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1994 Regional Mobility Element, Volume 1




                           ABSTRACT





     TITLE:    1994 Regional Mobility Element, Volume 1





     AUTHOR:   Southern California Association of Governments





     SUBJECT:  Transportation Goals, Objectives, Policies and


               Actions, 1994-2015





     DATE:     June, 1994





     REGIONAL PLANNING AGENCY:


          Southern California Association of Governments





     SOURCE OF COPIES:


          Southern California Association of Governments


               818 West 7th Street, 12th Floor


               Los Angeles, CA  90017


               (213) 236-1800








     ABSTRACT:


          The Regional Mobility Element of the Regional


          Comprehensive Plan is SCAG's major policy and planning


          statement on the region's transportation issues and


          goals. It is comprised of a set of long-range policies,


          plans, and programs that outline a vision of a regional


          transportation system compatible with federal and state


          mobility objectives. The goal of the RME itself is to


          provide effective coordination and orderly programming


          of transportation improvements within the SCAG region.


          The RME was developed through the 3-C Planning Process


          prescribed by the U.S. Department of Transportation and


          requirements outlined in the Intermodal Surface


          Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991.





     REGIONAL USE GUIDELINES:


          SCAG is mandated to prepare and periodically update the


          Regional Mobility Element by Section 65080 of the


          Government Code. This section also specifies that


          actions by transportation agencies must be consistent


          with the RME in order to obtain Federal and State


          funding.














CHAPTER


ONE                        EXECUTIVE SUMMARY








The Regional Mobility Element (RME) establishes regional


transportation policy for the six-county region of the Southern


California Association of Governments. It covers all forms of


transportation, including automobile, transit, non-motorized modes of


travel, rail/high-speed-rail, trucking, shipping, and aviation


facilities. The RME identifies the facilities and programs that will


be needed to meet the increased transportation demands in accordance


with air quality requirements through the year 2015.  Additionally,


the RME focuses on transportation strategies that create jobs and


could help revitalize the recession-plagued economy of Southern


California.





Transportation demands continue to increase rapidly in Southern


California as a result of both population growth and changes in travel


patterns. Given the financial restrictions and environmental concerns,


it appears unlikely that this demand can be accommodated without


dramatic changes in travel behavior.





To this end, the RME proposes changing transportation habits of the


past with new travel behavior that can help Southern California reach


its mobility and air quality goals. For instance, it is projected that


by 2015, travel alternatives proposed in the RME could result in


almost 13.03% of all employees commuting to and from work in some form


of transit which is 2.5 times the current number of 5.6%.





The RME is Southern California's transportation plan required by


federal and state law and the basis for more than $71 billion in


federal, state and local investments in transportation that will be


made over the next 20 years. By law, major projects must be included


in the RME (or in subsequent RME updates) to be eligible for funding.





The RME covers a 20-year planning period with analysis built on


current demographics, statistics, and computer modeled projections


that take into consideration a mix of strategies: facility


development, demand management, urban form, advanced transportation


technology, and market incentives.


Ultimately, the RME reflects the transportation future envisioned for


the year 2015.





By then, there will be 6 million more people in Southern California.


But instead of a bleak, congested transportation system foreseen by


some skeptics, residents of the region could actually be driving alone


less.





Air quality will also be better than it is today but not without


implementation of RME strategies designed to bring the region into


compliance with federal and state mobility and air quality


requirements.





A key strategy of the RME is Advanced Transportation Technology --


including the use of Zero-Emission Vehicles, Alternative Fuels,


Telecommunications, Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems, Smart Shuttle


Transit, and Smart Cities.





This Advanced Transportation Technology strategy will be a boon to the


region's currently sagging economy. It is estimated that by 2015, no


fewer than 350,000 to 400,000 new jobs will have been created by the


development of industries making and supporting new transportation


technologies.





To pay for this technology as well as to help change the public's


transportation habits, the RME considers a series of Market


Incentives.  For example, people might pay extra fees based on the


amount of driving they do or on the amount of emissions their cars


produce.  The burden, of course, would fall on the big polluters.


Pursuant to the financial plan, the SCAG Regional Council will appoint


a special committee to actually develop specific market incentive


proposals, implementation strategies, consensus building steps, and a


legislative implementation agenda.





In providing long-range planning and policy-making framework, the RME


responds to the requirements of the Intermodal Surface Transportation


Efficiency Act (ISTEA), the state and federal Clean Air Acts, and the


Lewis-Presley Air Quality Management Act.





The RME has been prepared by the staff at SCAG with substantial


assistance and input from subregional organizations, County


Transportation Commissions, state and federal agencies, and other


regional organizations as well as numerous other public and private


parties. As part of SCAG's "bottom-up" outreach efforts, special


emphasis was placed on securing information and input on issues of


concern to subregions, cities, and counties.





The Southern California Association of Governments is designated as


the agency responsible for regional transportation planning by both


the state and federal governments. As such, it is SCAG's


responsibility to look into the future and propose plans which best


satisfy the diverse needs and concerns of the Southern California


region.





The RME has evolved from the July 1993 Preliminary Draft Discussion


Document, as well as the December 1993 Draft Document, and has had the


benefit of on-going public review -- including workshops, policy and


technical committees meetings, written comments, and documents


presented by state agencies, transportation providers, subregional


associations, utilities, the private sector and the public at large.





Additionally, the RME has been developed under SCAG's remodeled


decision-making structure, which now involves more elected


representatives from a more diverse geographic base. The former 20-


plus member Executive Committee has been replaced by a 70-member


Regional Council. In addition, 13 subregional groups are formally


participating in the development of the regional plan and its


subregional parts. (See Figure 1-1, Map of the SCAG Subregions and


Table 1-1, Subregions)  The 1994 RME replaces its predecessor, the


1989 Regional Mobility Plan as the guide for mobility planning for


Southern California.














                               TABLE 1-1


                              SUBREGIONS





Imperial Valley Association of Governments (IVAG)


   Imperial County, Brawley, Calexico, Calipatria, El Centro,


   Holtville, Imperial, Westmoreland.





Coachella Valley Association of Governments (CVAG)


   County of Riverside, Blythe, Cathedral City, Coachella, Desert Hot


   Springs, Indio, Indian Wells, La Quinta, Palm Desert, Palm Springs,


   Rancho Mirage





Western Riverside Council of Governments (WRCOG)


   Riverside County, Banning, Beaumont, Calimesa, Canyon Lake, Corona,


   Hemet, Lake Elsinore, Moreno Valley, Murrieta, Norco, Perris,


   Riverside, San Jacinto, Temecula





San Bernardino Association of Governments (SANBAG)


   San Bernardino County, Adelanto, Apple Valley, Barstow, Big Bear


   Lake, Chino, Chino Hills, Colton, Fontana, Grand Terrace, Hesperia,


   Highland, Loma Linda, Montclair, Needles, Ontario, Rancho


   Cucamonga, Redlands, Rialto, San Bernardino, Twenty Nine Palms,


   Upland, Victorville, Yucca Valley, Yucaipa





Orange County


   Orange County, Anaheim, Brea, Buena Park, Costa Mesa, Cypress, Dana


   Point, Fountain Valley, Fullerton, Garden Grove, Huntington Beach,


   Irvine, Laguna Beach, Laguna Hills, Laguna Niguel, La Habra, Lake


   Forest, La Palma, Los Alamitos, Mission Viejo, Newport Beach,


   Orange, Placentia, San Clemente, San Juan Capistrano, Santa Ana,


   Seal Beach, Stanton, Tustin, Villa Park, Westminster, Yorba Linda





Southeast Los Angeles County (SELAC)


   Los Angeles County, Artesia, Bell, Bellflower, Bell Gardens,


   Cerritos, Commerce, Compton, Cudahy, Downey, Hawaiian Gardens,


   Huntington Park, Lakewood, La Habra Heights, La Mirada, Long Beach,


   Lynwood, Maywood, Montebello, Norwalk, Paramount, Pico Rivera,


   Santa Fe Springs, Signal Hill, South Gate, Vernon, Whittier





San Gabriel Valley Association of Cities


   Los Angeles County, Alhambra, Arcadia, Azusa, Baldwin Park,


   Bradbury, Claremont, Covina, Diamond Bar, Duarte, El Monte,


   Glendora, Industry, Irwindale, La Puente, Laverne, Monrovia,


   Monterey Park, Pasadena, Pomona, Rosemead, San Dimas, San Gabriel,


   San Marino, Sierra Madre, South El Monte, Temple City, Walnut, West


   Covina





South Bay Cities Association


   City of Los Angeles, Carson, El Segundo, Gardena, Hawthorne,


   Hermosa Beach, Inglewood, Lawndale, Lomita, Manhattan Beach, Palos


   Verdes Estates, Torrance





Westside Cities


   Los Angeles County, Beverly Hills, Culver City, Santa Monica, West


   Hollywood





City of Los Angeles


   Los Angeles County, City of Los Angeles





Ventura County of Governments


   Ventura County, Agoura Hills, Camarillo, Fillmore, Moorpark, Ojai,


   Oxnard, Port Hueneme, San Buena Ventura, Santa Clarita, Santa


   Paula, Simi Valley, Thousand Oaks, Westlake Village





Arroyo Verdugo


   Burbank, Glendale, La Canada Flintridge, Pasadena, South Pasadena





North Los Angeles County


   County of Los Angeles, Lancaster, Palmdale, Santa Clarita











CHAPTER              GOALS, OBJECTIVES, STRATEGIES


TWO                           AND FINANCE





INTRODUCTION





As it approaches the 21st Century, Southern California confronts a


historic transportation crisis that has become a planning war against


increasing mobility gridlock and air pollution complicated by a


lagging economic recovery and a growing population.





The Regional Mobility Element is the principal transportation policy,


strategy, and objective statement of the Southern California


Association of Governments (SCAG), proposing a comprehensive strategy


for achieving mobility and air quality mandates.





It describes the region's strategy for adjusting its transportation


behavior and investments as it balances the constraints of government-


mandated financial and environmental objectives and mobility demands.


The RME is a plan that not only comes within fiscal limits but also


meets the mandated mobility and air quality requirements through 2015.





Federal and state legislation has vested SCAG with the responsibility


of preparing the regional transportation plan and program, which have


been developed as part of the Regional Comprehensive Plan -- the


blueprint for managing growth and resources in the region prepared by


SCAG in conjunction with subregions, cities and counties, the public,


state and federal governmental agencies, and private organizations.


(See Table 2-1, RME Goals and Subgoals.)





The RME links the goal of sustaining mobility with the goals of


fostering economic development, enhancing the environment, reducing


energy consumption, promoting transportation-friendly development


patterns, and encouraging fair and equitable access to residents


affected by socio-economic, geographic, and commercial limitations. It


proposes doing this with an innovative strategy that builds on and


maximizes huge public investments in highways, rails, buses, airports,


seaports, truck facilities, and communications technologies.





Cast against a backdrop of the California recession, the 1994 RME is


different from past transportation plans in its greater concern for


the economy, particularly jobs for a region that is expected to


undergo a 50 percent population growth by 2015. SCAG projects that the


region's population in 2015 will have grown to 22 million (See Table


2-2, Population, Employment, and Housing Growth).





The Final RME treats transportation as a powerful job creation engine


that is critical to the future of the SCAG region's economy, which


today is the 12th largest in the world -- between that of Spain and


India. Industry clusters spawned by future transportation technology


can serve as the driving forces for the regional economy of the next


century.





The core of the RME is the planned improvements to highways, rail and


bus transit, ports, truck facilities, and aviation facilities that


County Transportation Commissions, the state, and other agencies have


committed to fund over the next 20 years to better move people and


goods.





