an environmental sensor station (ESS), a computerized control system, and a closed circuit television (CCTV) camera for remote viewing. The initial cost estimate was $599,500. The control system monitors weather and road condition data from the ESS, and automatically activates the dispensing system when predetermined conditions exist. The system also alerts dispatchers and the maintenance supervisor when the anti-icing system is activated. Annual O&M costs were estimated at $32,800.

The present worth of costs, the present worth of benefits, and the benefit/cost (B/C) ratio were calculated with WSDOT's Benefit/Cost Worksheet for Collision Reduction. Cost elements included design, construction, power and communication, and operations and maintenance costs. Benefits were the estimated reduction in snow, ice, and wet pavement accidents. Using historical accident data, the annual rate of collisions over a threeyear period was determined and compared to the expected rate of collisions after system implementation. It was presumed that 80 percent of the snow, ice, and wet pavement accidents would be eliminated. The cost per collision was used to determine the annual safety benefit. The analysis resulted in a B/C ratio of 2.36 with a net benefit of $1,179,274. In addition to cost savings from accident reductions, WSDOT management expects that abrasives usage will be significantly reduced, resulting in lower cleanup costs and less damage to drainage structures. Improved level of service should also result from the deployment, enhancing mobility.

Initially, it was assumed that 60 percent of snow and ice accidents would be eliminated by the proposed system, with no reduction in wet-pavement accidents. Based upon discussions with Pennsylvania DOT maintenance managers, this assumption was revised to 80 percent of snow and ice accidents. 119 (1999)


2.12 COMMERCIAL VEHICLE OPERATIONS

Photo of trucks at weigh station.

ITS applications for commercial vehicle operations are designed to enhance communication between motor carriers and regulatory agencies, particularly during interstate freight movements. ITS can aid both carriers and agencies in reducing operating expenses through increased efficiency, and assist in ensuring the safety of motor carriers operating on the nation's roadways. Carriers will move quickly to equip their own fleets with systems that will improve efficiency, safety, or other measures that provide them with a competitive advantage. Figure 2.12.1 shows the components of the ITS taxonomy for commercial vehicle operations.

Credentials administration applications support administrative functions and provide savings to state and administrative agencies. Electronic registration and permitting can improve the time required for states to approve permits. Third-party clearinghouses can facilitate the exchange of credentials data between agencies and jurisdictions, and various electronic data exchange methods can facilitate business between agencies and carriers.

Several applications are intended to help assure the safety of motor carrier operations. Improved safety information exchange programs assist the safe operation of commercial vehicles, providing inspectors with better access to carrier and vehicle safety information. This allows a greater number of unsafe commercial vehicles and drivers to be removed from the roadway.

Recently, the Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and Networks (CVISN) program implemented safety information exchange in a number of prototype states. In addition, automated inspection equipment has been implemented to remotely test commercial trucks for faulty equipment. Authorities are able to investigate a larger portion of potentially unsafe vehicles through more efficient targeting.

Electronic screening of commercial vehicles can reduce congestion at inspection stations, improve travel time for commercial vehicles, and help operating companies and regulating agencies reduce costs. In-vehicle transponders can communicate with weigh stations and customs checkpoints to pre-screen trucks for safety records, border clearance, and proper credentials. Weigh-in-motion (WIM) scales can be used for more efficient weight screening. These technologies can reduce congestion at inspection stations by allowing safe and legal carriers to bypass weight and safety inspections and return to the mainline without stopping.

Several technologies are available to assist motor carriers with their day-to-day operations. AVL/CAD can assist with scheduling and tracking of vehicle loads, on-board monitoring of cargo can alert drivers and carriers of potential unsafe load conditions, and targeted traveler information can help carriers choose alternate departure times, avoid traffic, and arrive on time.

Impact Legend

ITS can also be used to ensure the security of motor carriers. Asset tracking can improve the safety and security of drivers and vehicles by installing technologies that can monitor the location and condition of fleet assets (e.g., trailers, cabs, and trucks) in real time. Remote disabling systems can be installed to prevent unauthorized operation and assist in asset recovery.

Table 2.12.1 provides information on the benefits and costs of ITS for commercial vehicle operations. Information provided on the impacts of these systems is indicatedm using the symbols in the Impact Legend at the bottom corner of each page.


Commercial Vehicle Operations Icon.

TABLE 2.12.1
BENEFITS AND COSTS OF ITS FOR COMMERCIAL VEHICLES OPERATIONS

Credentials Administration: Electronic Funds
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Customer
Satisfaction
1 ? A survey of members of the Maryland Motor Truck Association (MMTA) and the Independent Truckers and Drivers Association (ITDA) indicated the potential value of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and the Internet for conducting business with Maryland state agencies rated 1.85 and 2.04 on a scale of one to three. 120

Productivity
1 ? A two-year study by the American Trucking Associations Foundation found that the commercial vehicle administrative processes (CVAP) reduced carriers' costs by an estimated 9-18% when electronic data interchange (EDI) was used. 121
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
No data to report.

System Cost
No data to report.

Credentials Administration: Electronic Registration/Permits
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Mobility
2 + In Europe, several projects investigated management systems designed to improve the operating efficiency of carriers. Benefits included a 30% reduction in order processing time and fewer processing errors. 51

Customer
Satisfaction
2 ? In a survey of Maryland Motor Truck Association members, 33% felt electronic registration was valuable, 13% were neutral, and 11% thought it had little or no value; 43% were unable to comment. 120

Productivity
5 ++ Three motor carriers surveyed during the CVISN model deployment initiative indicated that electronic credentialing reduced paperwork and saved them 60-75% on credentialing costs. In addition, motor carriers were able to commission new vehicles 60% faster by printing their own credential paperwork and not waiting for conventional mail delivery. 29
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Commercial Vehicle Administration subsystem
Fleet Management Center subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
Kentucky and Maryland have implemented end-to-end International Registration Plan (IRP) electronic credentialing systems within their states. The costs to deploy these systems vary with the unique characteristics of each state. A significant impact on cost is whether commercial software is used or special software is developed and if third-party services will be used. 29 End-to-end IRP cost incurred by the state: $464,802-$935,906

Safety Assurance: Safety Information Exchange
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Safety
1 ? The results of field testing in Connecticut indicate that Inspection Selection Systems (ISS) supplemented with electronic sharing of safety inspection data increased out-of-service order rates by 2%. Modeling efforts estimated that ISS could prevent 84 commercial vehicle accidents per year nationwide. 29
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Commercial Vehicle Administration subsystem
Commercial Vehicle Check Station subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
Using cost data based on full CVISN deployment of Safety Information Exchange (SIE) systems in Kentucky and Connecticut, an estimate can be calculated for other states. Initial SIE systems include wireless telecommunications, Safety and Fitness Electronic Record (SAFER) Data Mailbox, and Commercial Vehicle Information Exchange Window (CVIEW). System cost assumes a state has 50 mobile enforcement units. 29 System cost: $650,000 Estimated annual O&M cost: $161,000

Safety Assurance: Automated Inspection
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Customer
Satisfaction
1 ? In a survey of truck and motorcoach drivers, participants were asked about the utility of various ITS applications in commercial vehicles. Truck drivers held much less favorable opinions of automated roadside safety inspection than motorcoach drivers. 122

Safety
1 + Four states (Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, and Tennessee) participated in a year-long test to evaluate the performance of an infrared brake screening system designed to inspect commercial vehicles for brake problems as they enter weigh stations. The percentage of commercial vehicles placed out of service because of brake problems increased by a factor of 2.5 as a result of infrared screening at these stations. 123
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
No data to report.

System Cost
No data to report.

Electronic Screening: Safety Screening
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Mobility
1 ? Most truck drivers and CVO inspectors surveyed during the CVISN MDI felt electronic screening saved them time. 29

Customer
Satisfaction
1 +/- Motor carriers surveyed during the CVISN MDI were concerned with the cost-effectiveness of electronic screening methods and the expansion of state regulation. However, most truck drivers felt that electronic screening saved them time. Inspectors also noted that CVISN saved time and improved the accuracy and speed of data reporting. 29

Productivity
2 ? The CVISN MDI analysis considered start-up costs, operating costs, and crash avoidance from better targeted screening over the expected lifetime of the technology. Without considering the cost-saving benefits of crash avoidance from increased motor carrier compliance, the study estimated that electronic screening would have a B/C ratio of 2:1. 29
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Commercial Vehicle Check Station subsystem
Commercial Vehicle On-Board subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
No data to report.

Electronic Screening: Border Clearance
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Mobility
3 + Simulation models of traffic on the Ambassador Bridge Border Crossing System (ABBCS) showed that electronic border clearance could save equipped trucks 50% of the delay through customs. 124
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
No data to report.

System Cost
No data to report.
 Figure 2.12.1 Taxonomy for Commercial Vehicle Operations, follow link for detailed description.

Electronic Screening: Weight Screening
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Mobility
1 ? The Westa (weigh station) simulation model evaluated weigh station throughput in Seymour, Indiana, based on variations in entrance ramp length, deployment of screening transponders, and use of weigh-in-motion (WIM) scales. The model showed that WIM scales can be very effective at reducing the number of trucks in queue at weigh stations. 125
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
No data to report.

System Cost
No data to report.

Electronic Screening: Credential Checking
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Customer
Satisfaction
1 ? Drivers of trucks and motorcoaches were asked about the utility of various ITS applications in commercial vehicles. Both motorcoach and truck drivers held favorable opinions of Commercial Vehicle Electronic Clearance. 122

Productivity
2 ? A survey of the mid-continent transportation corridor along Interstate Highway (IH) 35 from Duluth, Minnesota, to Laredo, Texas, showed that except for the most conservative growth and high-cost estimates, benefits of electronic credential checking exceed costs for most motor carriers. State agencies, however, were able to realize positive B/C ratios only when very aggressive growth scenarios were paired with low-cost estimates. 126
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Commercial Vehicle Check Station subsystem
Commercial Vehicle On-Board subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
Electronic screening infrastructure typically includes automatic vehicle identification (AVI), weigh-in-motion (WIM) scales, signage, workstations, and telecommunications at the roadside, and transponders installed in commercial vehicles. The majority of the cost for electronic screening is borne by state agencies. Electronic screening costs can range broadly depending on the level of infrastructure. 29, 126 , 127 Roadside equipment cost range: $150,000-$780,000 In-vehicle transponder cost: $50

System Cost
States interested in converting existing static weigh stations to participate in CVISN electronic screening would not incur some of the one-time start-up costs for the initial site such as software development. 29 Cost for first site: $522,252 Cost for additional site: $303,450

Carrier Operations & Fleet Management: AVL/CAD
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Mobility
1 ? In Europe, several projects investigated management systems designed to improve the operating efficiency of carriers. Centralized route planning systems reduced vehicle travel distances 18% and decreased travel time 14%. 51

Productivity
2 + A survey conducted by the American Trucking Association Foundation found that CAD systems increased productivity 5-15% by increasing the number of pickups and deliveries per truck per day. 128
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Fleet Management Center subsystem
Commercial Vehicle On-Board subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
A tracking device installed on fleet trailers can integrate GPS technology with the Internet to provide a secure cost-effective method for remote and accurate management of trailers. The self-powered unit has a rechargeable battery pack, a roof-mounted combination GPS and wireless antenna, and a roof-mounted solar panel. 31 Cost: beginning at $800 per trailer (2000) Monthly service cost: $19 per subscriber with a 3-year contract (2000)

Carrier Operations & Fleet Management: On-Board Monitoring
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Productivity
2 - The American Trucking Association Foundation (ATAF) conducted an extensive benefit/cost analysis of the effects of CVO user services on regulatory compliance cost of motor carriers. The benefit/cost ratio for on-board safety monitoring ranged from 0.49:1 to 0.02:1. 129
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
No data to report.

System Cost
No data to report.

Carrier Operations & Fleet Management: Traveler Information
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Customer
Satisfaction
1 ? The FleetForward operational test conducted by the ATAF provided commercial truckers with real-time traffic information to facilitate routing decisions and improve the operational efficiencies of motor carrier operations along the eastern corridor. Although operating efficiencies were not significantly impacted, 75% of motor carriers felt traffic information was a valuable tool for identifying congestion. 130
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
No data to report.

System Cost
No data to report.

System Cost Icon.

New York was one of five states selected to receive funding through the I-95 Corridor Coalition to develop electronic credentialing systems that would provide a more cost-effective method for commercial vehicle registration and data exchange between states, carriers, and third-party clearinghouses. Four of the states originally selected to participate in the evaluation were unable to complete the program due to the lack of available technical resources. New York developed an Internet-based electronic credentialing system, One-Stop-Credentialing and Registration (OSCAR), as a proof-of-concept demonstration. OSCAR provides the following functions:

  • Credential application forms accessible via the Internet
  • International Registration Plan (IRP) credentialing
  • International Fuel Tax Agreement (IFTA) credentialing
  • Highway User Tax (HUT) credentialing
  • Single State Registration System (SSRS) credentialing

The total project cost was $577,910. Equipment (including servers, computers, and printers) and database software were estimated to cost $133,750. Software development, which accounted for the largest cost item of the project, including testing, was $429,760. The cost for end-user support and training was $14,400.131 (1997) 131




2.13 INTERMODAL FREIGHT

Photo of ship in dock.