                               TABLE 2-1


                        RME GOALS AND SUBGOALS








Click HERE for graphic.








Click HERE for graphic.








                               TABLE 2-2


                       POPULATION, EMPLOYMENT, &


                       HOUSING GROWTH (Millions)








                 NO TABLE INCLUDED WITH ORIGINAL FILE








To this core, an advanced transportation and air quality technologies


strategy has been added to help meet the strict air emissions and


mobility requirements the region must confront over the 20-year


planning period. This development and implementation of Advanced


Transportation Technology strategy includes the use of zero-emission


vehicles, alternative fuels, telecommunications, Intelligent Vehicle


Highway Systems (IVHS), and Advanced Shuttle transit. "Clean Cities,"


a voluntary federal program designed to accelerate and expand the use


of alternative fuel vehicles, along with an overall marketing and


communications program will augment the Advanced Technology strategy.





The RME also suggests the introduction of Market Incentives as a


mechanism to reduce travel demand and pollution and to provide new


transportation choices as well as funding for transportation


alternatives that are highly efficient and performance-based. Through


Market Incentives, gross polluters would pay a premium, and cleaner


cars would pay less. Proceeds would be reinvested into performance-


and equity-based improvements that directly improve personal mobility,


goods movement, and air quality. Additionally, this Plan advocates


additional corridor-pricing options to build new or added facilities


where it is appropriate. It also recommends a new long-term financing


base for transportation as gasoline consumption and taxes decline in


the future.  Ultimately, Market Incentives would be established by


legislative process after an extensive regional review process to


develop proposals and advice to law makers.





Ultimately, the RME Plan proposes to meet mobility and air quality


requirements while providing the region's ethnic and geographically


diverse population with more choices of alternative transportation


modes than those now available.








SETTING





The SCAG region's population is a commuter society that relies on


Single Occupancy Vehicles (SOV) for a majority of all trips. For home


to work commutes, Average Vehicle Ridership (AVR) is 1.38 persons per


car.





Only 5.62 percent of the population use some form of transit to


commute to work. On the average, each person makes 3.40 daily trips in


their automobile, and each person drives an average of 20.48 miles per


day. Their average speed during the morning peak period is 29.6 miles


per hour.





Currently, in the urbanized counties and in many of the transit


corridors that link urbanized counties to other parts of the region,


commuters must struggle with congested freeway trips that are


primarily Level of Service (LOS) E and F during peak drive periods.


(See Figure 2-1, 1990 E and F Levels of Service.)  Daily congestion


results in 2,152,000 hours of delay added to travel times.


______________________________





   1Level of Service (LOS) is measured on a scale of A through F. An A


rating is best. Level F is stop and go congestion.











Figure 2-1: (Map: 1990 Levels of Service)











Unfortunately, Southern California must deal with some of the nation's


dirtiest air problems. As detailed in Table 2-3 - SCAG Air Basin


Attainment Status, Ozone, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, and


Particulate Matter exceed federal standards in one or more of the air


districts in the SCAG region.





In recent years, great strides have been made in reducing auto


emissions in Southern California. Nevertheless, though extremely


costly, the region remains committed to even greater reductions in the


future.





                               TABLE 2-3


                   SCAG AIR BASIN ATTAINMENT STATUS








Click HERE for graphic.








OBJECTIVES





As a broad vision for the region's future, the RME Plan has as its


objective meeting federally mandated transportation and air quality


standards by making aggressive use of existing facilities and


conventional funding as well as of Advanced Transportation


Technologies and new Market Incentives. These approaches are part of


an overall strategy integrating air quality, mobility, and economic


goals outlined in SCAG's Regional Comprehensive Plan.





The underlying philosophy of this vision is one of creating a


supportive environment while maximizing choices for consumers through


encouraging innovation and alternatives. The Plan proposes to reduce


emissions and improve mobility more cost-effectively than traditional


regulatory methods, through Market Incentives and investments in


Advanced Transportation Technologies and other improvements that meet


performance, efficiency, and equity tests.





Federal mobility mandates include: 1) contributing to an increase in


peak-period Average Vehicle Ridership; 2) offsetting the growth of


emissions due to an increase in vehicle trips and Vehicle Miles


Traveled (VMT); and 3) meeting emission budget requirements for mobile


sources as determined by final state and/or federal implementation


plans. (See Table 2-4, Federal Requirements for Mobility and Air


Quality.) Additionally, in meeting a mandated requirement under ISTEA,


the RME calls upon SCAG to work with counties, subregions, Caltrans


and federal highway and transportation agencies to further define


SCAG's role in the Major Investment Analysis process.





The Major Investment Analysis of largescale transportation projects


will narrow the range of alternative investment strategies and assist


the investing agency in utilizing resources for the best mobility


investment.





                               TABLE 2-4


                         FEDERAL REQUIREMENTS


                     FOR MOBILITY AND AIR QUALITY





                         Federal Requirements





   -  Contribute to an increase in peak-period Average Vehicle


      Ridership (AVR) by large employers with 100 or more employees. -


      42 U.S.C. 7511a(d)(1)(B)





   -  Offset with Transportation Control Measures (TCMs) the growth of


      emissions due to an increase in vehicle trips and Vehicle Miles


      Traveled (VMT). - U.S.C. 7511a(d)(1)





   -  Meet emission budget requirements for mobile sources as


      determined by final State Implementation Plan/Federal


      Implementation Plan.





      State requirements include: 1) achieving an average vehicle


   occupancy of 1.5 persons per vehicle during commuter peak period


   hours by 1999 in severe and extreme non-attainment areas and 2)


   achieving a substantial decrease in the growth of passenger vehicle


   trips and VMT in serious, severe, and extreme non-attainment areas.


   (See Table 2-5, State Requirements for Mobility and Air Quality.)











                               TABLE 2-5


                          STATE REQUIREMENTS


                     FOR MOBILITY AND AIR QUALITY





                          State Requirements





   -  Achieve an average vehicle occupancy of 1.5 persons per vehicle


      during commuter peak period hours by 1999 in severe and extreme


      non-attainment areas. - Calif. Health and Safety Code


      40920(a)(2)





   -  Achieve a substantial decrease in the growth of passenger


      vehicle trips and VMT in serious, severe, and extreme non-


      attainment areas. - Calif. Health and Safety Code 40919(a)(3)





   -  California Air Resources Board recommends that air districts


      "...design plans that reduce VMT and trips growth rates to the


      maximum degree feasible, and which, at a minimum, decrease


      growth of VMT and trips to the rate of population or household


      growth."





   -  Allow no net increase in mobile source emissions after 1997 in


      severe and extreme non-attainment areas. - Calif. Health and


      Safety Code 40920(a)(2)





   -  Meet emission budget requirements for mobile sources as


      determined by final State Implementation Plan/Federal


      Implementation Plan.





In addition to objectives defined by state and federal law, as a SCAG


policy, the RME proposes to increase the mode split in transit


ridership between 10 to 14 percent over the current 5.6 percent for


home to work trips by 2015.





Additionally, as a SCAG policy, the RME Plan calls for a Zero Emission


Vehicle (ZEV) sales goal to capture 60 percent of the market for new


vehicle sales by the year 2015, up from 50 percent in 2010.





The Plan promotes choice for the regulated communities  and seeks to


provide alternatives to command and control regulation through the


Market Incentives and Advanced Transportation Technologies. For


example, the application of Advanced Transportation Technologies to


special opportunity areas such as  multi-use activity centers,


transit-oriented centers, intensive business centers and airports as


well as their environs could provide an effective substitute to the


employer rideshare requirements such as Regulation XV.


______________________________





   2CARB California Air Act Transportation Guidance, Transportation


Standards, May 1991, Page 3.








JOBS





As an economic by-product, the RME Plan foresees its strategy being a


catalyst for the Southern California job market.





Assuming moderate levels of market penetration made feasible by


educational and infrastructure deployment programs, the job creation


potential is 73,000 jobs from zero-emission or electric vehicles and


277,000 in additional Advanced Transportation Technologies by the year


2010. Total jobs created by Advanced Transportation Technology could


rise to over 350,000 by 2010. Another 1.38 million jobs by 2010 would


occur through the development and operation of additions to the


highway and transit systems by 2010.  This number is expected to


increase to 2.4 million by 2015. (See Table 2-6, Estimated Annual Net


Economic Impact from RME Highway & Transit Projects). The cumulative


total of all jobs created by the RME Plan is approximately 1.73


million by 2010.





                               TABLE 2-6


             ESTIMATED ANNUAL NET ECONOMIC IMPACT FROM RME


                      HIGHWAY & TRANSIT PROJECTS





                    ***NO TABLE ON ORIGINAL DISK***





The 94 RME proposes a Southern California Economic Partnership (SCEP),


which is a public-private sector collaborative effort that will bring


government and industry together to determine how best to successfully


deploy new technologies into the Southern California market place.





The mission of the SCEP is to: establish industry and government


clusters for each transportation technology; identify market barriers


and incentives to increase the demand for these technologies; and


monitor the technology deployment effectiveness and recommend


alternative strategies. Product development is anticipated to occur in


the following industry clusters: zero emission vehicles; alternative


fuel vehicles; Advanced Transit Shuttles; Intelligent Vehicle Highway


Systems (IVHS); telecommute-teleservices marketing and communications;


and the Clean Cities. These industry clusters offer the maximum


potential for cost-cutting and job creation. (See Table 2-7, SCEP


Project)








                               TABLE 2-7


                           SCEP ORGANIZATION





Click HERE for graphic.








Additionally, improved mobility can have a direct impact on jobs


related to goods movement, which in the SCAG region critically links


the local economy to state, national and world trade and can


significantly affect the environment, quality of life, and land use as


well as transportation. The U.S. Department of Commcerce calculates


that for every additional $1 billion of U.S. exports, 19,000 jobs are


created through the increased demand for manufactured goods, their


delivery and related business.











STRATEGY





   Facilities





   The RME strategy is built on the 20-year local plans for each


   county. These plans include existing levels of bus service plus


   identified rail projects, as well as transit, aviation, truck, and


   ports capital projects for which funding can be expected through


   2015.





   The Plan is critically connected to the region's road and highway


   system, whose arteries represent the lifeblood of transportation in


   Southern California. The projected costs for highway and transit


   programs and projects in the RME total about $56.2 billion, which


   does not include Advanced Technology costs.





   By 2015, improvements are projected to include an additional 1,446


   freeway miles and 1,264 miles of additional High Occupancy Vehicle


   (HOV) lanes. The RME builds on this existing system with strategies


   ranging from three-tiered transit services to the use of HOV lanes


   and Mixed Flow Congestion-Relief system improvements. (See Figure


   2-2, Existing and Proposed HOV Lanes, and Figure 2-3, Proposed


   Mixed Flow Projects.)





   The Plan proposes a three tier approach to transit. Tier 1, of this


   three-tier transit approach involves the longer distance line haul


   service such as Metrolink, longer distance rail services, and some


   express bus service. Tier 2 is the support bus and paratransit


   service that provides service connecting to Tier 1 service as well


   as medium distance subregional-oriented service in and around


   communities. Tier 3 is localized, short trip service such as taxis


   and shuttles that is more community oriented.





   Regional public transportation improvements are currently directed


   toward the implementation of the rail programs designed to create


   the infrastructure which supports service on high-and-medium-


   capacity corridors. The proposed improvements include nine urban


   rail lines, nine commuter rail lines, and two inter-city corridor


   lines. (See Figure 2-4, Existing and Proposed Urban and Inner City


   Rail Lines and Figure 2-5, Existing and Proposed Commuter Rail


   Lines.)





   Key to improving the movement of goods in the region, especially in


   the wake of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), is


   completion of the new Port of Entry in Imperial County, the Alameda


   Corridor, extension of highway access to Port Hueneme, and overall


   improvements to intermodal freight movement projects.














Figure 2-2 (Map: Existing and Proposed HOV Lanes)











Figure 2-3 (Map: Proposed Mixed Flow Project)











Figure 2-4 (Map: Existing and Proposed Urban and Inner City Rail


Lines)











Figure 2-5 (Map: Existing and Proposed Commuter Rail Lines)











   Transportation Demand Management





   The RME Plan utilizes Transportation Demand Management (TDM)


   strategies, which attempt to modify people's travel behavior,


   especially for the future when the impact of population growth on


   transportation facilities will be significant.





   In 2015, congestion on the streets and highways will be greater,


   traffic movement will be slower, the duration of traffic delay will


   more than triple. People will be making fewer automobile trips, but


   the total number of automobile trips being made by the increased


   number of motorists will be 43 percent more than the trips made in


   1990.





   Historically, major TDM emphasis has been on reducing the SOV home-


   to-work commute. In the short term, the region's TDM efforts will


   continue to focus on the promotion and support of ridesharing,


   ridematching, telecommuting, teleconferencing, the use of bus and


   rail transit, job site flex time, alternative work weeks, non-


   motorized travel, carpool subsidies, indirect Market Incentives,


   and land-use strategies.





   Over the long term, however, a more market-oriented, user-based


   approach to demand management is proposed. Market Incentives have


   the potential to not only reduce demand but also reduce air quality


   emissions, while helping provide transportation alternatives and


   long-term transportation financing.





   These TDM strategies complement the region's facilities investment


   in HOV, transit and Advanced Technologies.








   Transportation System Management





   The RME covers Transportation System Management projects that


   include traffic signal synchronization and operation components


   improvements such as closed circuit television, ramp meter


   installations, traffic operations centers, and the Smart Streets


   operation in certain cities and counties in the region.





   In addition, the Plan encourages expanding Transportation System


   management by local jurisdictions as well as coordinating TSM


   activities in the region and incorporating advanced system


   technologies where appropriate.








   Urban Form





   The RME has integrated urban form as a mobility strategy, taking


   into consideration the relationship between land use and travel


   behavior.





   The Plan, based on subregional recommendations, promotes land-use


   development patterns, including job-housing balance, to enhance the


   efficiency of the region's transportation system. A few subregions


   already have explicit policies that encourage job-housing balance,


   balanced communities, and transit-oriented development.





   On March 3, 1994, as a result of deliberations of the Community,


   Economic and Human Development Committee and the Standing Committee


   on Planning, SCAG staff was directed to re-examine the issue of


   jobs-housing balance and balanced growth in general. A study is


   presently underway and will be incorporated by amendment, as


   needed.








   Advanced Transportation Technology





   Advanced Transportation Technologies are intended to provide


   consumers with products and services that preserve the same quality


   of life and convenience of mobility they experience today. These


   measures are expected to achieve the greatest emission reductions


   through an aggressive program implemented to achieve moderate to


   high levels of market penetration.





   Overall, Advanced Transportation Technologies are expected to


   contribute significantly to reduced emissions in the region.


   Without support from Advanced Technologies and other highly


   efficient efforts, the current local plans involving traditional


   transportation improvements cannot meet air quality and mobility


   mandates.





   The Advanced Transportation Technologies employed in the Plan


   includes the use of zero-emission vehicles, alternative fuels,


   telecommunications, IVHS, and Advanced Shuttle Transit. (The order


   in which technologies are listed implies no particular


   implementation priority.)








      Zero Emission Vehicles





      The technology for zero-emission vehicles is intended to reduce


      emissions by accelerating the introduction of these vehicles


      beyond requirements of government mandates. This would be


      facilitated through a cooperative public-private partnership


      project acting as a support program.





      By 2010, the annual new vehicle market penetration for zero-


      emission vehicles is expected to reach  60 percent, involving in


      excess of 500,000 vehicles. At the same time, an estimate of the


      job creation from the start of a new zero-emission vehicles


      industry is estimated to be about 73,000 jobs over the same


      period.





      Accelerating the introduction of zero-emission vehicles will


      reduce the permissible fleet average emissions for light heavy


      duty vehicles beyond currently required reductions.





      Implementation of this aspect of the plan would be accomplished


      through creation of the Zero-Emission Vehicle Industry Cluster


      whose role would include developing a market plan for zero


      emission vehicles. As part of the SCEP Project, this public-


      private cluster would promote fleet conversion and acquisition


      of refueling infrastructure. In addition, regional and local


      regulatory actions would be aimed at facilitation of


      introduction of zero emission vehicles.








      Alternative Fuels





      Alternative fuel technology aims to increase the rate of


      emission reductions by accelerating the introduction of low


      emission, alternatively fueled vehicles through cooperative


      public-private partnerships and the use of Market Incentives.





      An Alternative Fuels Industry Cluster would take the leadership


      in helping refine and develop a "local" regulatory framework to


      establish a market environment for alternative fuels as well as


      supporting market incentives that would enhance the


      competitiveness of alternative fuel vehicles.





      In addition, regional and local regulatory actions would be


      aimed at facilitating the introduction of low emission


      alternatively fueled vehicles.





      By 2015, annual new vehicle market penetration for alternative


      fuel vehicles is expected to include 250,000 vehicles for an


      estimated market share of 14 to 34 percent. Meanwhile, the


      economic impact of alternative fuels would also include the


      creation of about 9,000 new jobs by the same period.





      Implementation of the alternative fuels strategy would be


      accomplished through the Alternative Fuels Industry Cluster,


      whose responsibilities would include accelerating market


      penetration. This cluster would also be responsible for adopting


      appropriate monitoring mechanisms.








      Telecommunications





      The telecommunications technologies involve a number of


      technologies, including: teleconferencing, teleservices, tele-


      education, telemedicine, teleshopping, telebanking,


      telecommuting, and other applications.





      Telecommuting as a substitute for home-to-work vehicle trips


      would be accelerated through cooperative public-private industry


      clusters. Telecommuting is using electronics to move information


      and/or pictures that allow work to be done from home or from a


      neighborhood work center.





      In 1990, telecommuting impact amounted to a reduction of 4.1


      percent in home to work trips. This reduction is expected to


      increase to 6.3 percent by the year 2015. Total penetration of


      the market is anticipated to be between 5 to 14 percent of all


      work trips.





      Currently, basic telecommunications technologies or devices are


      commercially available. The barriers to use are embracing the


      concept of telecommuting and other teleservices and the cost of


      the equipment at home for the telecommuter.





      In terms of jobs, an estimate of the potential job creation from


      the sale of all telecommunications technologies is about 42,000


      jobs in 2000 and 65,000 jobs in 2010 for the State of


      California.





      To implement the telecommunications aspect of the strategy, the


      RME proposes establishing a Telecommunications Deployment


      Industry Cluster as part of the SCEP Project that will be


      responsible for identifying and acting on market barriers and


      applications. The SCEP Project will assemble the interested


      industry and government parties to identify and eliminate use


      and regulation barriers, establish a seed fund for


      telecommunications equipment purchases, and develop an education


      program for employers.








      Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS)





      The Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) technologies


      represent a variety of technologies that basically transfer


      information to the vehicle or driver to improve the safer and


      more efficient use of the highway system. IVHS technologies or


      products have two major deployment applications: highway-road


      systems and on-vehicle.





      These technologies are intended to reduce mobile source


      emissions from light and heavy duty vehicles through improved


      operational performance of the transportation system. By the


      year 2015, the market penetration of IVHS technology is expected


      to exceed 250,000 vehicle information device units.





      IVHS technologies include: Advanced Traffic Management System


      (ATMS) technologies like computerized signal and control systems


      that synchronize lights to reduce unnecessary stops, thus


      improving the vehicle emissions drive cycle; Advanced Traveler


      Information System (ATIS) technologies that warn drivers in


      advance of severe congestion; Advanced Vehicle Control System


      (AVCS) technologies such as collision-avoidance systems that


      reduce accident related congestion; Commercial Vehicle Operation


      (CVO) systems that control the routing of commercial fleet


      vehicles to avoid excess travel and congestion; and Advanced


      Passenger Transportation (APTS) technologies that can dispatch


      Advanced Shuttles more efficiently or give the time and location


      of the next bus or train to the transit passenger.











      IVHS technologies would be deployed by establishing a


      private/public cluster to develop a market plan for the


      consumer. This industry cluster is part of a larger technology


      deployment project, SCEP, which will act as a support program


      for this cluster. Implementation would also be accomplished


      through development of industry standards for on-vehicle systems


      and enhanced requirements for vehicle control and safety


      systems. Furthermore, implementation would be assisted at the


      consumer level through the use of Market Incentives such as


      reduced insurance rates for the purchase of AVCS items like


      collision avoidance.





      IVHS technologies would provide the following boost to the


      California economy: 61,000 new jobs by 2000 and over 140,000 new


      jobs by 2010.








      Smart Shuttle Transit





      Smart Shuttles build upon existing demand responsive transit


      modes, using advanced transportation technologies  to provide


      service more tailored to the needs of individual riders. The


      goal for Smart Shuttles is to develop, implement, and integrate


      a public-private transportation service that offers an


      attractive alternative to the gasoline-powered automobile.





      By 2015, Smart Shuttles and conventional transit with TDM


      programs are expected to account for 10 to 14 percent of all


      work trips and involve 50,000 Smart Shuttle vehicles in the


      region.





      Smart Shuttles would be most effective and efficient in three


      different types of applications: corridor service, center-


      focused service, and community-based service. In corridors,


      Smart Shuttles would provide service similar to jitneys like


      those operating in Atlantic City without fixed stops or a fixed


      route within a defined corridor. Center-focused services such as


      airport shuttles would provide enhanced access to employment


      centers, rail stations, and other large traffic generators.


      Community-based services would include transportation to


      shopping, recreation, and health facilities.





      Emissions would be reduced by deployment of Smart Shuttles


      through the use of Advanced Transportation Technologies such as


      computer-aided dispatching as well as the use of alternative


      fuels.





      Implementation of Smart Shuttles would be accomplished through


      the creation of a public-private partnership with the mandate to


      create a market environment which promotes development and use


      of alternative public transportation services along with


      integration of new technologies and removal of regulatory


      barriers. The Advanced Shuttle Industry Cluster, which is part


      of the SCEP Project, will be such a public-private partnership


      and would foster and guide Advanced Shuttle transit in the


      region.





      In terms of jobs, an estimate of the job creation from the start


      of an Advanced Shuttle industry is expected to be up to 65,000


      new jobs by 2010.





   These Advanced Technologies will be supported by the Clean Cities


   program, which as a SCEP component is charged with facilitating the


   procurement of "clean vehicles" and related infrastructure as well


   as other Advanced Technologies, including Smart Shuttles,


   telecommunications, and IVHS products. The Clean Cities program


   will be especially involved in helping adopt EV charging facilities


   building code and permit requirements and other actions designed to


   encourage the use of electric automobiles.








   Transportation Control Measures





   Additionally, the Plan includes the use of Transportation Control


   Measures (TCMs), strategies designed to reduce the amount of motor-


   vehicle based emissions by changing the way people make trips, by


   alleviating traffic congestion, and by facilitating infrastructure


   changes to promote alternatives to single-occupant vehicles.





   Plans and requirements for TCMs used to meet air quality


   requirements differ for each of the region's six non-attainment


   areas reflecting the flexibility of the strategies. However,


   maximum use of reasonably available TCMs in conjunction with all


   other strategies (stationary and area) is mandated by state and


   federal law.





   In addition to the use of TCMs related to vehicular use, the


   region's has also included strategies to reduce emissions from


   planes and trains.