ITS can facilitate the safe, efficient, secure, and seamless movement of freight. Figure 2.13.1 shows how intermodal freight applications fit into the ITS taxonomy. Freight tracking applications can monitor, detect, and communicate freight status information to ensure containers remain sealed while en route. In addition, asset tracking technologies can monitor the location and identity of containers in realtime. ITS freight terminal processes can improve the efficiency of freight transfers by activating transponder tags to track cargo containers within the terminal as they are processed and sealed for transfer. ITS drayage operations can promote the efficient loading, unloading, sorting, and transfer of cargo by implementing automated systems and robotics to optimize limited dock and port space. At international border crossings, automating revenue transactions and faster, more efficient confirmation of cargo manifest information can reduce delays associated with customs and tax collection processing. In addition, ITS applications that optimize traffic control and coordinate transfers near intermodal ports of entry can help reduce the strain of increased freight movement on the nation's freight highway connector system.

Impact Legend

Table 2.13.1 provides information on the benefits and costs of intermodal freight ITS. Information provided on the impacts of these systems is indicated using the symbols in the Impact Legend at the bottom corner of the following pages.




Intermodal Freight Icon.

TABLE 2.13.1
BENEFITS AND COSTS OF ITS APPLICATIONS FOR INTERMODAL FREIGHT

Freight Tracking
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Customer
Satisfaction
1 ? During the Electronic Intermodal Supply Chain Manifest field operational test in Chicago, Illinois, and New York, New York, participants felt access to real-time cargo shipment information over the Internet was beneficial. Manufacturers, carriers, and airports that used the system felt it was easy to use, and were very satisfied with the system's capability of duplicating necessary business functions. The system was expected to improve operational efficiency if more fully deployed. 30
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
No data to report.

System Cost
No data to report.

Asset Tracking
Benefits
No data to report.
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Commercial Vehicle On-Board subsystem
Fleet Management Center subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
A tracking device installed on fleet trailers can integrate GPS technology with the Internet to provide a secure cost-effective method for remote and accurate management of trailers. The self-powered unit has a rechargeable battery pack, a roof-mounted combination GPS and wireless antenna, and a roof- mounted solar panel. 31 Cost: beginning at $800 per trailer (2000) Monthly service cost: $19 per subscriber with a 3-year contract (2000)

Freight Terminal Processes
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Productivity
1 ? An electronic supply chain manifest system implemented biometric and smart-card devices to automate manual paper-based cargo data transfers between manufacturers, carriers, and airports in Chicago, Illinois, and New York, New York. Although participation was limited, the system was expected to improve efficiency. The time required for truckers to accept cargo from manufacturers decreased by about four minutes per shipment, and the time required for airports to accept the deliveries decreased by about three minutes per shipment. 30
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
No data to report.

System Cost
No data to report.

International Border Crossing Processes
Benefits
No data to report.
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Commercial Vehicle On-Board subsystem See Appendix A

System Cost
No data to report.
 Figure 2.13.1 Taxonomy for Intermodal Freight, follow link for detailed description.


3.0 BENEFITS AND COSTS OF INTELLIGENT VEHICLES

Photo of Intelligent vehicle application.

Intelligent vehicle applications of ITS use vehicle-mounted sensors and communications devices to assist with the safe operation of vehicles and mitigate the consequences of crashes that do occur. The many intelligent vehicle applications under various levels of development, testing, and deployment fall into three program areas as depicted in Figure 3.0.1. Collision warning systems monitor a vehicle's surroundings and provide warnings to the driver regarding dangerous conditions that may lead to a collision. Driver assistance systems provide information and in some cases assume partial control of the vehicle to assist with the safe operation of the vehicle. With the aim of speeding aid to victims after a crash occurs, collision notification systems alert responders when an accident occurs, with more advanced systems providing additional information on crash characteristics that can aid medical personnel.

Sections 3.1 through 3.3 discuss each of these intelligent vehicle application areas in greater detail.

 Figure 3.0.1 Taxonomy for Intelligent Vehicles, follow link for detailed description.


3.1 COLLISION WARNING SYSTEMS

Photo of buse equipped with Collision Warning System being passed by another bus.

To improve the ability of drivers to avoid accidents, collision warning systems continue to be tested and deployed. Intersection collision warning systems are designed to detect and warn drivers of approaching traffic at high-speed intersections. Obstacle detection systems use vehicle-mounted sensors to detect obstructions, such as other vehicles, road debris, or animals, in a vehicle's path and alert the driver. Lane-change warning systems have been deployed to alert bus and truck drivers of vehicles, or other obstructions, in adjacent lanes when the driver prepares to change lanes. Road departure warning systems have been tested using machine vision and other in-vehicle systems to detect and alert drivers of potentially unsafe lane-keeping practices and to keep drowsy drivers from running off the road. In the application area of forward-collision warning systems, microwave radar and machine vision technology help detect and avert vehicle collisions. These systems typically use in-vehicle displays or audible alerts to warn drivers of unsafe following distances. If a driver does not properly apply brakes in a critical situation, some systems automatically assume control and apply the brakes in an attempt to avoid a collision. Rear-impact warning systems also use radar detection to prevent accidents; in this case, a warning sign is activated on the rear of the vehicle to warn tailgating drivers of impending danger. Figure 3.1.1 summarizes the classification of benefits and costs under collision warning systems.

While most collision warning systems (CWS) are still in the research, prototype, and testing phases, some (e.g., forward-collision warning and lane control) have begun to emerge in mainstream markets. Cost data are not readily available for collision warning systems in the early development stages or even for those systems in the commercial market. Much of the collision warning system cost data in reports and studies is based on estimates and/or market analysis of the public's willingness to pay for a specific in-vehicle feature. Hence, this section contains few examples of system cost data.

Impact Legend

Table 3.1.1 provides information on the benefits and costs of collision warning systems. Information provided on the impacts of these systems is indicated using the symbols in the Impact Legend at the bottom corner of the following pages.




Collision Warning Icon.

TABLE 3.1.1
BENEFITS AND COSTS OF COLLISION WARNING SYSTEMS

Intersection Collision Warning
Benefits
No data to report.
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Commercial Vehicle On-Board subsystem
Vehicle On-Board subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
No data to report.

Obstacle Detection
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Safety
1 ? A transport company in St. Nicholas, Quebec, Canada, was able to reduce at-fault accidents by 33.8% in the first year after the installation of a radar-based collision warning system. The system included a forward-looking sensor and a side sensor to warn drivers of obstacles in blind spots. 132
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Commercial Vehicle On-Board subsystem
Vehicle On-Board subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
The Pittsburgh Port Authority, in Pennsylvania, and Carnegie Mellon University's Robotics Institute have tested a collision avoidance system on 100 buses to warn bus drivers of obstacles in blind spots. The system consists of 12 ultrasonic sensors mounted on the side of the buses and an on-board computer. 133 Cost: $2,600 (approx.) per vehicle (2001)

Lane Change
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Safety
2 ? A study conducted by NHTSA indicated a lane change/ merge crash avoidance system would be effective in 37% of crashes. 32
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Commercial Vehicle On-Board subsystem
Vehicle On-Board subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
A collision warning system (CWS) which uses radar technology can reduce sideswipes during lane changes and right turns. 33 Average cost for CWS with forward-looking and side sensor: $2,500

Road Departure Warning
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Safety
2 ? A study conducted by NHTSA indicated a road-departure countermeasure system would be effective in 24% of crashes. 32
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Commercial Vehicle On-Board subsystem
Vehicle On-Board subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
No data to report.

Forward Collision Warning
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Safety
3 ? A NHTSA modeling study indicated collision warning systems would be effective in 42% of rear-end crash situations where the lead vehicle was decelerating, and effective in 75% of rear-end crashes where the lead vehicle was not moving. Overall, collision warning systems would be 51% effective. 32
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Commercial Vehicle On-Board subsystem
Vehicle On-Board subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
A Florida-based trucking company has installed a collision warning system (CWS) to reduce the number of rear-end incidents. Adaptive cruise control can be added to further reduce rear-end collisions. 33, 34 Average cost for CWS with forward-looking and side sensor: $2,500 Adaptive cruise control: $350-$400 (extra)

Rear Impact Warning
Benefits
No data to report.
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Commercial Vehicle On-Board subsystem
Vehicle On-Board subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
No data to report.
 Figure 3.1.1 Taxonomy for Collision Warning Systems, follow link for detailed description.


3.2 DRIVER ASSISTANCE SYSTEMS

Photo of driver using electronic assistance system.

Intelligent Transportation Systems that assist driving tasks continue to gain interest in the marketplace. In-vehicle navigation systems with GPS technology may reduce driver error, increase safety, and save time by improving driver decisions in unfamiliar areas. Integrated communication systems that enable drivers and dispatchers to coordinate re-routing decisions on-the-fly can also save time, money, and improve productivity. In-vehicle vision enhancement improves visibility for driving conditions involving reduced sight distance due to night driving, inadequate lighting, fog, drifting snow, or other inclement weather conditions. Intelligent cruise control, speed control, guidance/steering assistance, and coupling/decoupling systems which help transit operators link multiple buses or train cars into trains each assist drivers with routine tasks that weigh on driver workload. Recently, real-time on-board monitoring applications have been developed to track and report cargo condition, driver condition, safety and security, and the mechanical condition of vehicles equipped with in-vehicle diagnostics. In the event of an incident, in-vehicle safety event recorders can act like a "black box" and record vehicle performance data and other input from video cameras or radar sensors to improve the post-processing of accident data.

Figure 3.2.1 summarizes the classification of benefits and costs data for driver assistance systems.

While some driver assistance systems (e.g., vision enhancement, safety event recorders) are still in the research, prototype, and testing phases, others (e.g., navigation systems, on-board monitoring) have begun to emerge in mainstream markets. Cost data are not readily available for systems in the early development stages or even for those systems in the commercial market. Furthermore, many reports and studies on driver assistance systems contain little or no cost data, or are based on estimates and/or market analysis of the public's willingness to pay for a specific in-vehicle feature. Hence, this section contains few examples of system cost data.

Impact Legend

Table 3.2.1 provides information on the benefits and costs of driver assistance systems. Information provided on the impacts of these systems is indicated using the symbols in the Impact Legend at the bottom corner of each page.




Driver Assistance Systems Icon.

TABLE 3.2.1
BENEFITS AND COSTS OF DRIVER ASSISTANCE SYSTEMS

Navigation
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Safety
2 ? Safety impacts of in-vehicle navigation systems were estimated using simulation models and field data collected from the TravTek project. Results indicated users could decrease their crash risk by up to 4%. 134

Mobility
4 + The City Laboratories Enabling Organization of Particularly Advanced Telematics Research and Assessments (CLEOPATRA) project in Turin, Italy, demonstrated a time savings of more than 10% for cars equipped with in-vehicle navigation devices. 51

Capacity/
Throughput
2 ? Capacity improvements from in-vehicle navigation systems were estimated using simulation models and field data from the TravTek project. Using a market penetration rate of 30%, and overall average trip duration as a surrogate for a given level of service, dynamic route guidance enabled the system to handle a 10% increase in demand. 134

Customer
Satisfaction
3 + In-vehicle navigation units were distributed to public agencies in the San Antonio, Texas, area as part of the San Antonio MMDI. Focus groups composed of drivers of vehicles equipped with the units indicated that the drivers most satisfied with the system were those who frequently drove different routes each day, particularly paratransit drivers and police investigators. 19
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Vehicle On-Board subsystem See Appendix A

System Cost
In-vehicle navigation units were distributed to public agencies in the San Antonio, Texas, area as part of the San Antonio MMDI. The units provided route guidance and real-time traffic conditions. The cost of the units (590 at approximately $2,800 each) was the most significant cost driver for the project. Most of the O&M cost is attributed to database updates. 19 Capital cost for project: $2,388,691 (1998) Annual O&M cost: $102,330 (1998)

Driver Communication with Other Drivers
Benefits
No data to report.
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Vehicle On-Board subsystem See Appendix A

System Cost
No data to report.

Driver Communication with Carrier/Dispatch
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Productivity
2 + An advanced routing and decision-making software communications program helped dispatchers organize and route time-sensitive delivery orders. The system increased the number of deliveries per driver-hour by 24%. 135
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Transit Vehicle On-Board subsystem
Commercial Vehicle On-Board subsystem
Vehicle On-Board subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
The AVL system installed by the Regional Transit District (RTD) in Denver, Colorado, included the capability for voice and data communication between fleet vehicles and the dispatch center. The GPS/In-Vehicle Logic Unit/In-Vehicle Data Unit was approximately $3,517 per bus. 12 System cost: $10.4 million

Vision Enhancement
Benefits
No data to report.
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Vehicle On-Board subsystem See Appendix A

System Cost
No data to report.