   The Railroad Emissions Control Measure from the 1989/91 South Coast


   Air Plan is being refined for the 1994 Ozone SIP Submittal. This


   measure focuses on railroad operations in the South Coast Air


   Basin, including freight, commuter, and intercity passenger trains.


   The intent is to reduce oxides of nitrogen from diesel-electric


   locomotives.





   Additionally, the respective roles and responsibilities of the


   various agencies involved in implementing aviation TCMs are still


   being debated.











FINANCE





The budget for the 20-year life of the RME, including both traditional


and innovative financing, is $71 billion. All of the costs of the Plan


will continue to be evaluated and refined in the future. This


refinement will occur in tandem with the refinement of the Market


Incentives Program.





   Traditional Funding





   The RME estimates that over the 20-year planning period, $56


   billion in cost for traditional highway and transit programs and


   improvement projects can be funded with reasonably available


   revenues of $56 billion.





   While regional expenses and revenues generally balance over the 20-


   year life of the plan, historical spending trends, air qual-


   ity/congestion mitigation, costs of maintaining older


   infrastructure, declining gasoline tax revenues, and mounting


   transit operation expenses all threaten the region's precariously


   balanced budget.





   It should also be noted that the end of the planning period may


   have too little facility investment given the expected population


   growth. Chapter 9, Long-Range Corridors, describes many possible


   candidates that future plan refinements must address and as


   appropriate provide funding.





   Innovative Funding





   Consequently, it is clear that the region's traditional funding


   sources for the foreseeable future are insufficient to pay for


   Advanced Transportation Technologies and other corridor


   improvements which are needed to meet air and mobility mandates.


   Thus, the plan calls for addition funding.  One example of this


   added revenue could be provided through innovative funding through


   a series of user based fees to provide sufficient revenues in order


   for the Plan to be considered fiscally constrained as required by


   the 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA).





   It is expected that approximately $15-29 billion will be needed to


   finance the range of various Advanced Transportation Technology


   improvements and performance-based projects which are crucial to


   the Plan's strategy through 2015.





   The funding mechanism would probably provide that low polluting


   vehicles contribute a lesser amount than grossly polluting


   vehicles.





   After a multi-year gradual phase in, a VMT/Emissions Registration


   Fee could be expected to produce up to $2 billion annually. The


   process for determining precise fee, differences in rates, and


   total amounts collected are briefly outlined in the Market


   Incentives section and the Implementation section of this chapter.


   It should be noted that any Market Incentives would be established


   by legislative process or by a ballot initiative after a regional


   process to develop proposals and advice to lawmakers.


______________________________





   3$15 billion is used in calculating the total 20 year costs.








MARKET INCENTIVES








   Reasons to Introduce Market Incentives





   The use of market incentives seeks to balance supply and demand by


   equitably charging travelers for the full and true costs of driving


   an automobile, allowing consumers to make more informed travel


   decisions. Figure 2-6, Life-Cycle Gasoline Vehicle Costs (1990),


   illustrates the often overlooked expenses of owning and driving a


   car.











                              FIGURE 2-6


               LIFE-CYCLE GASOLINE VEHICLE COSTS (1990)





                   ***NO FIGURE IN ORIGINAL FILE***





         SOURCE: SCAG Market Incentives Task Force Report, February,


         1994








   The RME proposes using Market Incentives to encourage travelers to


   seek alternatives while providing a revenue stream to fund those


   transportation alternatives that are highly efficient, performance-


   based, and maximize regional efforts to meet mobility and air


   quality goals.





   Ultimately, establishing user-based financing of transportation


   improvements as well as providing a stable base of transportation


   funding, rather than general fund financing, are key strategic


   goals of Market Incentives.


______________________________





   4  Modified for this analysis from Kevin Nesbitt, Daniel Sperling,


and Mark DeLuchi, "Initial Assessment of Roadway-Powered Electric


Vehicles", Transportation Research Record, No. 1267, 1990.











   Principles





   Market Incentives in the RME are designed to allow for equity so


   that an undue or disproportionate impact is not placed on low


   income groups, other user groups, commercial users or geographic


   areas. To the extent that such situations are identified, Market


   Incentive programs should mitigate such impacts through appropriate


   subsidy and reinvestment programs. Impacts on business should be


   mitigated to the extent practical and to allow increased


   opportunities for subregional and regional economic


   competitiveness.





   Implementation and development of Market Incentives include having


   a nexus between Market Incentive fees and expenditures. Travel


   consumers must see direct and timely benefit from payment of market


   investment travel charges.





   Another aspect of implementation involves efficient and


   performance-based requirements. The RME requires that all projects


   and improvements funded with Market Incentive fees must be highly


   efficient and performance based.








   Market Incentive Methods





   At a meeting April 14, 1994, SCAG's Transportation and


   Communications Committee agreed that "new user-based fees shall be


   considered by the committee (including the transportation


   community) charged with developing an implementation strategy that


   could be used to substitute for gasoline taxes in the long term."





   The RME proposes to consider the long-term replacement of


   traditional transportation funding sources (i.e. gasoline tax) with


   a different use fee such as one based on a VMT/emission


   registration charge.  Such a replacement fee would probably be


   revenue neutral. But additional revenues could also be raised from


   higher VMT fees charged to gross polluters.





   In addition, there could be congestion pricing in which specific


   transportation facilities would be priced or tolled based on the


   amount of congestion on that facility or corridor.





   Another Market Incentive would be a Parking Cash-Out feature


   through provisions of state law being reaffirmed. Employers with 50


   or more employees in non-attainment areas who subsidize employee


   parking, lease parking spaces, and can reduce the number of parking


   spaces without penalty are required to allow employees to choose


   between the parking space or a cash allowance.





   In the proposed Air Quality Management Plan, there is an option for


   a possible pay-at-the-pump "backstop" which could be implemented,


   if needed, to help reduce emissions.





   In moving toward implementation of user fees, the next step of the


   Plan calls for a public involvement program, exploring attitudes


   within the region and seeking a consensus on the Market Incentives.





   This would also involve research through surveys and community


   outreach efforts designed to develop methods that would ameliorate


   impacts of Market Incentive measures, especially on groups


   handicapped by economic, geographic and commercial limitations.





   Additionally, such a strategy of public involvement may take


   advantage of multi-media outreach -- newsletters, videos, public


   service announcements -- aimed at identifying issues as well as


   developing public participation and facilitating the implementation


   of the RME.





   At the legislative level, the next steps would include a


   legislative process including review and comment of legislation


   dealing with the issue as well as possible new legislation to


   provide for the implementation of Market Incentives.





   Ultimately, the perceptions of elected officials and the public


   will determine if the Market Incentives program is viable.  If the


   Market Incentives are to be successfully implemented, public


   understanding and political acceptability are essential.








PLAN PERFORMANCE





The RME anticipates that its strategies will successfully maintain the


regional transportation system, moving goods and people efficiently


and ensuring the economic vitality of the region while also improving


air quality through reduced emissions. Plan performance is formally


detailed in the SCAG Executive Summary, 1994 RME Conformity Report


which is included in Appendix B. Briefly, the RME Conformity Report


finds: reasonably available funding; compliance by air basins with the


Federal Clean Air Act and Transportation Conformity Regulations;


timely implementation of TCMs, and compliance with ISTEA and other


relevant regulations.





Over the next 20 years, the $56 billion in traditional capital


investments recommended in the RME and the resulting congestion relief


benefits will create between 58,000 and 132,000 additional jobs per


year from 1995 through 2015 with wage and salary incomes estimated


between $1.2 billion and $2.6 billion each year. The $15-29 billion


investments in Advanced Technology and performance based projects


would create an additional 350,000 jobs over the same period.





The number of single occupancy vehicles for home-based-work trips will


significantly decrease, from 72.5 percent in 1990 to 56.9 percent in


2015.  At the same time, other changes in the shift from single


occupancy vehicles will include: an increase from 5.4 percent to 13.3


percent in transit, an increase from 18 percent to 18.5 percent in


rideshare, an increase from 2 percent to 6.3 percent in telecommuting,


and an increase from 2.5 percent to 3.5 percent in non-motorized


transportation. (See Figure 2-7 and 2-8.)





But even with facility and technology improvements, SCAG modelling


shows that the average daily speed for all trips will decrease from


32.5 miles per hour in 1990 to 27.2 miles per hour in 2015. (See


Figure 2-9.) Meanwhile, the delay for drivers on the road will worsen


by 106% in morning peak trips and by 196% in daily trips.











                              FIGURE 2-7


                          TRANSIT MODE SPLIT


                      HOME BASED WORK (HBW) TRIPS








                              FIGURE 2-8


                         MODE SPLIT HBW TRIPS








                              FIGURE 2-9


                    AVERAGE DAILY SPEED (all trips)








   (For modeling purposes, 1990 trip reductions for nonmotorized and   


 telecommuting were removed from the total 1990 trip count. 


Therefore, this  modeling chart reflects 0% for the two modes.  Actual


1990 trip reductions  are 2.5% for non-motorized and 2.0% for


telecommuting.)








   During this period, as population grows at just less than 2 percent


per year, daily vehicle trips will increase at less than 1.6 percent.


At the same time, vehicle miles traveled will grow just over 2 percent


each year. (See Figure 2-10 and 2-10A.)





                              FIGURE 2-10


                          ANNUAL GROWTH RATES


                        (Between 1990 and 2015)





Click HERE for graphic.








SCAG modelling results also indicate that the RME strategies will


dramatically improve Air Quality Performance Indicators.





Regionwide, pollutants decrease during the planning period. Reactive


organic gases, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides decrease


significantly from 1990 to 2015 in each of the air basins. These


emission results are based on 50 percent zero-emission vehicle sales


in 2010 and 60 percent ZEV sales in 2015. (See Figure 2-11.)





IMPLEMENTATION





Crucial to the implementation of the RME Plan strategies, especially


the Advanced Technology strategies, is development of the Southern


California Economic Partnership (SCEP) which will establish industry


and government clusters for each transportation technology and


facilitate their involvement in the region's transportation system and


economic mainstream.





Market Incentive implementation, including, refinement, pricing


levels, and a legislative agenda, will be undertaken by a committee


charged with these responsibilities and appointed by the SCAG Regional


Council.  The Committee will also be charged with the task of


reviewing and making recommendations on these issues related to


innovative funding.





                             FIGURE 2-10A


                    AVERAGE VEHICLE RIDERSHIP (AVR)


                        (Home-Base-Work Trips)





Click HERE for graphic.








The RME calls for specific action steps, but it also should be viewed


as a direction-setting document. The strategy behind the RME Plan is


dynamic in that it will change over time to respond to evolving


conditions in the marketplace, technological advances, political and


legislative action, and mobility needs.











                              FIGURE 2-11











Industry and government institutions will be involved in the further


analysis of Advanced Transportation Technologies and Market


Incentives. Market Incentive development, refinement of new user based


fees, and Advanced Technology implementation strategy, as well as


pricing levels, and a legislative agenda will be studied by a


committee appointed by the Regional Council. When recommending


strategies to be funded, this committee will consider issues of


equity, nexus of benefit to those shouldering the costs, and project


efficiency/performance. As noted previously, this committee's findings


and recommendations would constitute the first step in a regional


process to develop proposals and advice that would be acted on and


approved through the legislative process.





A complete summary, in table form, of additional action


recommendations proposed by the RME can be found in Chapter 14,


Regional Action Program Summary, of Volume 2.








AMENDMENTS PROCESS SUMMARY








SCAG intends to prepare at least one major amendment, including a


conformity statement, every two years between plan adoption dates, if


such an amended plan is deemed necessary. Plan amendments that do not


require preparation of a conformity statement may be prepared more


frequently. The RME will be certified periodically as required by


state and federal law. See also Appendix A, Plan Amendment Process.











CHAPTER     REGIONAL TRANSPORTATION


THREE       DEMAND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM








INTRODUCTION





   The traffic congestion created by Southern California's population


   growth has not only increased demands on the region's


   transportation system but also made necessary additional measures


   to meet the region's mobility goals. One of the measures is


   Transportation Demand Management (TDM).





   The Regional Mobility Element places special emphasis on TDM in


   efforts to meet the region's mobility needs as well as the air


   quality requirements of the federal Clean Air Act and the mobility


   mandates of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act


   (ISTEA).





   TDM strategies comprise those efforts that attempt to modify


   people's travel behavior.   Specifically, TDM consists  of actions


   intended to 1) increase vehicle occupancy for both passenger and


   transit vehicles; 2) increase the use of alternatives to vehicular


   transport; 3) reduce the number of commute and non-commute trips by


   eliminating them entirely; and 4) reduce trip lengths through


   various means.





   TDM strategies complement the investment the region is making in


   alternative transportation infrastructure, High-Occupancy Vehicles


   (HOV), and transit by maximizing the efficient use of these


   investments and should be coordinated with them.





   Over the long-term, it is expected that a more market-oriented,


   user-based approach to demand management will emerge. Market


   incentives have the potential to not only reduce demand, but reduce


   air quality emissions, help provide transportation alternatives and


   provide long-term transportation financing.





BACKGROUND





   Demand management has been a component of regional transportation


   planning for almost two decades. Owing principally to federal and


   state regulatory and incentive programs, the largest TDM emphasis


   has been on reducing the home-to-work commute (see Table 3-1). 


   Outreach and public education by rideshare agencies and transit


   providers has also significantly increased throughout the region.











                               TABLE 3-1


                    IMPLEMENTATION OF TDM MEASURES








Click HERE for graphic.








   Transportation Management Associations (TMAs) that coordinate TDM


   functions for employers, developers, and residents have also


   developed a niche in Southern California. There are 24 TMAs in the


   SCAG region and one of their primary functions is ridematching (see


   Table 3-1A and Figure 3-1B).








                             TABLE 3-1(A)


                  EXISTING TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT


                          ASSOCIATIONS (TMAs)








Click HERE for graphic.








MAP goes here.














TRANSPORTATION DEMAND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR THE REGION





   Traditional TDM techniques represent one approach to improving


   regional mobility. These methods include facility standards,


   transit, rideshare programs, non-motorized access, telecommuting,


   alternative work weeks, flex-time, and employer trip reduction


   programs.         The proposed TDM program for the region also


   incorporates strategies from two other approaches to ensure that


   the full range of behavioral influences on travel are addressed:


   market-based incentives, targeting the economic rationale behind


   people's transportation choices; and land-use strategies, targeting


   the spatial influences affecting trip-generation and destination


   choices.





         Linking Land-Use and TDM Through Activity Areas





   Activity areas (clusters of economic and/or social activity) exist


   throughout the SCAG region. On a community-neighborhood scale these


   areas attract local and nearby residents to shop, work, and


   socialize.  Examples of such areas are "Main Streets," shopping


   centers and business parks. On a larger scale, areas as large


   downtown Central Business Districts (CBDs) and universities attract


   people from around the region.





   These areas represent opportunities for trip reduction through the


   implementation of demand management techniques in concert with the


   provision of transit, HOV lanes, or neighborhood shuttle services.


   Such areas also offer opportunities for ride matching incentives


   and other strategies. In addition, activity areas often serve, or


   can be designed to serve, different needs such as on-site child


   care, personal services (eg. banking, dry cleaners, restaurants,


   etc.), or shopping, thus reducing non-work vehicle trips and


   Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT).





   Two elements that help determine activity areas are where people


   live and work. The 1990 Census data was used to identify


   Transportation Analysis Zones (TAZ), in which significant clusters


   of housing and employment existed (see Figure 3-2). Based on a


   consensus-derived baseline for the year 2015, Figure 3-3A and 3-3B


   note both the existing and new activity areas that are expected to


   grow in employment and housing densities.











map











map











map











         Linking Demand Management and Technology





   Recent and future technological advances have the potential to


   significantly mitigate the demand for travel within the region. As


   the state, national, and international telecommunication


   infrastructure has expanded, the way in which the region's


   residents work, conduct meetings, bank, shop, and pay for goods and


   services has begun to change.  During the past decade, the


   percentage of people telecommuting within the region at least one


   day a week has increased to 3.9 percent. As remote offices become


   more accessible, either through work-at-home arrangements or tele-


   work centers, this trend can be expected to continue.





   Office teleconferencing facilities are beginning to become a


   standard part of the office environment. As technology to support


   this type of remote interaction continues to develop, the


   implications for reducing work-related meeting trips are


   substantial.





   Finally, technology has the potential to more effectively manage


   travel demand by facilitating greater system efficiencies. "Smart


   cards" that debit accounts could be used to pay for mobility


   services such as transit use, parking fees, roadway tolls, or


   demand response shuttles, thereby improving perceived accessibility


   to these transportation alternatives.





         TDM Strategies





   SCAG modeling indicates that effective employer trip reduction will


   show significant impacts on transit mode splits, and shared-ride


   mode splits when implemented in concert with the transit, HOV, and


   other mobility enhancements included in the Plan. Modeling also


   indicates that advanced shuttle and other improved feeder transit


   systems in conjunction with TDM result in increased transit mode


   and shared ride mode splits. These results support the emphasis on


   demand management in conjunction with facility improvement in the


   RME. This could improve use of the proposed investment in


   alternative modes and reduce congestion that would have had to be


   accommodated on the roadway system in the absence of an agressive


   TDM strategy.














TRANSPORTATION DEMAND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM





   The recommended TDM program focuses on enhancing existing effective


   TDM programs with increased funding. The critical short- and long-


   term focus of the demand management component of the RME is on


   strengthening the integration of TDM strategies in concert with the


   provision of non-SOV capacity-enhancing infrastructure. Particular


   emphasis is placed on accomplishing these goals through the


   Congestion Management program (CMP) and RTIP, thus promoting closer


   coordination of these strategies in project corridors, area, and


   program planning. Thus, the program in Table 14-3  concentrates on


   developing and refining processes that enable this to occur.





   Demand management strategies should also significantly contribute


   to the attainment of federal, state, and regional transportation


   performance standards, including transit, ridesharing and non-


   motorized mode splits, and VMT reduction.





         The TDM program intends to address four distinct emphasis


      areas:





   1. For non-commute trips to promote access to and within activity


   areas, to coordinate the implementation of land-use strategies when


   appropriate and accepted, and to facilitate education and promotion


   of non SOV alternatives (see Table 14-3).





   2. For commute based strategies to facilitate the use of non-SOV


   alternatives through ridematching, rideshare support facilities,


   efforts to increase transit accessibility, implementation of


   employer trip reduction programs, support of TDM demonstration


   programs, and support of the coordination of TDM strategies for


   Park-And-Ride facilities (see Table 14-3).





   3. To implement direct and indirect market incentives that are


   consistent with the principles identified by the Market Incentive


   Task Force (see Table 3-3).





   4. Use technology advances in information exchange, system


   effectiveness and other applications to change the use of the


   regional transportation system.








POLICIES





   The following  policies are to be used to guide implementation of


   the regional TDM program:





         -  To promote TDM programs along with transit and ridesharing


            facilities as a viable and desirable part of the overall


            mobility program while recognizing the particular needs of


            individual subregions.





   -  To support the development of public seed funding for new and


      innovative demonstration programs.





         -  To support the extension of TDM program implementation to


            non-commute trips for public and private sector


            activities.





         -  To support the coordination of land-use and transportation


            decisions with land-use and transportation capacity,


            taking into account the potential for demand management


            strategies to mitigate travel demand if provided for as a


            part of the entire package.





         -  To support the use of market incentives as a mechanism to


            affect and modify behavior toward the use of alternative


            modes for both commute and non-commute travel.





         -  To support efforts to educate the public on the efficacy


            of demand management strategies and increase the use of


            alternative transportation.





   Implementation of TDMs





   Many of the demand management actions are implemented at the local


   level in conjunction with CMP. The statute requires the five


   counties containing urbanized areas in the SCAG region to develop a


   trip reduction and TDM component. Table 3-2 provides a summary of


   the TDM strategies contained in the region's CMPs. The CMP provides


   an important framework for implementing demand management


   strategies throughout the region, empowering local jurisdictions


   with control over the implementation of TDM programs.








FISCAL ISSUES RELATED TO TDM





   Historically, the costs of demand management strategies have been


   shared by both the public and private sectors. Moreover, because


   demand management strategies have been highly tailored to


   individual sites, significant variation in costs exists, depending


   on the breadth and number of TDM actions implemented at specific


   sites. Both of these actions contribute to substantial difficulties


   in conducting a thorough survey as well as an assessment of actual


   costs of implementing those TDMs.








   Funded TDM Programs





   The funding cycle is intended to assist local jurisdictions comply


   with the SCAQMD 1991 Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP), which


   requires cities to commit to the implementation of TCMs, including


   TDM measures, by December 1993. Los Angeles County MTA has 101


   projects funded to date. San Bernardino Association of Governments


   has 35 non-motorized projects funded. Ventura County Transportation


   Commission has 71 projects funded through STP and CMAQ funds.








MARKET-BASED APPROACHES








   Market-based approaches to addressing congestion and air quality


   problems provide mechanisms by which system users pay the "real"


   cost of the transportation benefits they receive.  These approaches


   are divided into direct and indirect market incentives:





   1. Direct market incentives focus on changing the relative costs of


      transportation options. Pricing as a TDM action can reinforce


      consumer choices of travel alternatives and also can be fiscal


      measures aimed at financing and implementation of alternative


      travel options or subsidies.





   2. Indirect market incentives use economic rewards (lower


      development costs, higher density, lower tax or fee rates) to


      influence urban design and siting policies that support reduced


      automobile use.





   The use of market incentives seeks to balance supply and demand by


   better charging travelers for the full and true costs of driving an


   automobile so that consumers can make more informed travel


   decisions. Market incentive strategies have significant potential


   to minimize the need for command and control approaches to mobility


   regulation to achieve air quality goals.





   The RME proposes to meet mobility and air quality requirements


   while providing individuals with choices of alternative travel


   modes beyond those now available. Market incentives can help


   realize this goal by encouraging travelers to seek alternatives as


   well as provide a revenue stream to fund transportation


   alternatives that are highly efficient, performance based, and


   maximize regional efforts to meet mobility and air quality goals.





   User-based financing of transportation improvements and providing a


   stable base of transportation funding, rather than fund financing,


   are also key strategic goals of market incentives.














                               TABLE 3-2


                 CMP IMPLEMENTATION OF TDM STRATEGIES








Click HERE for graphic.








*  Regulation XV (South Coast Air Basin), Rule 210 (Ventura County)


   and Rule 1701 (Desert portions of San Bernardino County) each have


   complementary effects on the implementation of CMPs.





** San Bernardino County jurisdictions within the South Coast Air


   Basin must adopt TDM Ordinances by December 31, 1993; jurisdictions


   within the desert portions of the county must adopt TDM Ordinances


   by November 1, 1993.





***    Team Rideshare is implemented by Caltrans, SCAQMD, and CTS.














   Market Incentives Task Force





   SCAG has formed a Market Incentives Task Force composed of local


   government elected officials. The charge of this task force is to


   examine the impact of developing user-based pricing as well as


   subsidy and reinvestment actions. The Task Force has developed a


   number of principles on how market incentives should be developed


   and what actions are to be considered (see Table 3-3).