Intelligent Cruise Control
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Safety
1 +/- Ten Intelligent Cruise Control (ICC) vehicles were equipped with automatic throttle modulation and down shifting (but not braking) to maintain preset headways during a NHTSA field test. The performance of the ICC was compared to conventional cruise control and manually operated vehicles. Results indicated that ICC vehicles made the fewest number of risky lane changes in response to slower traffic. Manually operated vehicles, however, had the quickest average response time to lead vehicle brake lights. 136

Capacity/
Throughput
3 + In the Netherlands, a simulation model investigated the impact of an automated braking system capable of automatically resetting itself after activation in the operational speed range of 30 to 150 km/hr. With a market penetration of 20%, and a headway setting of 0.8 seconds, the system increased capacity by 3.2%. However, if ICC headway was set at 1.2 seconds, capacity increased by only 1.0%. 137

Customer
Satisfaction
2 + The ICC system deployed in the NHTSA field test generally had a very high level of acceptance by the participants. Participants overwhelmingly ranked ICC over the manual and conventional cruise control-equipped vehicles for convenience, comfort, and enjoyment. Participants indicated they would most likely use ICC on freeways. 136

Energy/
Environment
3 + Driver response and vehicle dynamics were recorded for one ICC vehicle and two manually operated vehicles in a single lane of freeway traffic. The ICC vehicle attempted to smooth traffic flow by minimizing the variance between acceleration and deceleration extremes. Simulation models based on collected field data estimated a fuel savings of 3.6% during scenarios with frequent acceleration and deceleration. 138
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Vehicle On-Board subsystem See Appendix A

System Cost
No data to report.

Speed Control
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Customer Satisfaction
1 ? In the southern Swedish town of Eslov, 25 personal vehicles were equipped with governors activated by wireless beacons at city points-of-entry to limit inner city vehicle speeds to 50 km/hr. The vast majority of participants preferred this adaptive speed control over other physical countermeasures such as speed humps, chicanes, or mini-roundabouts. 139
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Vehicle On-Board subsystem See Appendix A

System Cost
No data to report.

Guidance/Steering Assistance
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Energy/
Environment
1 ? An electronic towbar system coupled two heavy-duty trucks without the aid of a mechanical towbar. The system enabled a trailing truck to autonomously follow a lead truck by a distance of approximately 10 meters. Track testing showed the lead truck and the trailing truck reduced fuel consumption by about 7% and 5 - 21%, respectively, when traveling at 80 km/hr. 140
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Vehicle On-Board subsystem See Appendix A

System Cost
No data to report.

On-Board Monitoring: Cargo Condition
Benefits
No data to report.
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Commercial Vehicle On-Board subsystem See Appendix A

System Cost
No data to report.

On-Board Monitoring: Safety & Security
Benefits
No data to report.
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Transit Vehicle On-Board subsystem See Appendix A

System Cost
No data to report.

On-Board Monitoring: Driver Condition
Benefits
No data to report.
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Commercial Vehicle On-Board subsystem
Vehicle On-Board subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
No data to report.

On-Board Monitoring: Vehicle Diagnostics
Benefits
No data to report.
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Commercial Vehicle On-Board subsystem
Vehicle On-Board subsystem
See Appendix A

System Cost
No data to report.

Safety Event Recorders
Benefits
No data to report.
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Vehicle On-Board subsystem See Appendix A

System Cost
No data to report.
 Figure 3.2.1 Taxonomy for Driver Assistance Systems, follow link for detailed description.


3.3 COLLISION NOTIFICATION SYSTEMS

Photo of accident in rain.

In an effort to improve response times and save lives, collision notification systems have been designed to detect and report the location and severity of incidents to agencies and services responsible for coordinating appropriate emergency response actions. These systems can be activated manually (Mayday), or automatically (automatic collision notification). More advanced collision notification (ACN) systems use in-vehicle crash sensors, GPS technology, and wireless communications systems to supply public/private call centers with crash location information, and in some cases, the number of injured passengers and the nature of their injuries. Advanced ACN data can assist responders in determining the type of equipment needed in an emergency (basic or advanced life support EMS units), mode of transport (air or ground), and the location of the nearest trauma center.

Over a dozen commercial Mayday/ACN products are available. Many of these products are available as factory-installed options on high-end luxury cars; others are installed as after-market products. The typical Mayday/ACN product utilizes location technology, wireless communication, and a third-party response center to notify the closest Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP) for emergency response. Cost data are available for many of the Mayday/ACN products, but are likely to change given future technology advancements and market trends. No cost data are available for advanced ACN technology.

Impact Legend

Figure 3.3.1 summarizes the classification of benefits and costs data under collision notification.

Table 3.3.1 provides information on the benefits and costs of collision notification systems. Information provided on the impacts of these systems is indicated using the symbols in the Impact Legend at the bottom corner of each page.


Collision Notification Systems.

Table 3.3.1
Benefits and Costs of Collision Notification Systems

Mayday/ACN
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Customer
Satisfaction
1 ? The Puget Sound Help Me (PuSHMe) Mayday System allowed a driver to immediately contact a response center, transmit GPS coordinates, and request assistance. Survey responses were collected from 23 participants equipped with Mayday voice communication systems, and 54 participants equipped with Mayday text messaging. The surveys indicated 95% of drivers felt more secure if equipped with Mayday voice communications, and 70% of drivers felt more secure if equipped with Mayday text messaging. 141
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Vehicle On-Board subsystem See Appendix A

System Cost
Numerous commercial Mayday/ACN products are available as factory-installed and after-market devices. Cost data are more prevalent for after-market devices than for factory-installed systems. Installation costs were not readily available. Annual service fees vary depending on the level of services offered. 36 After market device cost range: $400-$1,895 Monthly service fee: $10-$27

Advanced ACN
Benefits
Goal Area # of Studies Impact Example

Safety
1 ? Between July 1997 and August 2000, the impacts of advanced ACN on incident notification were tracked for vehicles with and without ACN systems in urban and suburban areas of Erie County, New York. Based on a limited number of crash events, the average notification time for vehicles equipped with ACN was less than one minute with some notification times as long as two minutes, and the average notification time for vehicles without ACN was about three minutes with some notification times as long as 9, 12, 30, and 46 minutes. 35
Costs

Unit Costs
Database
Vehicle On-Board subsystem See Appendix A

System Cost
No data to report.
 Figure 3.3.1 Taxonomy for Collision Notification Systems, follow link for detailed description.

4.0 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

This report has presented many of the findings on the benefits and costs of ITS accumulated in the ITS Benefits and Unit Costs Database. New in this 2003 report is the inclusion of cost information for representative ITS deployments, as well as relevant unit cost data for components of the various applications. Significant amounts of information are available for many ITS services, but many gaps in knowledge also exist. In general, ITS services have shown some positive benefit, but the authors have identified a number of areas with mixed results, not enough information, or negligible impacts. While reported negative impacts are usually outweighed by other positive impacts, a few evaluations have identified opportunities for improvement in future deployments. The reader should note that reported results are highly sensitive to the deployment environment.

Table 4.0.1 contains the number of source documents within the ITS Benefits Database covering each goal area within the major program areas identified in the taxonomy. This illustration demonstrates that a significant number of studies are accumulating in a number of areas, especially arterial and freeway management systems. However, there is much to be learned in many areas of ITS implementation. Table 4.0.1 demonstrates the clear need for continuing evaluation of ITS implementations in the areas of information management, roadway operations and maintenance, intermodal freight, collision warning, and collision notification.

  

TABLE 4.0.1.
DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE IN THE ITS BENEFITS DATABASE
(as of 31 January 2003)


Click link for text version of table.



Table 4.0.2 presents the number of benefits sources/references currently in the ITS Benefits Database and an indication of system cost examples in this report for each of the taxonomy program and application areas. While the previous table demonstrated that a significant amount of evaluation has occurred in several of the broad program areas, there is still a need for further research into the effects of many of the various types of applications within these categories. For example, Table 4.0.2 demonstrates that, while there are numerous evaluation reports in the database covering arterial management systems, parking management is one application area that would benefit from further study. Totals by category presented in this table do not always equal the sum of those reported in the body of this report. A number of reports in the database discuss evaluations of larger systems which include several ITS applications, appearing several times in the totals in Table 4.0.2; however, the evaluation findings appear in the body of the report within the application area most directly responsible for the impact cited. For example, an evaluation of an arterial management system providing data to a traveler information system would appear in both categories below, but only within the traveler information section in the body of the report.

As indicated in Table 4.0.2, examples of system cost data are available for the majority of the Intelligent Infrastructure application areas with the exception of Intermodal Freight. However, system cost data are still needed for a few of the newer ITS application areas such as variable speed limits on arterials, lane management strategies, and transit security. Examples of system cost data are not prevalent in the Intelligent Vehicle application areas. This lack of cost data can be attributed to the fact that many Intelligent Vehicle applications are still in the research and prototype phases. Cost data in many cases, if available, are based on estimates and/or market analysis of the public's willingness to pay for a specific feature.

Table 4.0.2
Summary of Benefits Sources/References and System Cost Data
(as of 31 January 2003)

Taxonomy Program and Application Areas Benefits
Sources/References
System Costs
Data
Intelligent Infrastructure
Arterial Management Systems    
Traffic Surveillance 3
Traffic Control: Transit Signal Priority 14
Traffic Control: Emergency Vehicle Preemption 4
Traffic Control: Adaptive Signal Control 18
Traffic Control: Advanced Signal Systems 15
Traffic Control: Variable Speed Limits 0  
Traffic Control: Bicycle & Pedestrian 1
Traffic Control: Special Events 1  
Lane Management 0  
Parking Management 1
Information Dissemination 5  
Enforcement: Speed Enforcement 4
Enforcement: Stop/Yield Enforcement 14
Freeway Management Systems
Traffic Surveillance 7
Ramp Control: Ramp Metering 15
Ramp Control: Ramp Closure 0  
Ramp Control: Priority Access 0  
Lane Management: HOV Facilities 1  
Lane Management: Reversible Flow Lanes 0  
Lane Management: Pricing 0  
Lane Management: Variable Speed Limits 1
Lane Management: Emergency Evacuation 0  
Special Event Transportation Management 0  
Information Dissemination 14
Enforcement 9
Transit Management Systems
Safety & Security: On-Vehicle Surveillance 1
Safety & Security: Facility Surveillance 1  
Safety & Security: Employee Credentialing 0  
Safety & Security: Remote Disabling Systems 0  
Transit Demand Management:
Ride Sharing/Matching
0  
Transit Demand Management:
Dynamic Routing/Scheduling
4
Transit Demand Management:
Service Coordination
1  
Fleet Management: AVL/CAD 12
Fleet Management: Maintenance 1  
Fleet Management: Planning 0  
Information Dissemination: In-Vehicle Systems 0
Information Dissemination: In-Terminal/Wayside 1
Information Dissemination:
Internet/Wireless/Phone
2
Incident Management Systems
Surveillance & Detection 18
Mobilization & Response 16
Information Dissemination 6
Clearance & Recovery: Investigation 1
Clearance & Recovery: Video 0  
Clearance & Recovery: Temporary Traffic Control 0  
Emergency Management Systems
Hazardous Materials Management 1  
Emergency Medical Services: Advanced ACN 1  
Emergency Medical Services: Telemedicine 1
Response & Recovery: Evacuation Operations 0  
Response & Recovery: Response Management 1
Electronic Payment Systems
Toll Collection 10
Transit Fare Payment 6
Multi-use Payment 1  
Traveler Information
Pre-trip Information 29
En Route Information 27
Tourism & Events 1
Information Management
Data Archiving 0
Crash Prevention & Safety
Road Geometry Warning Systems: Ramp Rollover 3
Road Geometry Warning Systems: Curve Speed Warning 1  
Road Geometry Warning Systems: Downhill Speed Warning 3
Road Geometry Warning Systems: Overheight/Overwidth Warning 0  
Highway-Rail Crossing Systems 5
Intersection Collision Warning 1  
Pedestrian Safety 0
Bicycle Warning Systems 0
Animal Warning Systems 0
Roadway Operations & Maintenance
Information Dissemination 1
Asset Management: Fleet Management 0
Asset Management: Infrastructure Management 0  
Work Zone Management 3
Road Weather Management
Surveillance, Monitoring, & Prediction 7
Information Dissemination 6
Traffic Control 6
Response & Treatment 6
Commercial Vehicle Operations
Credentials Administration: Electronic Funds 2  
Credentials Administration: Electronic Registration/Permitting 8
Safety Assurance: Safety Information Exchange 5
Safety Assurance: Automated Inspection 2  
Electronic Screening: Safety Screening 4  
Electronic Screening: Border Clearance 4  
Electronic Screening: Weight Screening 6  
Electronic Screening: Credential Checking 4
Carrier Operations & Fleet Management: AVL/CAD 4
Carrier Operations & Fleet Management: On-Board Monitoring 3  
Carrier Operations & Fleet Management: Traveler Information 1  
Security Operations 0  
Intermodal Freight
Freight Tracking 1  
Asset Tracking 0
Freight Terminal Processes 1  
Drayage Operations 0  
Freight-Highway Connector System 0  
International Border Crossing Process 0  
Intelligent Vehicles
Collision Warning Systems
Intersection Collision Warning 0  
Obstacle Detection 1
Lane Change 2
Road Departure Warning 2  
Forward Collision Warning 3
Rear Impact Warning 0  
Driver Assistance Systems
Navigation 8
Driver Communication: With Other Drivers 0  
Driver Communication: With Carrier/Dispatch 2
Vision Enhancement 0  
Intelligent Cruise Control 5  
Speed Control 2  
Guidance/Steering Assistance 3  
Precision Docking 0  
Coupling/Decoupling 0  
On-Board Monitoring 2  
Safety Event Recorders 0  
Collision Notification Systems
Mayday/ACN 1
Advanced ACN 1  

Interested readers are encouraged to submit additional evaluation reports, covering any area of ITS, via the online database. Cost data for implemented ITS applications are also welcome, and will help keep the estimates provided in the online Unit Costs Database up-to-date. The reader is reminded to check online for the most current information on benefits and costs at www.benefitcost.its.dot.gov.