   Over time, it is expected that market incentives might replace trip


   reduction regulations (See Chapter 10 - Financial Program, which


   more fully discusses market incentives).





                               TABLE 3-3


                      MARKET INCENTIVE PRINCIPLES





   -  Through fees, subsidies, and reinvestment, including clean


      vehicles and improved mobility systems:





      1. attempt, to achieve both mobility and air quality goals.





      2. encourage the development of new technologies which can


         reduce congestion, reduce mobile source emissions, and foster


         regional economic advantage, and





      3. reduce the use of single occupant vehicles especially during


         congested periods.





   -  Minimize the need for command-and-control approaches to mobility


      regulation to achieve air quality.





   -  Mitigate the impacts on business to the extent practical, and


      increase opportunities for regional economic competitiveness.





   -  Avoid undue or disproportionate impacts on low income groups or


      other user groups, or mitigate such impacts through appropriate


      actions, including subsidy and reinvestment programs.





   -  Avoid undue or disproportionate geographic impacts, or mitigate


      those impacts through appropriate actions, including subsidy and


      reinvestment programs.





   -  Consult with sub-regions to provide input and consider different


      sub-regional conditions in the design and mitigation of such


      market-based programs.





   -  Advocate user-based financing of transportation improvements and


      reductions in emissions, and provide a stable base of


      transportation funding, rather than general fund financing, as


      the region transitions from traditional fuel based funding.








      There must be a nexus between market incentive fees and


      expenditures. Travel consumers must see direct and timely


      benefit from payment of market investment travel charges.





      All projects and improvements funded with market incentive fees


      must be highly efficient and performance based.








      Examples of Possible Market Incentive Strategies include:





      1. VMT/Emission Based Registration Fee - The RME proposes to


         consider the long-term replacement of traditional


         transportation funding sources (i.e. gasoline tax) with a


         different use fee such as one based on a VMT/emission


         registration charge. Such a replacement fee would probably be


         revenue neutral. But additional revenues could also be raised


         from higher VMT fees charged to gross polluters.





      2. At the Pump Fuel Charge - fees would be levied on the price


         per gallon equivalent of fuel based on the level of emission


         products of the fuel. Revenues generated through these fees


         could help fund the MITIF, substitute for gasoline taxes on


         which current transportation funding is largely based, or


         some combination of the two.





      3. Congestion Pricing - specific transportation facilities would


         be priced or tolled based on the amount of congestion on that


         facility or corridor. Revenues generated could be used to


         improve mobility alternatives along that corridor/facility.





      4. Parking Cash-Out - Support for the Parking Cash-Out


         provisions of State law would be reaffirmed. (Employers with


         50 or more employees in non-attainment areas which subsidize


         employee parking, lease parking spaces and can reduce the


         number of parking spaces without penalty are required to


         allow employees to choose between the parking space or a cash


         allowance.)





SUBREGIONAL INPUT





      Local jurisdictions, through subregional groups, have provided


      input on the selection, implementation, and phasing of


      appropriate TDM strategies for the region (see Table 3-4).


      Addressing implementation of demand management strategies at the


      subregional level will allow greater flexibility in reaching


      regional trip reduction goals by improving coordination between


      local jurisdictions and regional agencies while ensuring


      consistency among implementation plans. It also provides a forum


      to initiate an assessment of how much the region can rely on TDM


      strategies to meet mobility and air quality goals.











                               TABLE 3-4


SUBREGIONALY RECOMMENDED IMPLEMENTATION PROGRAMS








Click HERE for graphic.














CHAPTER     REGIONAL TRANSIT (BUS AND


FOUR        RAIL) PROGRAM








INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND





   The goal of the Regional Mobility Element is to sustain mobility,


   and a principal means of accommodating this goal is by increasing


   bus and rail ridership. Public transportation will play an


   increasingly important role in achieving regional mobility and air


   quality attainment goals.





   The Regional Transit Program of the RME is intended to create the


   basis for a centers-based transit network and to identify policies,


   actions, and activities necessary to develop and implement an


   efficient, safe, attractive, and cost-effective public transit


   system that supports and complements other transportation systems


   in the region.





   The 1994 RME significantly expands shared taxis, Smart Shuttles,


   and jitneys to serve all major activity centers, thus expanding the


   "third tier" of the region's transportation system. Tier One is the


   longer distance line haul service such as Metrolink, longer


   distance rail services and some express bus service. Tier Two is


   the support bus and paratransit services that provide service


   connecting to Tier One service, medium distance service, and into


   communities. Tier Three is localized, short trip service such as


   taxis and Smart Shuttles that is more community oriented.








DESCRIPTION OF EXISTING TRANSIT





   Currently, public transportation in the Southern California region


   is operated directly or under contract by about 17 separate public


   agencies. Public providers collectively own one of the largest bus


   transit bus fleets in the world, with the LACMTA operating the


   third largest bus fleet in the United States.


   Public transportation providers operated approximately 516.5


   million unlinked trips in fiscal year 1990 in the SCAG region.


   Transit providers operated more than 125 million revenue miles and


   slightly less than 10 million revenue hours with a morning peak-


   hour bus fleet of about 2,800 vehicles. A breakdown of transit


   revenue hours and revenue miles by county is shown in Figures 4-1


   and 4-2.





                                Figure 4-1








Click HERE for graphic.








                                Figure 4-2








Click HERE for graphic.








   The "intersecting grid" design is presently the dominant route


   network used in Orange County, the City of Los Angeles, and areas


   of L.A. County with routes currently or formerly serviced by SCRTD. 


   The grid network comprises about 235 individual routes operated on


   north-south and east-west streets and providing extensive area


   coverage. Ninety-eight percent of existing regional transit bus


   service is provided by nine major public providers (Figures 4-3,4-4


   and 4-5): The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation


   Authority; the Orange County Transportation Authority (includes the


   former OCTD) in Orange County; and the Riverside Transit Agency


   (RTA), OmniTrans, and South Coast Area Transit (SCAT) -- the major


   regional operators in Riverside, San Bernardino, and Ventura


   counties, respectively.





   The municipal operators in Long Beach, Santa Monica, and Foothill


   Transit and the Los Angeles Department of Transportation (LA DOT)


   provide bus services in Los Angeles County. The Metrorail (urban


   rail) and Metrolink (commuter rail) are operated by the LACMTA and


   the Southern California Regional Rail Authority (SCRRA),


   respectively. Municipal transit systems in L.A. County, and the


   regional operators in Riverside, San Bernardino, and Ventura


   counties operate bus services oriented toward a "Hub and Spoke" or


   "radial arm" configuration with a focus on major transit hubs,


   incorporating approximately 130 individual routes.











      


      Metrolink System (Commuter Rail)





   Commuter rail service (Figure 4-6) between Los Angeles and San Juan


   Capistrano began in the Summer of 1990.  In October of 1992, the


   first three lines of the Metrolink regional commuter rail system


   began service between Los Angeles and Moorpark, Santa Clarita and


   Pomona. The Pomona Line was extended to Claremont, the Montclair


   Transit Center, and to Riverside and San Bernardino in 1993.


   Additionally, a number of reverse commute and off-peak train


   services were initiated in the Spring of 1993 and expanded in


   October of 1993.





   The January 17, 1994 earthquake caused the initiation of


   "emergency" service expansion on the Santa Clarita and Moorpark


   Lines. Metrolink implemented accelerated service to


   Palmdale\Lancaster with new station stops located in Lancaster,


   Palmdale, and Acton. Additionally, a second station was opened in


   Santa Clarita (Via Princessa) and construction of the San


   Fernando\Sylmar Station was accelerated. On the Moorpark Line,


   Metrolink further implemented service to the City of Camarillo in


   Ventura County. New station sites were constructed in Camarillo and


   Northridge. In March of 1994 Metrolink initiated service to Orange


   County between Oceanside and Los Angeles.


      


      Metrorail System (Urban Rail)





   The Metro Blue Line began service between the Pico Station and


   Downtown Long Beach in the summer of 1990, returning rail transit


   to the SCAG region after a 30-year hiatus.  In the Spring of 1991,


   the Flower Street subway extension opened, permitting the Blue Line


   to reach the Los Angeles Financial District.  The first segment of


   the Metro Red Line began operations between Union Station and


   Alvarado Street in early 1993. Red Line service to Wilshire\Western


   is scheduled to commence in 1996, service to Hollywood in 1998 and


   services to North Hollywood, East Los Angeles and Mid-City areas by


   the year 2001.    


   The Metro Green Line is currently under construction as part of the


   Glen Anderson (I-105) Freeway project and is expected to open in


   1994. Construction continues on the Red Line between the Alvarado


   Street and Western Avenue stations along the Wilshire Boulevard


   corridor.  Red Line Segments 2 and 3 have received full funding


   commitments from the Federal Transit Administration. The Pasadena


   segment of the Blue Line has received partial funding from LACMTA


   and is expected to become operational in the late 1990s (Figure 4-


   7).





      Existing Intercity Rail Service (AMTRAK)





   Intercity passenger trains (Figure 4-7) serve primarily business


   and recreational trip markets, providing service between major


   urban centers, with most trips more than 50 miles in length. The


   SCAG region is currently served by five transcontinental trains


   operating daily or weekly service. Two intra-state Amtrak corridor


   services operate between San Diego, Los Angeles and Santa Barbara.


   The corridor service operates nine trains daily between Los Angeles


   and San Diego with two service extensions to Santa Barbara.








IMPLEMENTATION OF TRANSIT ACTIONS IN THE 1989 RMP





   The 1989 RMP identified 24 specific Transit Program Actions to be


   addressed and undertaken as part of the plan's implementation


   process covering three major categories: development of new revenue


   sources, capital construction and equipment acquisition, and the


   planning process. These actions were also included as TCMs in the


   1989 and 1991 South Coast Air Quality Management Plan in the South


   Coast Air Basin (SCAB).  Since the adoption of the 1989 RMP, there


   has been significant progress toward implementation of the transit


   program.





   The most significant of these include: voter approved and


   Legislative actions that provided state (Props. 108, 111, 116)


   federal (ISTEA) and county-wide (measures A,C,I,M) new source


   capital funding for bus/rail projects; implementation of new  rail


   service on the Blue Line from Long Beach to Los Angeles,  Red Line


   segment MOS-1, Metrolink commuter rail lines, purchase of transit


   vehicles; and full-funding commitments from Federal Transportation


   Authority (FTA) for Red Line Segments MOS 2 and 3.














                              FIGURE 4-3


               (LOS ANGELES COUNTY MUNICIPAL PROVIDERS)











                              FIGURE 4-4


                     (REGIONAL TRANSIT PROVIDERS)














   In 1993, SCAG in partnership with the county transportation


   commissions and the major regional transit providers, completed The


   Inter-County Bus Study mandated as part of SB1402. The study


   addressed the issues and dynamics of approximately 25 express bus


   and local fixed route service which cross county lines (Figure 4-


   7). The study created a formal process  which addresses formula


   funding (allocation of costs) and means to address proposed changes


   in service levels which impact more than one county.





   Other actions have been undertaken throughout the region which


   implement new and expanded transit services. A good example of


   these implementation actions have occurred  in Ventura County.


   VCTC, in cooperation with county transit providers and local


   jurisdictions, is conducting and has completed a number of transit


   studies.  These studies identified a number of potential bus and


   rail improvements that, when fully implemented, will significantly


   enhance public transportation in the county. These potential


   enhancements include new intra-county demonstration express bus


   services operating on Highway 101, 126, the Eastern Area and the


   Central Area corridors. The new service is designed to connect


   those communities along and adjacent to these corridors and to


   facilitate access to the existing and emerging rail improvements.