The level of ITS deployment in the U.S. and worldwide continues to increase (see www.itsdeployment.its.dot.gov). As experience with additional applications increases, additional impacts will become apparent, and further information on the costs of ITS implementation will become available. Implementing agencies will also learn valuable lessons regarding appropriate implementation and operational strategies. The ITS Joint Program Office will continue to make this information available via the JPO website at www.its.dot.gov, the ITS Benefits and Unit Costs Database at www.benefitcost.its.dot.gov, the Electronic Document Library at www.its.dot.gov/itsweb/welcome.htm, and other publications.

 Key for Table 4.0.1

References

1  Siemens Automotive, USA. "SCOOT in Toronto." Traffic Technology International. Spring 1995.
2  Zhou, et al. "Fuzzy Flows." ITS: Intelligent Transportation Systems. May/June 1997.
3  Peck, et al. "Learning from the User: Next Steps for ITACA's Adaptive Control." Traffic Technology International Annual Review. 1999. pp. 155-158.
4  Greenough and Kelman. "ITS Technology Meeting Municipal Needs - The Toronto Experience." Paper presented at the 6th World Congress Conference on ITS. Toronto, Canada. 1999.
5  Diakaki, et al. "Application and Evaluation of the Integrated Traffic-Responsive Urban Corridor Control Strategy (IN-TUC) in Glasgow." Paper presented at the 79th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Washington, DC. 9-13 January 2000.
6  Correspondence with Daniel Worke, Arlington County Department of Public Works, and contractor estimate. February 2001.
7  Twin Cities Ramp Meter Evaluation: Final Report. Prepared for Minnesota Department of Transportation by Cambridge Systematics. 1 February 2001.
8  Mn/DOT Ramp Meter Evaluation: Phase II Evaluation Report. Prepared for Minnesota Department of Transportation by Cambridge Systematics. 10 May 2002.
9  Hourdakis and Michalopoulos. "Evaluation of Ramp Meter Control Effectiveness in Two Twin Cities Freeways." Paper presented at the 81st Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Washington, DC. 13-17 January 2002.
10  Transportation Expansion (T-REX) Project Fact Book. Winter 2002.
11  U.S. DOT. ITS Joint Program Office.
12  Weatherford, et al. Assessment of the Denver Regional Transportation District Automatic Vehicle Location System. Prepared for the USDOT (DOT-VNTSC-FTA-00-04). August 2000.
13  Petrov, et al. "Evaluation of the Benefits of a Real-Time Incident Response System." Paper presented at the 9th World Congress Conference on ITS. Chicago, Illinois. 14-17 October 2002.
14  Highway Helper Summary Report - Twin Cities Metro Area. Minnesota Department of Transportation Report (TMC 07450-0394). July 1994.
15  Cuciti and Janson. "Incident Management via Courtesy Patrol: Evaluation of a Pilot Program in Colorado." Paper presented at the 74th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Washington, DC. January 1995.
16  Latoski and Sinha. "Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation of Hoosier Helper Freeway Service Patrol." Journal of Transportation Engineering. Volume 125, Number 5. Sept/Oct 1999.
17  Todd. 1997 "What the customer had to say" Report. Virginia DOT Safety Service Patrol. 1997.
18  Rural ITS Toolbox. Prepared for the Federal Highway Administration by SAIC (FHWA-OP-01-030). Washington, DC. November 2001.
19  Carter, et al. Metropolitan Model Deployment Initiative: San Antonio Evaluation Report (Final Draft). Federal Highway Administration (FHWA-OP-00-017). Washington, DC. May 2000.
20  Jensen, et al. Metropolitan Model Deployment Initiative: Seattle Evaluation Report (Final Draft). Federal Highway Administration (FHWA-OP-00-020). Washington, DC. May 2000.
21  Advanced Public Transportation Systems Benefits. Federal Transit Administration. March 1996.
22  Correspondence with Mr. Steve DeGeorge, Director of Technology, Ventura County Transportation Commission. 13 December 2002.
23  Clemons, et al. ARTIMIS Telephone Travel Information Service: Current Use Patterns and User Satisfaction. Kentucky Transportation Center, University of Kentucky. June 1999.
24  "New 511 Traveler Information System." Roadrunner. Nebraska Department of Roads. December 2001/January 2002.
25  "IRD Uses WIM Info in Suite of Truck Safety Advisory Systems." Inside ITS. 15 December 1997. p. 8-9.
26  Dumke, et al. "Intelligent Transportation Systems in Work Zones: Leveraging the Internet and Wireless Communications." Paper presented at the 11th ITS America Annual Meeting. Miami, Florida. June 2001.
27  Correspondence with Jeff Grossklaus. PE, Construction Staff Engineer, Construction and Technology Division, Michigan Department of Transportation. December 2002.
28  Kyte. et al. Idaho Storm Warning System Operational Test - Final Report. Prepared for the Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) by the University of Idaho. 14 March 2001.
29  Orban, et al. Evaluation of the Commercial Vehicle Information Systems Networks (CVISN) Model Deployment Initiative (Final Report). Federal Highway Administration. March 2002.
30  Jensen, et al. Electronic Intermodal Supply Chain Manifest Field Operational Test Evaluation Final Report. FHWA Report (FHWA-OP-02-XXX). December 2002.
31  "Road Inc. Introduces New Location-Relevant Product for Internet-Based Asset Management." Company News Release. 22 June 2000.
32  Kanianthra and Mertig. Opportunities for Collision Countermeasures Using Intelligent Technologies. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 1997.
33  "Trucking officials discuss ITS ROI, tax incentives." Inside ITS. 15 July 2001.
34  "Truckers realize benefits of intelligent vehicle technology." Inside ITS. 1 December 2000.
35  Bachman and Preziotti. Automated Collision Notification (ACN) Field Operational Test (FOT) Evaluation Report. Prepared for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) by the Johns Hopkins University (DOT HS 809 304). February 2001.
36  Hau and Choudhry. Mayday Plus Operational Test Evaluation Report. Prepared for the Minnesota Department of Transportation. April 2000.
37  Schrank and Lomax. The 2002 Urban Mobility Report. Texas Transportation Institute. June 2002.
38  2002 Public Transportation Fact Book. 53rd edition. Washington, DC: American Public Transportation Association, 2002.
39  Federal Highway Administration. Freight Analysis Framework. 2002.
40  Proper, et al. Intelligent Transportation Systems Benefits: 2001 Update. U.S. Department of Transportation, ITS Joint Program Office (FHWA-OP-01-024). June 2001.
41  What Have We Learned About Intelligent Transportation Systems? Federal Highway Administration Report (FHWA-OP-01-006; EDL# 13316). 2000.
42  Strategic Plan for Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems in the United States. ITS America Report (IVHS-Amer-92-3). Washington, DC. 20 May 1992.
43  McGurrin and Wunderlich. "Running at Capacity." Traffic Technology International. April/May 1999.
44  Highway Capacity Manual 2000. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, 2000.
45  "WSDOT Adds Traffic Cameras to Fight Congestion on State Route 522 through Lake Forest Park and Kenmore." Washington State Department of Transportation News. 4 December 2002.
46  Kloos, et al. "Bus Priority at Traffic Signals in Portland: The Powell Boulevard Pilot Project." ITS Compendium of Technical Papers. July 1994.
47  "ITS developed by Japanese Police." Japan Traffic Management Technology Association, Institute of Urban Traffic Research.
48  Ivanovic, et al. "Transit Signal Priority on a Fully-Actuated Signalized Corridor Utilizing Advanced Priority Logic and Detection Systems." Paper presented at the 9th World Congress Conference on ITS. Chicago, Illinois. 14-17 October 2002.
49  Lehtonen and Kulmala. "The Benefits of a Pilot Implementation of Public Transport Signal Priorities and Real-Time Passenger Information." Paper presented at the 81st Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Washington, DC. 13-17 January 2002.
50  Chada and Newland. Effectiveness of Bus Signal Priority: Final Report. Prepared for the Florida DOT and USDOT by the University of South Florida (CTR-416-04). January 2002.
51  Telematics Applications Programme - Transport Areas' Results (4th Funding Programme). European Commission Report. July 2000.
52  Cima, et al. "Transit Signal Priority: A Comparison of Recent and Future Implementations." Paper presented at ITE 2000 Annual Meeting. Nashville, Tennessee. 6-10 August 2000.
53  "CARTA to set up traffic light devices." Chattanooga Time Free Press. Chattanooga, Tennessee. 22 June 2001.
54  Kang, et al. "Implementing Smart Transit Priority System for Metro Rapid Bus in Los Angeles." Paper presented at the 80th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. January 2001, and correspondence with primary author, March 2001.
55  An Overview of Transit Signal Priority. Advanced Traffic Management Systems Committee and Advanced Public Transportation Systems Committee of the Intelligent Transportation Society of America. 11 July 2002.
56  Kang, et al. "Implementing Smart Transit Priority System for Metro Rapid Bus in Los Angeles." Paper presented at the 80th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. 7-11 January 2001.
57  Zimmerman, et al. Phoenix Metropolitan Model Deployment Initiative Evaluation Report (Final Draft). Federal Highway Administration (FHWA-OP-00-015). Washington, DC. April 2000.
58  Skabardonis, Alexander. "ITS Benefits: The Case of Traffic Signal Control Systems." Paper presented at the 80th TRB Annual Meeting. Washington, DC. 7-11 January 2001.
59  Hetrick and McCollough. "How to save $4.2 Million a Year." ITS International Newsletter. June 1996.
60  60 White, et al. Traffic Signal Optimization for Tysons Corner Network, Volume 1: Evaluation and Summary. Virginia Department of Transportation (TPE.R7D.03.08.00). March 2000.
61  "Stoplight computer goes with the flow." The Indianapolis Star. Indianapolis, Indiana. 28 January 2002.
62  Tignor, et al. Innovative Traffic Control Technology and Practice in Europe. Federal Highway Administration, Office of International Programs (FHWA-PL-99-021). August 1999.
63  Advanced Parking Information System Evaluation Report. HNTB Corporation. 2001.
64  Automated Enforcement in Transportation. Institute of Transportation Engineers (IR-100). Washington, DC. December 1999.
65  Jacques Nouvier. "Excessive Speed and Automatic Enforcement." CERTU, unpublished paper. This paper provides an overview of a study conducted by CERTU in 2000 which was released by ISIS, with participation of INRETS (French National Institute for Research on Transport and Transport Safety) and CERTU. 2000.
66  Maccubbin, et al. Automated Enforcement of Traffic Signals: A Literature Review. Prepared for the Federal Highway Administration by Mitretek Systems. 13 August 2001.
67  Sisiopiku, et al. "Assessment of Red Light Running Camera Enforcement Technologies." Paper presented at the 81st Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. January 2002.
68  Mouskos, et al. "Costs, Benefits, and Institutional Issues of the TRANSMIT System." Paper presented at the 6th World Congress on ITS. Toronto, Canada. November 1999.
69  Smith and Perez. "Evaluation of INFORM - Lessons Learned and Applications to Other Systems." Paper presented at the 71st Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Washington, DC. January 1992.
70  Staples, Barbara L. Working Paper: Estimating the Federal Proportion of Funds Expended on ITS Infrastructure for Fiscal Year 2000. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA-OP-02-006). Washington, DC. May 2001.
71  Robinson. "Examples of Variable Speed Limit Applications." Presentation given at the Speed Management Workshop held in conjunction with the 79th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. January 2000. [safety.fhwa.dot.gov/fourthlevel/ppt/vslexamples.ppt]
72  Puget Sound Regional Council. Smart Trek Website. [www.smarttrek.org/html/new2.html]
73  "Freeway signs get message overhaul." The Detroit News. Detroit, Michigan. 7 February 2002.
74  Elvik, R. "Effects on Accidents of Automatic Speed Enforcement in Norway." Transportation Research Record No. 1595. 1997.
75  Aggressive Driver Imaging and Enforcement: Evaluation Report - Impact of Media Campaign and Effects on Safety and Productivity. Report prepared for Science Applications International Corporation by the Daniel Consultants, Inc. 11 September 1998.
76  Wallace, et al. "Passenger Reactions to Transit Safety Measures." Transportation Research Record No. 1666. 1999.
77  "Electronic eyes watching bus passengers." St. Petersburg Times. St. Petersburg, Florida. 27 September 2001.
78  Muller, et al. "Integrating Bus Service Planning with Analysis, Operational Control, and Performance Monitoring." Paper presented at the ITS America 2000 Annual Meeting. Boston, MA. 1-4 May 2000.
79  Taylor. "Reaching Out with ITS." ITS World. March/April 1997. pp. 24-28.
80  Benefits Assessment of APTS Technologies Update 2000. Prepared for the Federal Transit Administration by the Volpe National Transportation Center (FTA-MA-7007-00-4). November 2000.
81  Jones. ITS Technologies in Public Transit: Deployment and Benefits. Prepared for the USDOT ITS Joint Program Office. November 1995.
82  Evaluation of the Advanced Operating System of the Ann Arbor Transportation Authority. Urban and Regional Research Collaborative, Alfred Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning. October 1999.
83  "New buses tell riders where they're heading." The Journal News. Ramapo, New York. 12 September 2000.
84  "Survey Finds London Transit Info Changes Behavior, Creates Revenue." Inside ITS. 9 March 1998. p. 8.
85  "RTD introduces Talk-n-Ride." The Daily Camera. Denver, Colorado. 12 December 2001.
86  Kolb, et al. "Evaluation of Georgia's Emergency Motorist Aid Call Box Pilot Project." Paper presented at the ITS America 2000 Annual Meeting. Boston, MA. May 2000.
87  Henk and Molina. "Before-and-After Analysis of the San Antonio TransGuide System." Paper presented at the 76th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Washington DC. January 1997.
88  "Satellites Around Globe May Save Lives Right Here." The Palm Beach Post. Palm Beach, Florida. June 1997.
89  Ayman. "Safety Considerations in Designing Electronic Toll Plazas: Case Study." ITE Journal. March 2001. p. 20.
90  Operational and Traffic Benefits of E-Z Pass to the New Jersey Turnpike. Prepared by the Wilbur Smith Associates for the New Jersey Turnpike Authority. August 2001.
91  Lennon. "Tappan Zee Bridge E-Z Pass System Traffic and Environmental Studies." Paper presented at the Institute of Transportation Engineers 64th Annual Meeting. 1995.
92  Burris and Ashley. "Using ETC to Provide Variable Tolling: Some Real-World Results." Paper presented at the ITS America 2000 Annual Meeting. Boston, MA. 1-4 May 2000.
93  Klondzinski, et al. "Impacts of Electronic Toll Collection on Vehicle Emissions." Paper presented at the 77th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Washington DC. January 1998.
94  "Innovative Toll Collection System Pays Off for Motorists and Agencies." The National Associations Working Group Website. ITS Sheet No. 9. Publication No. FHWA-SA-97-088 [www.nawgits.com/fhwa/its_shts.html].
95  Foote and Stuart. "Testing Customer Acceptance of SmartCards at the Chicago Transit Authority." Paper presented at the 81st Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Washington, DC. 13-17 January 2002.
96  Wunderlich, et al. On-Time Reliability Impacts of Advanced Traveler information Services (ATIS). Prepared for the Federal Highway Administration by Mitretek Systems. January 2001.
97  Shah and Wunderlich. Detroit Freeway Corridor ITS Evaluation. Prepared for the Federal Highway Administration by Mitretek Systems. July 2001.
98  Wunderlich, et al. ITS Impacts Assessment for the Seattle MMDI Evaluation: Modeling Methodology and Results. Prepared for the Federal Highway Administration by Mitretek Systems. September 1999.
99  Yim and Miller. Evaluation of TravInfo Field Operational Test. University of California at Berkeley, Institute of Transportation Studies, California PATH Program. 25 April 2000.
100  Air Quality Study of the SmarTraveler Advanced Traveler Information Service. Tech Environmental, Inc. July 1993.
101  Orban, et al. Advanced Traveler Information Services in Rural Tourism Areas: Branson Travel and Recreational Information Program (Missouri) and Interstate 40 Traveler and Tourist Information System (Arizona). Prepared for the USDOT by Battelle. 30 June 2000.
102  The National Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Plan: Five-Year Horizon. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA-OP-00-008). August 2000.
103  Strickland and McGee. "Evaluation Results of Three Prototype Automatic Truck Rollover Warning Systems." Paper presented at the 77th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Washington, DC. January 1998.
104  Tribbett, et al. An Evaluation of Dynamic Curve Warning Systems in the Sacramento River Canyon: Final Report. Prepared by the Western Transportation Institute, Montana State University, Bozeman for the California Department of Transportation New Technology and Research Program. April 2000.
105  Janson. Evaluation of Downhill Truck Speed Warning System on I-70 West of Eisenhower Tunnel. Prepared for the Colorado DOT by the University of Colorado. 15 December 1999.
106  Gent, et al. Evaluation of an Automated Horn Warning System at Three Highway-Railroad Grade Crossings in Ames, Iowa. Iowa Department of Transportation. 1998 (estimated date).
107  Intelligent Transportation Systems at Highway-Rail Intersections: A Cross-Cutting Study. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA-OP-01-149). Washington, DC. December 2001.
108  Hanscom. "Rural Stop-Sign Controlled Intersection Accident Countermeasure System Device Vehicle- Behavioral Evaluation." Paper presented at the ITS America 2000 Annual Meeting. Boston, MA. 1-4 May 2000.
109  Fontaine, et al. "Feasibility of Real-Time Remote Speed Enforcement in Work Zones." Paper presented at the 81st Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Washington, DC. 13-17 January 2002.
110  Hausser and Hurd. Best ITS Management Practices and Technologies for Ohio. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA/HWY-01/2002). Washington, DC. July 2001.
111  McKeever, et al. "A Life Cycle Cost-Benefit Model for Road Weather Information Systems." Paper presented at the 77th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Washington, DC. January 1998.
112  112 Hogema, et al. "Evaluation of A16 Motorway Fog-Signaling System with Respect to Driving Behavior." Transportation Research Record No. 1573. 1995.
113  Maki. Adverse Weather Traffic Signal Timing. Prepared for the Mn/DOT by Short Elliott Hendrickson, Inc. (www.trafficware.com/documents/1999/00005.pdf). Document last accessed 11 December 2002.
114  Pilla-Sihvola. et al. Weather-Controlled Road and Investment Calculations. Finnish National Road Administration, Southeastern Region, Kouvola. December 1995.
115  Documentation and Assessment of Mn/DOT Gate Operations. Prepared for the Minnesota Department of Transportation by BRW, Inc. October 1999.
116  Pilli-Sihvola, et al. "Road Weather Service System in Finland and Savings in Driving Costs." Transportation Research Record No. 1387. 1993.
117  "Wisconsin's Winter Weather System." TR News 147. March/April 1990. pp. 22-23.
118  Keranen. "Automated Bridge Deicers in Minnesota." Paper presented at the 5th International Symposium on Snow and Ice Control Technology. Roanoke, Virginia. June 2000.
119  Stowe. "A Benefit/Cost Analysis of Intelligent Transportation System Applications for Winter Maintenance." Paper presented at the 80th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Washington, DC. January 2001.
120  Bapna, et al. Perceived Benefits and Utilization of Technology: A Comprehensive Survey of the Maryland Motor Carrier Industry. Morgan State University Study. 14 November 2000.
121  American Trucking Associations Foundation. Study Explores Benefit/Cost of ITS/CVO User Services. ITS America CVO Update. Fall 1996.
122  Driver Acceptance of Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO) Technology in the Motor Carrier Environment. Prepared for the FHWA. Undated.
123  Christian and Shaffer. Evaluation of Infrared Brake Screening Technology: Final Report. Prepared for the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration by Battelle (DOT-MC-01-007). December 2000.
124  Final Evaluation Report: Ambassador Bridge Border Crossing System (ABBCS) Field Operational Test. Prepared for ABBCS FOT Partners by Booz-Allen & Hamilton. May 2000.
125  Glassco. "Simulation Analysis of Congestion-Reduction Strategies at an Overloaded Weigh Station." Paper presented at the 6th World Congress Conference on ITS. Toronto, Canada. 8-12 November 1999.
126  Monsere and Maze. "Analysis of a Multi-State Corridor Deployment of Intelligent Transportation Systems for Commercial Vehicle Operations." Paper presented at the 6th World Congress Conference on ITS. Toronto, Canada. 8-12 November 1999.
127  Trischuk, et al. "Evaluation of Weigh-in-Motion for ITS CVO Applications Using Westa." Paper presented at the 81st Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Washington, DC. January 2002.
128  A Survey of the Use of Six Computing and Communications Technologies in Urban Trucking Operations. Report prepared by the American Trucking Associations Foundation. 1992.
129  Assessment of Intelligent Transportation Systems/Commercial Vehicle Operations Users Services: ITS/CVO Qualitative Benefits/Cost Analysis-Executive Summary. American Trucking Associations Foundation. 1996.
130  FleetForward Evaluation, Final Report. Prepared for the I-95 Corridor Coalition by Cambridge Systematics and SAIC, USDOT ITS Program Assessment Support Contract. October 2000.
131  I-95 Corridor Coalition Evaluation of Field Operations Test 8: Electronic Credentialing New York State Proof-of- Concept Project One-Stop Credentialing and Registration. Prepared for the Federal Highway Administration by SAIC (FHWA-RD-97-011). Washington, DC. September 2001.
132  "Freightliner to Offer Collision Warning on New Truck Line." Inside ITS. 20 November 1995.
133  "PAT to test smart' buses." Post-Gazette. Pittsburgh, PA. 5 April 2001.
134  Van Aerde and Rakha. TravTek Evaluation Modeling Study. Prepared for U. S. DOT by SAIC (FHWA-RD-95-090). January 1996.
135  Doyle, et al. Final Report: Commercial Fleet Management Project. George Mason University Transportation Policy Program. January 1998.
136  Koziol, et al. Evaluation of Intelligent Cruise Control System. Volume I - Study Results. Prepared for the USDOT by Volpe (DOT-VNTSC-NHTSA-98-3). October 1999.
137  Minderhound. "Impact of Intelligent Cruise Control Strategies and Equipment Rate on Road Capacity." Paper presented at the 5th World Congress Conference on ITS. Seoul, Korea. October 1998.
138  Bose, et al. "Evaluation of the Environmental Effects of Intelligent Cruise Control (ICC) Vehicles." Paper presented at the 80th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Washington, DC. 7-11 January 2001.
139  Almqvist. "Speed Adaptation: A Field Trial of Driver Acceptance, Behavior, and Safety." Paper presented at the 5th World Congress Conference on ITS. Seoul, Korea. 12-16 October 1998.
140  Bonnet and Fritz. "Fuel Consumption Reduction Experienced by Two PROMOTE-CHAUFFEUR Trucks in Electronic Towbar Operation." Paper presented at the 7th World Congress Conference on ITS. Turin, Italy. November 2000.
141  Haselkorn, et al. Evaluation of PuSHMe Mayday System. Prepared for the Washington State Transportation Commission by the Washington State Transportation Center (T9903-60 Task 44). September 1997.