   These new  demonstration services will be funded under the CMAQ


   program with scheduled start-up in 1994.





   In addition to the currently existing Metrolink service to


   Moorpark, Ventura has identified a number of potential rail


   programs to be implemented by the year 2010. These include


   expansion of Metrolink to Ventura, the Santa Paula line extension,


   and new service between Ventura and Santa Barbara. Additionally


   included is expansion of inter-city rail services on both the Coast


   Line, LOSSAN North and future rail service using new technologies


   for high and medium speed rail in the Coastal corridor. These rail


   enhancements will be funded jointly through anticipated state bond


   measure and countywide supplemental sales tax funds.








CENTERS-BASED TRANSIT SYSTEM  (A THREE TIER TRANSIT SYSTEM APPROACH)








   The objective of the centers-based transit network (CBTN) is to


   develop and implement a multi-modal transit system that connects


   regional activity centers with their surrounding communities, sub-


   regional areas, and Southern California as a whole. The functional


   purpose of the CBTN is to facilitate user access, egress and


   distribution among modes, service types and attractor/generators. 


   The centers-based transit network is sub-regional in orientation,


   with a primary service focus toward activity centers and their


   component attractor/generators.





   The flexibility of the centers-based network is in its ability to


   accommodate transit service development that reflects the needs,


   goals and objectives of the region as a whole, and for activity


   centers individually. It is this ability to develop services


   tailored to meet specific needs that precludes a "one-size fits


   all" application. Service design will directly reflect the specific


   service characteristics and use needs required to provide maximum


   utility to the user. It is the purpose of this section to identify


   and discuss the construct of a centers-based network and its


   development and implementation.





   Successful implementation of an efficient, center-based transit


   network will require the use of three primary service components


   functioning at the regional/inter-regional, sub-regional, and local


   levels. These service components include: inter/intra-regional rail


   and express bus, sub-regional urban rail and express/limited bus,


   and local transit inclusive of area circulators, shuttles and


   demand response services where practical.





      Intra-regional and Inter-regional transit services (Tier One)





   The intra-regional service comprises those major transportation


   facilities that are regional in orientation and that connect two or


   more subregions, major regional activity centers, and other inter-


   modal facilities such as seaports, airports, and inter-city rail


   stations. Intra-regional transit will include the Metrolink system


   which provides "end-point-to-end-point" service with limited stops.


   It is anticipated that by the year 2000 the Metrolink system will


   be fully operational and provide approximately 99 daily train


   movements throughout the region. The intra-regional service will be


   supported by the existing inter-county express bus system providing


   "facility to destination" that uses the regional transitways and


   freeway/arterial HOV lanes (Chapter 5) and is designed to


   complement, support, and backfill the rail program.





   Inter-regional service includes intercity passenger rail, and the


   anticipated development of high speed rail service on the Coastal


   and California High Speed Rail Corridors. Existing inter-regional


   transit includes LOSSAN corridor service between San Diego, Orange


   County, Los Angeles, and Santa Barbara. The SCAG region is also


   served by four transcontinental rail routes. In response to DOT's


   designation of the California High Speed Rail Corridor, the


   California Transportation Commission has adopted a goal making


   development of high speed rail a priority for California. This


   position has been supported by a number of actions as well as the


   funding of a number of studies looking into ways of reaching the


   state's goal.





   The enactment of SCR 1 which specified the final alignment for the


   California High Speed Rail Corridor, established the California


   High Speed Rail Commission, and created funding in addition to


   Propositions 108 and 116 for actions related to the creation of


   high speed rail in California. In addition, pending and proposed


   legislation will also fund development of medium speed rail


   applications on the Coastal and Alameda Corridors to provide


   capital and operational support for regional and inter-city rail


   improvements in Southern California. SCAG, in conjunction with


   LACMTA, SCRRA, AMTRAK, CALTRANS, FHWA/FTA and the Federal Railroad


   Administration has assumed lead-agency responsibility for a study


   which evaluates the long-range capacity and access for the Los


   Angeles Union Passenger Terminal.





   Sub-regional transit services (Tier Two)





   The sub-regional service facilitates trips within or between


   activity centers and the adjacent sub-regional area. Sub-regional


   service is comprised of a service mix which includes: 1) point-to-


   point and inter-county express and limited-stop transit operating


   on dedicated rights-of-way (transitways or arterial HOVs), 2) Local


   and inter-county linehaul transit networks, 3) Urban rail systems


   such as MetroRail, and 4) special purpose shuttle systems (Super


   Shuttle type). Access to sub-regional rail and bus stations and


   transfer areas would be supported through a network of local


   center-focused transit services which would include: area


   circulators & feeder services, private for-hire services such as


   smart shuttles, jitneys and other demand response systems. Private


   automobiles driven to park-and-ride lots at stations and terminals


   will also be a major component of the feeder system at the home end


   of trips.





   Local\Center-Focused Transit services (Tier Three)





   Regional activity centers are the focus areas for those actions


   that will develop, measure, and evaluate the strategies for both


   mobility and air quality goal achievement. The centers-based


   transit system is by its nature designed to facilitate inter-modal


   access, movement, and distribution of passengers among its


   component services. It is within the activity centers, local


   jurisdictions and the subregions where the development and


   implementation of public transit services will occur. Local transit


   services would focus toward transit hubs, designated transit


   activity areas, and identified attractor/generators within centers.





   Implementation of center-focused services would allow local


   jurisdictions, sub-regional areas or special purpose/function


   centers the flexibility to design services that are goal specific


   and which are not subject to limitations of more traditional 


   transit. The development and implementation of such innovative


   transit services could: 1) be designed to meet specific goals and


   objectives, 2) directly support employer TDM programs, 3) allow


   enhanced opportunity for private operations, 4) support community


   development/redevelopment actions through incorporation into the


   zoning and permitting process, 5) directly support and complement


   other related TCMs actions, and 6) enhance local/regional job


   creation activities.





   As previously described, the purpose of the local service component


   is to facilitate trip distribution within activity centers through


   a flexible mix of traditional and non-traditional transit services.


   This program mix, could include service to major intermodal


   terminals, rail stations, connectors between hubs, circulation


   within centers, and shuttles from peripheral parking lots into


   centers. An example of an innovative, non-traditional center-


   focused service could include a smart shuttle program.





   A smart shuttle program could integrate the use of alternative


   propulsion and existing/emerging smart vehicle technologies into a


   mix of center-focused demand response transit services. These


   services would be designed to support and enhance existing regional


   transportation services. Examples of technological applications


   could include: use of an alternative fuel/propulsion, automated


   vehicle location/ computer assisted dispatch; use of debit cards,


   smart cards and other prepayment mediums (with applications other


   than transit); and computer assisted advanced reservations for


   regular users. Examples of smart shuttle applications could


   include: corridor specific jitney service similar to Atlantic City,


   transit feeders and local circulators which mix traditional and


   non-traditional services and multiple-origin to single destination


   Super-Shuttle-type services (Super-Shuttle type).


      


   The centers-focused service component differs from existing


   services in that it places emphasis on shorter trips with higher


   frequency of service provided through a mixture of traditional and


   non-traditional applications.  Figure 4-8 provides an illustration


   of "catchment areas" around activity centers. This illustration,


   uses an example of a three mile radius around  activity centers


   (which could vary by center). The catchment areas create the focus


   points of centers within sub-regions and to a large extent respond


   to employment of residential density of specific areas. The overlap


   of these catchment areas which provide the core and flexibility 


   for the development of implementation strategies, and the resultant


   service mix, which meet locally determined goals, objectives and


   needs. The development of transit services at the local level which


   responds to local defined needs is a radical departure from the


   existing transportation planning process and substantially becomes


   the basis for sub-regional decision making.





   It will become the responsibility of the local jurisdictions and


   subregions to determine the types and levels of transit service(s)


   and their application(s) which best meet their individual goals,


   needs, and objectives. The diversity among centers, local


   jurisdictions and subregions preclude the application of a one size


   fits all application.  However, there are a number of criteria


   applicable to centers that consider: 1)  existing, emerging and


   desired land uses, 2) levels of required (functional) inter-modal


   coordination, 3) required transit capital investment, 4) identified


   and targeted market groups, 5) potential for joint development, 6)


   institutional cooperation, and 7) defined quantitative and


   qualitative sub-regional and local transit objectives developed and


   coordinated with the overall mobility strategy.


   


   The development process using the criteria noted above could


   directly affect and impact the mobility strategy through


   influencing the overall mix of transit programs. It will further


   impact regional funding decision-making through transit project


   prioritization at the subregion and corridor level mandated by the


   ISTEA. The development of specific transit projects that meet the


   needs of local jurisdictions and subregions will become the basis


   for RME Transit Program Actions being quantified as TCMs for air


   quality attainment, and comprise a significant portion of the final


   RME Transit Program.





      Relationship to Facilities





   The multi-modal rail stations and transit hubs that support the


   existing and emerging rail system will be the first facilities to


   become operational. These facilities and hubs will be designed to


   meet specific level of service requirements and the needs of the


   communities in which they are located. These designs and


   configurations may vary  considerably from simple layover or


   designated transfer areas, "walk-on" platform rail stops with


   minimal passenger amenities, to developed multi-modal regional/sub-


   regional station sites with substantial passenger amenities and


   adjacent or direct access to park-and-ride lots and/or freeway-


   arterial HOV facilities.





   These high and medium capacity transit facilities will support and


   complement the implementation and operation of the HOV/transitway


   systems as collection-distribution points. "Facility to


   destination" and "limited access-destination" express bus services


   will provide an integrated link to regional park-and-ride lots


   located within sub-regional areas without direct access to the rail


   network. "Limited stop" transit service would provide higher


   capacity circulation-distribution  within major employment centers


   through arterial HOV/transitway application linking urban rail


   stations and local transit hubs serving other attractor-generators.





   It is the functional interaction between facilities, transportation


   systems and urban form which will influence and determine the form


   and implementation of the centers-based transit network.  There are


   a number of significant areas to be considered regarding the form-


   function and interaction of centers based system and its


   facilities. This interaction will be the basis of future transit


   program actions as part of the regional transit strategy as well as


   the over mobility strategy for the SCAG region.





   As the centers-based transit network is implemented, activity


   centers will be connected to and by an extensive network of transit


   "focal points." Clearly, full implementation of such an extensive


   system is, as it was in 1989, beyond the capacity of current


   available funding. However, initial implementation actions should


   be focused toward specific existing transit hubs which support the


   development of locally developed transit goals and objectives for


   specific centers by affected local jurisdiction  and subregions.





   There are a number of existing and emerging transit hubs that


   facilitate intra-and inter-modal functions. A number of examples


   include the following:





   1.  Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal (Union Station in the Los


       Angeles CBD): Metrorail (urban rail), inter-city rail,


       Metrolink commuter rail, local and express bus; L.A. City Dash.





   2.  Long Beach Transit Mall (downtown Long Beach): Metrorail; local


       and express bus.





   3.  Pasadena CBD, no existing facility: local and express bus.





   4.  El Monte Transit Station: local, limited and express bus.





   5.  Montclair Transit Center: Metrolink commuter rail; local and


       express bus.





   6.  Fullerton Transportation Center (Amtrak station): inter-city


       and commuter rail; local bus.





   7.  Santa Ana Regional Transportation Center (Amtrak station): 


       inter-city and commuter rail, local bus.





   8.  Santa Ana Transit Terminal (Santa Ana CBD): local andexpress


       bus.





   9.  Anaheim Amtrak Station (Anaheim Stadium): inter-city and


       commuter rail, local bus; express bus.