Appendix A: ITS Unit Costs Database
(as of September 30, 2002)

Subsystem/Unit Cost Element IDAS
No.^
Lifetime*
(years)
Capital Cost
($K)
O&M Cost
($K/year)
Notes
Low High Low High
Roadside Telecommunications (RS-TC)
DS0 Communication Line TC001 20 0.5 1 0.6 1.2 56 Kbps capacity. Leased with typical distance from terminus to terminus is 8 -15 miles, but most of the cost is not distance-sensitive.
DS1 Communication Line TC002 20 0.5 1 4.8 8.4 1.544 Mbps capacity (T1 line). Leased with typical distance from terminus to terminus is 8 -15 miles, but most of the cost is not distance-sensitive.
DS3 Communication Line TC003 20 3 5 24 72 44.736 Mbps capacity (T3 line). Leased with typical distance from terminus to terminus is 8 -15 miles, but most of the cost is not distance-sensitive.
ISP Service Fee TC007       0.12 0.18 Monthly service fee ($10 to $15 per month).
Direct Bury Armor Encased
Fiber Cable
      60   0.02 Cost is per mile.
Conduit Design and Installation -
Corridor
  20   65   0.02 Cost is per mile.
Twisted Pair Installation   20   12   0.02 Cost is per mile.
Fiber Optic Cable Installation   20   20   0.02 Cost is per mile.
Telephone Drop     1 3 0.2 0.3 Cost is per drop.
Cellular Communication       0.5 0.3 0.4 Cost is for one unit.
900 MHz Spread Spectrum Radio   10   9 0.15 0.4 Cost is per link.
Microwave Communication   10   15 0.3 0.7 Cost is per link.
Wireless Communications,
Low Usage
TC004       0.18 0.2 125 Kbytes/month available usage
(non-continuous use).
Wireless Communications,
Medium Usage
TC005       0.6 0.7 1,000 Kbytes/month available usage
(non-continuous use).
Wireless Communications,
High Usage
TC006 20 0.5 1 1.2 1.8 3,000 Kbytes/month available usage
(non-continuous use)
Call Box   10   5.9   0.714 Capital cost includes call box and installation. O&M is cost per unit (per year) for service maintenance contract and annual cellular service fee.
Roadside Detection (RS-D)
Inductive Loop Surveillance
on Corridor
  5 3 8 0.5 0.8 Double set (4 loops) with controller, power, etc.
Inductive Loop Surveillance at
Intersection
  5 9 16 1 1.6 Four legs, 2 lanes/approach.
Machine Vision Sensor on Corridor     21.7 29 0.2 0.4 One sensor both directions of travel.
Machine Vision Sensor at
Intersection
    20 25.7   0.2 Four-way intersection, one camera per approach.
Passive Acoustic Sensor on
Corridor
    3.7 8 0.2 0.4 Cost range is for a single sensor covering up to 5 lanes. Low cost is for basic sensor, which consists of the sensor, mounting kit, junction box, and cabinet termination card. High cost includes basic sensor with solar and wireless option. This option consists of an antenna, solar charger, battery, & panel, and wireless base station, which will handle up to 8 sensors. Capital costs do not include installation or mounting structure.
Passive Acoustic Sensor at
Intersection
    5 15 0.2 0.4 Four sensors, 4-leg intersection.
Remote Traffic Microwave Sensor
on Corridor
  10   6   0.1 One sensor both directions of travel. Includes installation.
Remote Traffic Microwave Sensor
at Intersection
  10   18   0.1 Four sensors, 4-leg intersection. Includes installation.
CCTV Video Camera RS007 10 7.5 17 1.5 2.4 Cost includes color video camera with pan, tilt, and zoom (PTZ), and installation.
CCTV Video Camera Tower RS008 20   12     Cost is for a 90-ft. aluminum pole; includes foundation, pole, conduit, and labor. Cost will be lower for a lower height pole.
Automated Flood Warning System       42     Includes sensors (rain, water level, weather, etc.) in the field which report via radio to a central receiver/decoder, which then sends data to a base station computer for storage and analysis.
Pedestrian Detection
Microwave
      0.6     Cost is per device. Typical deployment consists of 2 devices per crosswalk for detection of pedestrian in crosswalk. Can be used for detection of pedestrian at the curbside.
Pedestrian Detection
Infared
      0.3     Cost is per device. Typical deployment consists of 2 devices per crosswalk for detection of pedestrian at the sidewalk. Can be used for detection of pedestrian in the crosswalk.
Environmental Sensing Station
(Weather Station)
  25 10 50 1.9 4.1 Environmental Sensing Station (ESS), also known as a weather station, consists of pavement temperature sensor, subsurface temperature sensor, precipitation sensor (type & rate), wind sensor (speed & direction), air temperature and humidity sensors, visibility sensors, and remote processing unit (RPU). ESS provide condition data and are basic components of larger Road Weather Information Systems (see RWIS under TMC subsystem). RPU replaced every 5 years at $6.4K. O&M includes calibration, equipment repairs, and replacement of damaged equipment. O&M costs could be higher if state provided maintenance.
Traffic Camera for Red Light
Running Enforcement
    75 136 60   Low capital range is for a 35-mm wet film camera, which includes installation of the camera ($25K) and associated equipment (e.g., pole, loop detectors, cabinet foundation). High capital range is for digital camera, which includes a total of 2 cameras for a 3-lane approach. O&M cost is for one 35-mm wet film camera per year. Note, most jurisdictions contract with a vendor to install and maintain, and process the back office functions of the RLR system. The vendor receives compensation from fines charged to violators.
Lowering System   20 5 8     The lowering system includes the pole. Cost is for a typical 50-ft. steel pole and lowering system. The lowering system is available for use with all types of poles (e.g., steel, concrete, aluminum, fiberglass) and virtually any mounting height and with any ITS pole-mounted device (e.g., CCTV cameras, radar traffic detectors). Installation costs not included. The lowering system is mechanically operated; requires routine lubrication.
Portable Speed Monitoring System   15 9 15     Trailer-mounted two-digit dynamic message sign, radar gun, computer; powered by generator or operates off of solar power; requires minimal operations and maintenance work. The system determines a vehicle's speed with the radar gun and displays the current speed, in real time, and also stores the speeds in a computer for further analysis.
Roadside Control (RS-C)
Linked Signal System LAN RS002 20 40 70 0.4 0.8 Linked signal system LAN.
Signal Controller Upgrade for
Signal Control
RS003 20 2.5 10 0.2 0.5 Per intersection.
Signal Controller     11 17.5 0.2 0.9 Includes installation of traffic signal controller per intersection.
Traffic Signal     95 115 2.4 3 Includes installation for one signal (four-leg intersection). Costs range from traffic signal with inductive loop detection to non-intrusive detection.
Signal Preemption Receiver RS004 5 2 8 0.05 0.2 Two per intersection. Complement of IDAS elements RS005 and TV004.
Signal Controller Upgrade for
Signal Preemption
RS005 10 2 5     Add-on to base capability (per intersection). Complement of IDAS elements RS004 and TV004.
Roadside Signal Preemption/
Priority
    2.5 5.5     Includes infrared detector, detector cable, phase selector, and system software. Capital costs range is for 2-directions (low) and 4-directions (high). Does not include installation costs. Complement to transit (or emergency vehicle) on-board Signal Preemption/Priority Emitter.
Ramp Meter RS006 5 30 50 1.5 3.5 Per location. Includes controller, power, etc.
Software for Lane Control RS011 20 25 50 2.5 5 Software and hardware at site. Software is off-theshelf technology and unit price does not reflect product development.
Lane Control Gates RS012 20 100 150 2 3 Per location.
Fixed Lane Signal RS009 20 6 8 0.6 0.8 Cost per signal.
Automatic Anti-icing System
Short span
  12 25   2   Typical automatic anti-icing system consists of a control system, chemical storage tank, distribution lines, pump, and nozzles. Pump and control hardware replaced every 5 years at cost of $3.5K. For a short-span system ranging from 120 to 180 feet. O&M includes system maintenance, utilities, materials, and labor.
Automatic Anti-icing System
Long span
  12 50 495 1.5 29.5 Typical automatic anti-icing system consists of a control system, chemical storage tank, distribution lines, pump, and nozzles. Pump and control hardware replaced every 5 years at cost of $3.5K. For a long-span system ranging from 320 feet to greater than 1/2 mile. O&M includes system maintenance, utilities, materials, and labor. The high O&M cost is for a much larger system; hence, the need for a greater amount of materials.
Roadside Information (RS-I)
Roadside Message Sign RS010 20 50 75 2.5 3.75 Fixed message board for HOV and HOT lanes.
Wireline to Roadside Message Sign RS013 20 6 9     Wireline to VMS (0.5 mile upstation).
Variable Message Sign RS015 20 48 120 2.4 6 Low capital cost is for smaller VMS installed along arterial. High capital cost is for full matrix, LED, 3-line, walk-in VMS installed on freeway.
Variable Message Sign Tower RS016 20 25 125     Variable Message Sign Tower RS016 20 25 125 Low capital cost is for a cantilever structure. High capital cost is for a truss structure that will span across 3-4 lanes. VMS tower structure requires minimal maintenance.
Variable Message Sign - Portable   14 21.5 25.5 1.2 2 Trailer-mounted VMS (3-line, 8-inch character display); includes trailer, solar or diesel powered.
Highway Advisory Radio RS017 20 16 32 0.6 1 Capital cost is for a 10-watt HAR. Includes processor, antenna, transmitters, battery back-up, cabinet, rack mounting, lighting, mounts, connectors, cable, and license fee. Super HAR costs an additional $9 -10K (larger antenna). Primary use of the super HAR is to gain a stronger signal.
Highway Advisory Radio Sign   10 5   0.25   Cost is for an HAR sign with flashing beacons and variable message capability. Includes cost of the controller.
Roadside Probe Beacon RS020 5 5 8 0.5 0.8 Two-way device (per location).
LED Count-down Signal   10 0.325 0.45     Costs range from low (2 12x12-inch dual housing unit) to high (1 16x18-inch single housed unit). Signal indicates time remaining for pedestrian to cross, and a walk or don't walk icon. Count-down signals use low 8-watt LED bulbs, which require replacement approximately every 5 -7 years.
Pedestrian Crossing Illumination
System
  5 27.5 42 2.75 4.2 The capital cost range includes cost of equipment and installation. Equipment includes fixtures - 4 lamps per lane - for a three-lane crosswalk, controller, pole, and push-button activator. Installation is estimated at 150 - 200% of total equipment cost. Capital cost would be greater if system included automated activation of in-pavement lighting system. O&M is approximately 10% of equipment cost.
Variable Speed Display Sign     3.7 5     Low range is for a variable speed-limit display system. High range includes static speed sign, speed detector (radar), and display system.
Roadside Rail Crossing (R-RC)
Rail Crossing 4-Quad Gate, Signals RS021 20 115 130 4.25 4.85 Gates and signals.
Rail Crossing Train Detector RS022 20 16 21.5 0.77 1.03 Train detector circuitry and communication line from intelligent interface controller (IIC) to wayside interface equipment (WIE). Assume two-track crossing with two 0.5-mile communication lines.
Rail Crossing Controller RS023 10 8 10 0.4 0.5 Intelligent interface controller (IIC).
Rail Crossing Pedestrian Warning
Signal, Gates
RS024 20 10 15 0.2 0.3 Pedestrian warning signal and gates.
Rail Crossing Trapped Vehicle
Detector
RS025 10 25 30 1.25 1.5 Entrapped vehicle detection camera, with poles and controller.
Parking Management (PM)
Entrance/Exit Ramp Meters   10 2 5 0.2 0.5 Ramp meters are used to detect and count vehicles entering/existing the parking facility. O&M costs based on annual service contract.
Tag Readers   10 2 5 0.2 0.5 Readers support electronic payment scheme. O&M costs based on annual service contract.
Database and Software for Billing
& Pricing
  10 10 15 1 2 Database system contains parking pricing structure and availability. O&M costs based on annual service contract.
Parking Monitoring System   10 14 46     Includes installation, detectors, and controllers.
Hardware   5 2 11.5 0.2 1.15 Low end includes PC and printer. High range is the central computer system (PC, diagnostic PC, and software). O&M costs based on annual service contract.
Toll Plaza (TP)
Electronic Toll Reader TP001 10 2 5 0.2 0.5 Readers (per lane).
High-Speed Camera TP002 10 5 10 0.5 1 Cost includes 1 camera/2 lanes.
Electronic Toll Collection Software TP003 10 5 10     Includes COTS software and database.
Electronic Toll Collection Structure TP004 20 10 15     Mainline structure.
Remote Location (RM)
CCTV Camera RM001 10 4 5 0.08 0.1 Interior fixed-mount camera for security.
Integration of Camera with
Existing Systems
RM002 10 2 2.5     Per location.
Informational Kiosk RM003 7 9.55 50 0.955 5 Includes hardware, enclosure, installation, modem server, and map software for indoor and outdoor.
Integration of Kiosk with Existing
Systems
RM004 7 2.2 27.4     Software costs are for COTS (low) and developed/ outdoor (high).
Kiosk Upgrade for Interactive Usage RM005 5 5 8 0.5 0.8 Interactive information display interface (upgrade from existing interface).
Kiosk Software Upgrade for
Interactive Usage
RM006 5 10 12     Software is COTS.
Transit Status Information Sign   10   5.5     An LED display installed at transit terminal that provides status information on transit arrival.
Smart Card Vending Machine RM007 5 37 40 1.85 2 Ticket vending machine for smart card.
Software, Integration for Smart
Card Vending
RM008 20 3 5     Software is COTS.
Emergency Response Center (ER)
Basic Facilities, Comm for
Large Area
EM006   4000 4000 400 600 For population > 750,000. Based on purchase of building rather than leasing space. Communications includes communications equipment internal to the facility such as equipment racks, multiplexers, modems, etc.
Basic Facilities, Comm for
Medium Area
EM007   3200 3200 400 480 For population <750,000 and >250,000. Based on purchase of building rather than leasing space. Communications includes communications equipment internal to the facility such as equipment racks, multiplexers, modems, etc.
Basic Facilities, Comm for
Small Area
EM008   2800 2800 400 420 For population <250,000. Based on purchase of building rather than leasing space. Communications includes communications equipment internal to the facility such as equipment racks, multiplexers, modems, etc.
Emergency Response Hardware EM001 10 15 30 0.3 0.6 Includes 3 workstations.
Emergency Response Software EM002 10 70 150 0.5 3.5 Includes emergency response plans database, vehicle tracking software, and real-time traffic coordination.
Emergency Response Labor EM003       50 165 Two people. Salary costs are fully loaded including salary, overtime, overhead, benefits, etc.
Emergency Management Communications Software EM004 20 5 10 2.5 5 Shared database between 4 sites. Cost is per site; software is COTS.
Hardware, Software Upgrade for
E-911 and Mayday
EM005 10 105 180 1.7 2.5 Data communications translation software, E911 interface software, processor, and 3 workstations.
800 MHz. 2-way Radio   5 0.8 1.7 0.09 0.12 Cost is per radio.
Emergency Vehicle On-Board (EV)
Communications Interface EV001 10 0.3 2   0.2 Emergency vehicle communications. Cost is per vehicle.
Signal Preemption/Priority Emitter     0.5 2.1     Data-encoded emitter, manually initiated. Complement to Roadside Signal Preemption/ Priority (see Roadside Control subsystem).
Information Service Provider (ISP)
Basic Facilities, Comm for
Large Area
IS019   4000 4000 400 600 For population >750,000 (stand-alone). Based on purchase of building rather than leasing space. Communications includes communications equipment internal to the facility such as equipment racks, multiplexers, modems, etc.
Basic Facilities, Comm for
Medium Area
IS020   3200 3200 400 480 For population <750,000 and >250,000 (stand- alone). Based on purchase of building rather than leasing space. Communications includes communications equipment internal to the facility such as equipment racks, multiplexers, modems, etc.
Basic Facilities, Comm for
Small Area
IS021   2800 2800 400 420 For population <250,000 (stand-alone). Based on purchase of building rather than leasing space. Communications includes communications equipment internal to the facility such as equipment racks, multiplexers, modems, etc.
Information Service Provider
Hardware
IS001 5 40.5 49.5 0.81 0.99 Includes 2 servers and 5 workstations.
Systems Integration IS017 20 90 110     Integration with other systems.
Information Service Provider
Software
IS002 20 275 550 13.75 27.5 Includes database software (COTS) and traffic analysis software.
Map Database Software IS003 2 15 30     Software is COTS.
Information Service Provider Labor IS004       175 250 2 Staff @ 50K to 75K and 1 staff @ 75K to 100K. Salary costs are fully loaded prices and include base salary, overtime, overhead, benefits, etc.
FM Subcarrier Lease IS005       120 240 Cost is per year.
Hardware Upgrade for Interactive
Information
IS006 5 18.9 23.1 0.378 0.462 Includes 1 server and 2 workstations.
Software Upgrade for Interactive
Information
IS007 20 250 500 12.5 25 Trip planning software (includes some development costs).
Added Labor for Interactive
Information
IS008       100 150 1 Staff @ 50K to 75K for 2 shifts. Salary costs are fully loaded prices including base salary, overtime, overhead, benefits, etc.
Software Upgrade for Route
Guidance
IS009 20 250 500 12.5 25 Route selection software. Software is COTS.
Map Database Upgrade for Route
Guidance
IS010 2 100 200     Map database software upgrade.
Hardware Upgrade for Emergency
Route Planning
IS011 5 13.5 16.5 0.27 0.33 Includes 1 server.
Software Upgrade for Emergency
Route Planning
IS012 20 50 100 2.5 5 Route guidance software. Software is COTS.
Hardware Upgrade for Dynamic
Ridesharing
IS013 5 5.4 6.6 0.108 0.132 Includes 2 workstations.
Software Upgrade for Dynamic
Ridesharing
IS014 20 100 200 5 10 Software includes some development cost.
Added Labor for Dynamic
Ridesharing
IS015       100 150 1 Staff @ 50K to 75K for 2 shifts. Salary costs are fully loaded prices including base salary, overtime, overhead, benefits, etc.
Liability Insurance for Dynamic
Ridesharing
IS016       50 100 50K to 100K per year.
Software Upgrade for Probe
Information Collection
IS018 20 250 500 12.5 25 Software includes COTS and some development cost.
Cable TV Traffic Channel Hardware   5   19     Includes hyperconverter, Pentium PC, TV, converter card, video mux, and demux.
Cable Channel Airtime           78 Cost is per year.
Transportation Management Center (TMC)
Basic Facilities, Comm for
Large Area
TM040   4000 4000 400 600 For population >750,000. Based on purchase of building rather than leasing space. Communications includes communications equipment internal to the facility such as equipment racks, multiplexers, modems, etc.
Basic Facilities, Comm for
Medium Area
TM041   3200 3200 400 480 For population <750,000 and >250,000. Based on purchase of building rather than leasing space. Communications includes communications equipment internal to the facility such as equipment racks, multiplexers, modems, etc.
Basic Facilities, Comm for Small
Area
TM042   2800 2800 400 420 For population <250,000. Based on purchase of building rather than leasing space. Communications includes communications equipment internal to the facility such as equipment racks, multiplexers, modems, etc.
Hardware for Signal Control TM001 5 15 30     Includes 3 workstations.
Software, Integration for Signal
Control
TM006 5 180 220     Software and integration, installation and 1 year maintenance. Software is COTS.
Labor for Signal Control TM002       486 594 Costs include labor for operations (2 @ 50% of the time, at 100K), transportation engineer (1 at 50% of the time, at 100K), update timing plans (2K per system per month for every 10 systems), and signal maintenance technician (2 @ 75K). Salary cost are fully loaded prices including base salary, overtime, overhead, benefits, etc.
Hardware, Software for Traffic
Surveillance
TM003 20 135 165 6.75 8.25 Processor and software.
Integration for Traffic Surveillance TM032 20 225 275 11.25 13.75 Integration with other systems.
Software, Integration for Freeway
Control
TM007 5 180 220     Software and integration, installation and 1 year maintenance. Software is off-the-shelf technology and unit price does not reflect product development.
Labor for Freeway Control TM005       225 275 Labor for operations (2 @ 50% of 100K) and maintenance technicians (2 @ 75K). Salary cost are fully loaded prices including base salary, overtime, overhead, benefits, etc.
Hardware for Lane Control TM008 5 5.4 6.6 0.27 0.33 Includes 1 workstation and 19" monitor.
Software, Integration for Lane
Control
TM009 10 225 275 11.25 13.75 Software development and integration and software upgrade for controllers. Software development is fine tune adjustments for local installations. Otherwise, software is COTS.
Labor for Lane Control TM010       90 110 Labor for 2 operators @ 50% of 100K.
Software, Integration for Regional
Control
TM011 10 300 440     Software and integration, installation and 1 year maintenance. Integration with other TMC's Software is COTS.
Real-time, Traffic Adaptive Signal
Control System
  10 120 150 20   The cost range is based on commercially available packages, which run on a centralized computer. The high capital cost includes software packages for graphical user interface and incident management.
Labor for Regional Control TM012       180 220 Labor for operators (2 @ 50% of 100K), transportation engineer (1 @ 50% of 100K), and maintenance contract. Salary costs are fully loaded prices including base salary, overtime, overhead, benefits, etc.
Video Monitors, Wall for Incident
Detection
TM013 5 40.5 49.5 2.025 2.475 Includes 5 19" video monitors and video wall monitors (3x3=9 monitors w/switch, etc.).
Hardware for Incident Detection TM014 5 81.7 119.3 4.085 5.965 Includes 4 servers, 5 workstations, and 2 laser printers.
Integration for Incident Detection TM025 20 90 110 4.5 5.5 Integration with other systems.
Software for Incident Detection TM015 20 90 110 4.5 5.5 Software is COTS and includes development cost
Labor for Incident Detection TM016       630 770 Labor for operators (4 @ 100K and 1 manager @ 150K) and 2 maintenance techs @ 75K.
Video Monitor for Incident
Response
TM017 5 2.7 3.3 0.135 0.165 Includes 1 19" monitor.
Hardware for Incident Response TM018 5 2.7 3.3 0.135 0.165 Includes 1 workstation.
Integration for Incident Response TM026 20 180 220     Integration with other systems.
Software for Incident Response TM019 2 13.5 16.5 0.675 0.825 Software is COTS.
Labor for Incident Response TM020       90 110 Labor for incident management coordinator (1 @ 100K).
Automated Incident Investigation
System
  5   15     Includes workstation, tripod, monopole antenna, Auto Integration, and AutoCAD software.
Hardware for Traffic Information
Dissemination
TM021 5 5 10 0.25 0.5 Includes 1 workstation.
Software for Traffic Information
Dissemination
TM022 5 18 22 0.9 1.1 Software is COTS.
Integration for Traffic Information
Dissemination
TM023 20 90 110 4.5 5.5 Integration with other systems.
Labor for Traffic Information
Dissemination
TM024       90 110 Labor for 1 operator @ 100K. Salary costs are fully loaded and include base salary, overtime, overhead, benefits, etc.
Software for Dynamic Electronic
Tolls
TM027 5 22.5 27.5 1.125 1.375 Includes software installation and 1 year maintenance. Software is COTS.
Integration for Dynamic Electronic
Tolls
TM028 20 90 110 4.5 5.5 Integration with other systems.
Hardware for Probe Information
Collection
TM033 3 5 10 0.5 1 Includes 1 workstation.
Software for Probe Information
Collection
TM034 5 18 22 1.8 2.2 Includes software installation and 1 year maintenance. Software is COTS.
Integration for Probe Information
Collection
TM035 20 135 165 13.5 16.5 Integration with other systems.
Labor for Probe Information
Collection
TM036       45 55 Labor for 1 operator (4 hours per day @ 100K/year). Salary costs are fully loaded prices and include base salary, overtime, overhead, benefits, etc.
Software for Rail Crossing Monitor TM037 5 18 22 1.8 2.2 Includes software installation and 1 year maintenance. Software is COTS.
Integration for Rail Crossing
Monitor
TM038 20 90 110     Integration with other systems.
Labor for Rail Crossing Monitor TM039       45 55 Operators (1 @ 50% of 100K). Salary costs are fully loaded prices including base salary, overtime, overhead, benefits, etc.
Road Weather Information System
(RWIS)
  25   25 0.4 2.5 An RWIS consists of several components: environ- mental sensing stations (ESS), CPU, workstation with RWIS software, and communications equipment. All components of the RWIS reside at the TMC with the exception of the ESS. Detection subsystem for costs of ESS. See Roadside Cost of the ESS ($10K-$50K) should be added to $25K listed here in order to cost out the entire system. CPU replaced every 5 years at a cost of $4K. O&M cost range include communication, and optional weather forecast/meteorological service.
Transit Management Center (TR)
Basic Facilities, Comm for
Large Area
TR014   4000 4000 400 600 For population >750,000. Based on purchase of building rather than leasing space. Communications includes communications equipment internal to the facility such as equipment racks, multiplexers, modems, etc.
Basic Facilities, Comm for
Medium Area
TR015   3200 3200 400 480 For population <750,000 and >250,000. Based on purchase of building rather than leasing space. Communications includes communications equipment internal to the facility such as equipment racks, multiplexers, modems, etc.
Basic Facilities, Comm for
Small Area
TR016   2800 2800 400 420 For population <250,000. Based on purchase of building rather than leasing space. Communications includes communications equipment internal to the facility such as equipment racks, multiplexers, modems, etc.
Transit Center Hardware TR001 10 15 30     Includes 3 workstations.
Transit Center Software,
Integration
TR002 20 815 1720 6 12 Includes vehicle tracking & scheduling, database & information storage, schedule adjustment software, real time travel information software, and integration. Software is COTS.
Transit Center Additional Building
Space
TR003       6 9 Additional space required for ITS technology - $12-$18/sq. ft., 500 sq. ft.
Transit Center Labor TR004       50 250 Labor for 3 staff @ 75K. Salary cost are fully loaded prices including base salary, overtime, overhead, benefits, etc.
Upgrade for Auto. Scheduling,
Run Cutting, or Fare Payment
TR005 20 30 40 0.4 0.8 Processor/software upgrade, installation and 1 yr. maintenance (for processor). Software is COTS.
Integration for Auto. Scheduling,
Run Cutting, or Fare Payment
TR012 20 225 500     Integration with other systems.
Further Software Upgrade for
E-Fare Payment
TR013 20 40 60 0.8 1.2 Software upgrade. Software is COTS.
Vehicle Location Interface TR007 20 10 15     Vehicle location interface.
Vehicle Location Equipment       275   16.5  
Video Monitors for Security System TR008 10 15 20 0.75 1 Five per site.
Hardware for Security System TR009 10 55 90 1.1 1.8 Includes 1 server and 3 workstations.
Integration of Security System with
Existing Systems
TR010 20 250 500     Integration with other systems.
Labor for Security System TR011       202 247 Labor for 3 staff @ 75K each. Salary cost are fully loaded prices including base salary, overtime, overhead, benefits, etc.
Toll Administration (TA)
Toll Administration Hardware TA001 5 10 15 1 1.5 Includes Pentium PC with 1G hard drive, 2 workstations, printer, and modem.
Toll Administration Software TA002 10 40 80 4 8 Includes local database and national database coordination. Software is COTS.
Transit Vehicle On-Board (TV)
Driver Interface and Schedule
Processor
TV001 10 0.3 0.5 0.006 0.01 On-board schedule processor and database.
Cell-Based Communication
Equipment
TV002 10 0.15 0.25 0.0075 0.0125 Cell-based radio with data capacity.
GPS/DGPS for Vehicle Location TV003 10 0.5 0.8 0.01 0.016 AVL GPS/DGPS.
Signal Preemption Processor TV004 10 0.3 0.6 0.006 0.01 On-board schedule processor and database. Complement to IDAS elements RS004 and RS005.
Signal Preemption/Priority Emitter nbsp;   0.5 2.1     Data-encoded emitter; manually initiated. Complement to Roadside Signal Preemption/ Priority (see Roadside Control subsystem).
Preemption/Priority Transponder       0.075     Passive transponder mounted on underside of transit vehicle. Requires transit priority system at the Transit Management Center.
Trip Computer and Processor TV005 10 0.1 0.15 0.002 0.003 On-board processor for trip reporting and data storage.
Security Package TV006 10 4.2 5.3 0.21 0.265 On-board CCTV surveillance camera and hot button.
Electronic Farebox TV007 10 0.8 1.5 0.04 0.075 On-board flex fare system DBX processor, on-board farebox, and smart card reader.
Commercial Vehicle Administration (CA)
Commercial Vehicle Admin
Hardware
CA001 10 15 30 0.3 0.6 Includes 3 workstations.
Commercial Vehicle Admin
Software, Integration
CA002 20 200 220 4 4.4 Includes processor and integration. Software is COTS.
Commercial Vehicle Admin Labor CA003       270 330 Labor for 4 staff @ 75K (average). Salary costs are fully loaded prices including base salary, overtime, overhead, benefits, etc.
Software Upgrade for Electronic
Credential Purchasing, Mgt.
CA004 20 60 140 1.2 2.8 Electronic credentials purchase software, database and management for post-trip processing & E-credentials.
Software Upgrade for Inter-Agency
Info Exchange
CA005 20 20 40 0.4 0.8 Processor and integration add-on. Software is COTS.
Added Labor for Inter-Agency
Info Exchange
CA006       67 82 Labor for 1 staff @ 75K (average). Salary costs are fully loaded prices including base salary, overtime, benefits, etc.
Software Upgrade for Safety
Administration
CA007 20 40 80 0.8 1.6 Database add-on, software, and integration. Software is COTS.
Commercial Vehicle Check Station (CS)
Check Station Structure CC001 20 50 75     Roadside structure - mainline w/lane indicator signals.
Signal Board CC002 10 10 15 1 1.5 Roadside signal board.
Signal Indicator CC003 20 5 10 0.25 0.5 Signal indicator system.
Roadside Beacon CC004 10 5 8 0.5 0.8 Roadside beacon used for electronic screening (not included in roadside subsystem). Beacon repair/replacement maintenance.
Wireline to Roadside Beacon CC005 20 10 20     Dedicated wireline communication from beacon to roadside (1 mile upstream).
Check Station Software, Integration CC006 20 180 215     Software, processor and integration.
Check Station Hardware CC007 10 0.3 0.5 0.006 0.01 Includes 1 workstation.
Detection System CC008 10 50 75 2.5 3.75 Commercial vehicle communication interface and communication device (cell-based radio).
Software Upgrade for Safety
Inspection
CC009 20 40 80 0.8 1.6 Safety-database add-on, and result writing to vehicle tag processor add-on. Software is COTS.
Handheld Safety Devices CC010 5 3 5 0.3 0.5 For commercial vehicle inspection. The devices either measure data themselves or read data from the vehicle. Three per location.
Software Upgrade for Citation
and Accident Recording
CC011 20 20 40 1 2 Software add-on for recording of citation and accident information to the commercial vehicle.
Weigh-In-Motion Facility CC012 10 14 21 1.4 2.1 Includes WIM fixed-load cell and interface to roadside facility. Software is COTS.
Wireline to Weigh-In-Motion
Facility
CC013 10 1 2 0.1 0.2 Wireline communication (local line).
Commercial Vehicle On-Board (CV)
Electronic ID Tag CV001 10 0.65 1.1 0.013 0.022 Includes ID tag, additional software & processing, and database storage. Software is COTS.
Communication Equipment CV002 10 1.15 2.25 0.0075 0.0125 Commercial vehicle communication interface and communication device (cell-based radio).
Central Processor and Storage CV003 10 0.3 0.5 0.006 0.01 Equipment on board for the processing and storage of cargo material.
GPS/DGPS CV004 10 0.3 0.5 0.006 0.01 GPS for vehicle location.
Driver and Vehicle Safety Sensors,
Software
CV005 10 1.1 2.2 0.04 0.08 Additional software and processor for warning indicator and audio system interface, and onboard sensors for engine/vehicle and driver. Software is COTS.
Cargo Monitoring Sensors and
Gauges
CV006 10 0.17 0.35 0.017 0.035 Optional on-board sensors for measuring temperature, pressure, and load leveling.
Fleet Management Center (FM)
Fleet Center Hardware FM001 10 15 30 0.3 0.6 Costs include 3 workstations.
Fleet Center Software, Integration FM002 20 215 500     Includes processor and integration. Software is COTS.
Fleet Center Labor FM003       337 412 Labor for 5 staff @ 75K. Salary costs are fully loaded prices including base salary, overtime, overhead, benefits, etc.
Software for Electronic
Credentialing, Clearance
FM004 20 80 180     Includes electronic credential purchase software, database and management for trip reports, and database management for preclearance. Software is COTS.
Software for Tracking and
Scheduling
FM005 20 40 100 4 10 Vehicle tracking and scheduling. Software is COTS.
Vehicle Location Interface FM006 20 10 15     Vehicle location interface from FMS to TMS.
Software Upgrade for Fleet
Maintenance
FM007 20 20 40 0.4 0.8 Processor/software upgrade to add capability to automatically generate preventative maintenance schedules from vehicle mileage data. Software is COTS.
Integration for Fleet Maintenance FM008 20 100 200 2 4 Integration with other systems.
Software Upgrade for HAZMAT
Management
FM009 20 20 40 0.4 0.8 Vehicle tracking & scheduling enhancement. Software is COTS.
Hardware Upgrade for HAZMAT
Management
FM010 10 5 10 0.1 0.2 Includes 1 workstation.
Vehicle On-Board (VS)
Communication Equipment VS001 7 0.2 0.4 0.004 0.008 Wireless data transceiver.
In-Vehicle Display VS002 7 0.05 0.1 0.001 0.002 In-vehicle display/warning interface. Software is COTS.
In-Vehicle Signing System VS003 7 0.16 0.4 0.0032 0.008 Interface to active tag reader, processor for active tag decode, and display device for messages.
GPS/DGPS VS004 7 0.25 0.5 0.005 0.01 Global Positioning System/Differential Global Positioning Systems.
GIS Software VS005 7 0.2 0.3     Geographical Information System (GIS) software for performing route planning.
Route Guidance Processor VS006 7 0.1 0.15 0.002 0.003 Limited processor for route guidance functionality.
Sensors for Lateral Control VS007 7 0.8 1.1 0.016 0.022 Includes lane sensors in vehicle and lateral sensors MMWradar.
Electronic Toll Equipment VS008 7 0.04 0.01     Active tag interface and debit/credit card interface.
Mayday Sensor and Processor VS009 7 0.15 0.65 0.003 0.013 Collision-detector sensor and interface for Mayday processor. Software is COTS.
Sensors for Longitudinal Control VS010 7 0.3 0.5 0.006 0.01 Longitudinal sensors MMWradar.
Advanced Steering Control VS011 7 0.5 0.6 0.01 0.012 Advanced steering control ("hands off" driving). Software is COTS.
Advanced Cruise Control VS012 7 0.15 0.3 0.003 0.006 Adaptive cruise control (automatic breaking and accelerating).
Intersection Collision Avoidance
Processor, Software
VS013 7 0.28 0.55 0.0056 0.011 Software/processor for infrastructure transmitted information, interface to in-vehicle signing and audio system, software and processor to link to longitudinal and lateral vehicle control modules based on input signal from vehicle intersection collision warning equipment package. Software is COTS.
Vision Enhancement System VS014 7 1.2 2.2 0.06 0.11 In-vehicle camera, software & processor, heads-up display, and infrared sensors (local sensor system). Software is COTS.
Driver and Vehicle Safety
Monitoring System
VS015 7 0.66 1.25 0.033 0.0625 Safety collection processor and software, driver- condition sensors, six vehicle-condition sensors (@ $50 each), and vehicle data storage. Software is COTS.
Pre-Crash Safety System VS016 7 1.1 2.15 0.037 0.067 Vehicle condition sensors, vehicle performance sensors, software/processor, interface, pre-crash safety systems deployment actuators. Software is COTS.
Software, Processor for Probe
Vehicle
VS020 7 0.05 0.15 0.001 0.003 Software and processor for communication to roadside infrastructure, signal generator, message generator. Software is COTS.
Active Tag   7 0.02 0.05 0.002 0.005 Vehicle tag that can be updated (writable).
Passive Tag   5   0.015     Read-only vehicle tag.
In-Vehicle Navigation System   7   2.8     COTS product that includes in-vehicle display and supporting software.
Basic PDA PD001 7 0.2 0.4 0.005 0.008 Personal digital assistant.
Advanced PDA for Route Guidance,
Interactive Information
PD002 7 0.5 0.75 0.01 0.015 Personal digital assistant with advanced capabilities (route guidance, interactive).
Modem Interface, Antenna for PDA PD003 7 0.08 0.25 0.0036 0.005 Modem interface and separate antenna for wireless capability.
PDA with Wireless Modem   2 0.2 0.6 0.12 0.3 Personal digital assistant with wireless modem. O&M based on monthly subscriber rate plans of 50 Kbytes (low) and 150 Kbytes (high).
Software Upgrade for Interactive
Information
  7 0.01 0.2 0.002 0.004 Software is COTS.
GPS/DGPS PD005 7 0.5 0.8 0.025 0.04 GPS/DGPS.
GIS Software PD006 7 0.1 0.15 0.005 0.0075 Additional GIS/GUI capability.

^Applicable only to unit cost elements used in IDAS.  * Not available for several equipment or subsystems.


Appendix B: List of Acronyms

ABBCS  Ambassador Bridge Border Crossing System
ACN  Automatic Collision Notification
ADMS  Archived Data Management System
ADUS  Archived Data User Service
APTS  Advanced Public Transportation Systems
ARTIC  Advanced Rural Transportation Information and Coordination
ARTIMIS  Advanced Regional Traffic Interactive Management and Information Systems
ATAF  American Trucking Association Foundation
ATIS  Advanced Traveler Information System
ATM  Automatic Teller Machine
ATMS  Advanced Traffic Management System
AVI  Automatic Vehicle Identification
AVL  Automated Vehicle Location
AWARD  Advanced Warning for Railroad Delays
B/C  Benefit/Cost
CA  Commercial Vehicle Administration
CAD  Computer Aided Dispatch
CC  Commercial Vehicle Check Station
CCS  Collision Countermeasure System
CCTV  Closed Circuit Television
CDOT  Colorado Department of Transportation
CHART  Coordinated Highways Action Response Team
CLEOPATRA  City Laboratories Enabling Organization of Particularly Advanced Telematics Research and Assessments
CO  Carbon Monoxide
CTA  Chicago Transit Authority
CV  Commercial Vehicle On-Board
CVAP  Commercial Vehicle Administrative Processes
CVIEW  Commercial Vehicle Information Exchange Window
CVISN  Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and Network
CVO  Commercial Vehicle Operations
CWS  Collision Warning System
DMS  Dynamic Message Sign
DOT  Department of Transportation
EDI  Electronic Data Interchange
EMS  Emergency Medical Services
EMT  Emergency Medical Technician
EOC  Emergency Operations Center
EPA  Environmental Protection Agency
E-PASS  Express Pass
ER  Emergency Response Center
ESS  Environmental Sensing Station
ETC  Electronic Toll Collection
EV  Emergency Vehicle On-Board
FAST  Freeway and Arterial System of Transportation
FHWA  Federal Highway Administration
FM  Fleet Management
FOT  Field Operational Test
FY  Fiscal Year
GIS  Geographical Information System
GPS  Global Positioning System
GYRITS  Greater Yellowstone Rural Intelligent Transportation Systems
HAR  Highway Advisory Radio
HC  Hydrocarbon
HOV  High Occupancy Vehicle
HRI  Highway-Rail Intersections
HUT  Highway User Tax
ICC  Intelligent Cruise Control
IFTA  International Fuel Tax Agreement
IH  Interstate Highway
IRP  International Registration Plan
ISP  Information Service Provider
ISS  Inspection Selection Systems
ITDA  Independent Truckers and Drivers Association
ITE  Institute of Transportation Engineers
ITS  Intelligent Transportation Systems
ITS/CVO  ITS for Commercial Vehicles Operations
IVN  In-Vehicle Navigation
IVS  In-Vehicle Systems
JPO  Joint Program Office
LADOT  Los Angeles Department of Transportation
MDI  Model Deployment Initiative
MDT  Mobile Data Terminal
MMDI  Metropolitan Model Deployment Initiative
MMTA  Maryland Motor Transportation Authority
Mn/DOT  Minnesota Department of Transportation
MTA  Metropolitan Transportation Authority
NHTSA  National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
NJTA  New Jersey Turnpike Authority
NOx  Oxides of Nitrogen
O&M  Operations & Maintenance
OSCAR  One-Stop-Credentialing and Registration
PC  Personal Computer
PD  Personal Devices
PDA  Personal Digital Assistant
PM  Parking Management
PSAP  Public Safety Answering Point
PTC  Projected-Times-to-Collision
PuSHMe  Puget Sound Help Me (Mayday System)
RDT  Regional Transportation District
RM  Remote Location
ROUTES  Rail, Omnibus, Underground, Travel Enquiry System
RS-C  Roadside Control
RS-D  Roadside Detection
RS-I  Roadside Information
RS-RC  Roadside Rail Crossing
RS-TC  Roadside Telecommunications
RWIS  Road Weather Information System
SAFER  Safety and Fitness Electronic Record
SCOOT  Split Cycle Offset Optimization Techniques
SEMSIM  Southeast Michigan Snow and Ice Management
SIE  Safety Information Exchange
SSRS  Single State Registration System
TA  Toll Administration
TCC  Traffic Control Centers
TM  Transportation Management Center
TP  Toll Plaza
TR  Transit Management Center
TRANSMIT  TRANSCOM's System for Managing Incidents and Traffic
T-REX  Transportation Expansion
TV  Transit Vehicle On-Board
USD  United States Dollars
U.S. DOT  United States Department of Transportation
VS  Vehicle On-Board
VSL  Variable Speed Limit
WIM  Weight in Motion
WSDOT  Washington State Department of Transportation