  10.  RTA Downtown Terminal (Riverside CBD): express and local bus


       and inter-city bus.





  11.  Fourth Street Transit Mall (San Bernardino CBD): local bus and


       express bus.





  12.  Huntington Center (Golden West College):  local bus and inter-


       city bus.





  13.  Martin Luther King, Jr. Transportation Center (Compton): Metro-


       Rail and local bus.





  14.  Irvine Transportation Center (Irvine): local bus, express bus,


       commuter rail, inter-city rail and urban rail (future).








      Service Development and Integration Within Centers:





   As previously discussed, centers-oriented services are designed to


   reflect locally developed needs and objectives. An example of


   center-oriented transportation improvements which have integrated


   into overall community development, can be found in the City of


   Pasadena. The civic center transit station incorporated low and


   high income housing, retail and office activities and pedestrian


   amenities into a single site development. The city has additionally


   amended its General Plan to encourage similar mixed use development


   adjacent to other stations. A new circulator system is being


   currently implemented with plans for existing local transit service


   redeployment to link the city's major attractor/generators with


   rail stations. Currently, the city has used transit development to


   leverage $70 million in committed private sector development.





   Additionally, the Arroyo-Verdugo and the San Gabriel Valley sub-


   regional organizations have adopted support positions for


   development of an east-west rail corridor (Burbank to Pasadena),


   the Glendale/Burbank MetroRail line and the Asuza Blue Line


   extension projects.














Figure 4-5 (Intercounty bus)











Figure 4-6 (Commuter rail)











Figure 4-7 (Urban & intercity rail)











REGIONAL TRANSIT STRATEGY





   The clearest measure of success for any transit strategy is in its


   effectiveness to attract and retain new users.  The mix of


   programs, their systemic application, design, and the management of


   support programs and actions will determine the performance and


   quality of the regional transit strategy. In consequence, the


   services provided must be the following:





   -  available at times convenient for the user


   -  accessible for use without physical or institutional barriers


   -  designed from the user's point of view.





      


   This demands a series of actions creating a transit-friendly


   environment that provides safe, secure, and attractive service;


   simple and easily understood transit information systems;


   coordination and integration with land uses, CMP and demand


   management actions, and other transportation facilities; and the


   support of a developed marketing strategy.


      


   Regional public transportation improvements are currently directed


   toward the implementation of the rail programs designed to create


   the infrastructure which supports service on high-and-medium-


   capacity corridors.  This program mix was identified by county


   transportation commissions and transit providers, and comprises the


   FY 1993-99 Regional Transportation Implementation Plan (RTIP) and


   the long-range funded programs.


      


   The identified improvements include eight urban rail lines, nine


   commuter rail lines, and two inter-city corridor lines and in the


   not-too-distance future, high-speed rail. Although expansion of bus


   programs is limited under the current  identified local plans, it


   is estimated that 3,600 replacement buses (based on the current 12


   year life cycle) will have to be purchased (by 2015) to maintain


   the existing levels of bus service. This estimate is exclusive of


   alternative fuel mandates. Unforeseen demands for support facility


   improvements and other capital and operational funding requirements


   may seriously impact on the region's ability to maintain existing


   transit service.





   Transit Program actions must include those that create additional


   stable revenue sources which fund expanded transit operations and


   enhance capital investment for the region's transit systems.


   Several long- and short-term financial actions that must be


   addressed. The short-term include optimizing the use of existing


   resources to better serve transit; prioritization of expenditures


   to minimize operating costs; and  effective management and


   maintenance of existing capital investments.  Long-range actions


   must address the need to finance and fund new operations to serve


   the region's growing population in support of mobility and air


   quality goals. Future revenue must be developed from a variety of


   sources that are not solely dependant on retail sales. A number of


   fee-based new revenue sources are currently under discussion within


   the region.





   Achievement of a multi-modal centers-based transit network requires


   the integration and coordination of bus and fixed guideway projects


   with the other component parts of the Metropolitan Transportation


   System (MTS). ISTEA mandates require that the regional development


   of transit programs must be evaluated, prioritized and implemented


   on the basis of cost effectiveness, operational efficiency, and the


   attainment of mobility and air quality objectives.  Practical


   implementation of the tasks necessary to address operational and


   systemic issues should 1) be incorporated into the planning process


   at an early stage, 2) be given equal consideration as other


   mobility/air quality program options, 3) be  supported and


   complemented by demand programs and performance-based congestion


   management program objectives, and 4) be incorporated into


   corridor/sub-area analyses or as part of the California


   Environmental Quality Act/National Environmental Policy Act


   (CEQA/NEPA) process. Additionally, these changes in process assist


   in the implementation of improved transit TCM programs (described


   in Chapter 11) and actions as required and identified by the


   Federal and California Clean Air Acts. They should be given


   priority in regional decision-making process with regard to project


   selection for funding.


      





                 FINAL RME TRANSIT PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT





   The transit program mix identified in existing current local plans


   (CLPs) is composed of existing levels of bus service plus


   identified rail projects (included RTIP), as well as transit


   capital projects for which funding can be expected through 2015. In


   addition to the identified transit projects, the final regional


   transit strategy portion of 94 RME include a number of center-


   focused service strategies which incorporated the use of advanced


   technologies systems which are projected to meet mobility and air


   quality goals.





   Projections from SCAG's regional model indicate that public


   transportation services will require substantial enhancements to


   meet mobility goals and air quality mandates. In an effort to


   address these issues, SCAG created the Advanced Technology (ATTF)


   and Market Incentive Task Force (MITF). The efforts of these


   taskforces has been to identify  funding mechanisms through market


   based incentives and implement advanced technologies, including


   increasing transit services through innovative delivery systems.


   Model results indicate that these innovations significantly


   increase the effectiveness of regional investment in the proposed


   transit and HOV systems included as part of the 94 RME.








   These enhancements included existing and identified bus and rail


   service from the CLPs and expansion of center-focused innovative


   service (feeders, circulators, Smart Shuttles) within activity


   centers. It is anticipated that transit program enhancements can be


   funded through a number of new market-based mechanisms which are


   less subject to changes in national, regional, and local economic


   conditions.





   Clearly, given the existing program mix, the need to meet mobility


   and air quality goals and to achieve an integrated multi-modal


   centers-based system will require the evaluation and coordination


   of critical operational, programmatic, and infrastructure issues.





   Operationally, these include: 1) the development of service


   criteria and objectives that support redeployment and reallocation


   of existing transit assets which increases service efficiency,


   complements and exploits demand management programs, and CMP


   objectives, and maximizes user access to the system; 2) the use of


   express, limited stop, and local linehaul bus programs that support


   inter-county access and complement rail programs and, 3) the


   accessibility to regional airports, seaports and inter-city rail


   facilities.





   Programmatic issues address local, circulator, shuttle and demand


   response (possibly jitney) service applications developed by and


   for individual activity  centers, their host communities, and the


   adjacent sub-regional areas. The emphasis is to implement


   innovative service applications which 1) create additional


   transportation choice options, 2) support existing bus and rail


   service, 3) support existing land-uses and planned or desired


   development and, 4) exploit and create employment opportunities


   within the region.





   The emphasis on center-focused services introduce a number of


   institutional and infrastructure issues which were previously not


   addressed. Implementation strategies for center-focused service


   planning need to be  incorporated into the overall planning


   structure and process. There is also the need at a regional and


   county level for a method to identify and prioritize program 


   development and implementation within available financial


   constraints from market-based mechanisms. This becomes especially


   critical in centers and sub-regions which cross county lines.





   During the last decade, CTCs and regional transit providers have


   established an informal working relationship to fund, implement and


   administer a number inter-county routes (Figure 4-5). These


   informal relationships were formalized as part of the SB1402 Inter-


   county Bus Study. These inter-county routes (express and local)


   comprise a significant part of the tier II component. Maintenance


   and expansion of inter-county transit service should become a


   regional priority.











                              FIGURE 4-8


                      (REGIONAL ACTIVITY CENTERS)











   Emphasis on center-focused service may substantially change the


   function and requirements of existing transportation providers.


   Regional transit service is comprised of 17 independent bus


   systems. This often results in services that are duplicated,


   competitive, modally uncoordinated, and difficult to use by the


   rider. Beyond the operational concerns, the feasibility,


   practicality and desirability of retaining an individual provider-


   oriented infrastructure needs to addressed and evaluated.


   Ultimately, the type of transit system infrastructure will greatly


   determine and impact regional transit systems' performance and


   associated investment decision-making. The development of succinct


   and defined infrastructure goals and objectives should be a


   priority transit program action.








TRANSIT PLAN ACTIONS:





   As previously discussed, the program mix and support programs


   included as a part of the Regional Transit Strategy influence those


   specific actions which comprise Transit Program Actions. In


   addition to the specific capital program actions identified in


   Chapter 14, there are a number of other actions which support the


   continued development and implementation of a centers-based transit


   network. These actions are identified below:





      General Actions:





   -  Undertake activities at the federal, state, and local levels


      that create and establish new revenue sources which provide


      additional funding for expanded transit capital and operational


      requirements.





   -  Undertake activities which complete and implement the identified


      Inter-City, Commuter and Metro Rail programs to meet Mobility


      Plan goals and Air Quality Plan attainment.





   -  Identify and prioritize the long and short-range transit


      implementation phasing along corridors and at the activity


      center level.





   -  Meet "Project Milestones" for full accessibility as identified


      in approved implementation plans mandated and required in the AD


      Act, 1991.





      Transit Program Actions:





   -  Identify and prioritized service requirements to Regional


      Activity Centers, sub-centers and major attractor-generators at


      the sub-regional level with specific focus on local distribution


      and connectivity to intra-regional network.





   -  Identify local and sub-regional transit service requirements to


      support and maximize access, egress and distribution with the


      emerging rail systems.





   -  Implement new transit projects and maintain existing services


      shown in Figures 4-5 thru 4-7. Specifically focus on integration


      with other intra-regional networks and facilities.





   -  Identify relationship between level-of-service and route


      structures to attraction of existing and potential transit


      markets (user groups, present and future land use, facilities).





   -  Define needs assessment and delivery of services for centers-


      based transit and shuttle support systems.





   -  Maintain bus fleet service.





POLICIES





   The RME Transit Sub-group developed a number of recommended


   policies which are designed to support the development and


   implementation of a multi-modal centers-based transit system. As


   part of the development process, the recommended polices were


   presented to the other RME sub-groups, SCAG's Transit Advisory


   Committee, SCAG's Transportation and Communication Committee and


   Regional Council.





   Public transportation programs should be considered an essential


   public service because of their social, economic, and environmental


   benefits.





   Implementation of new transit service or improvements in existing


   and expanded transit should be supportive of the Centers-Based


   Transit Network concept.





   Specific service types, levels and configuration should be


   determined by the local transit providers, transit users, local


   jurisdictions, and applicable county transportation commissions.





   -  Public transit services shall be designed to provide the maximum


      availability at times convenient for use.





   -  Public transit services shall be designed to be available for


      use without impediments.





   -  Public transit services should be designed to provide maximum


      user utility.





   -  New and expansion transit programs which are designed to meet


      the objectives of Transportation Control Measures contained in


      the AQMP shall receive priority for funding.





   -  Local funding resources for transit should be used to leverage


      all available federal funding sources as applicable.





   -  All existing and new public transit services, facilities and/or


      systems shall be fully accessible to persons with disabilities


      as defined, mandated, and required under the applicable Titles


      and Sections of the Americans With Disabilities Act, 1990 and


      the Rehabilitation Act, 1974.






   -  All existing and new public transit services shall be provided


      in a manner which does not preclude use on the basis of race,


      color and/or national origin as defined, mandated and required


      under Title 6 of the Civil Rights Act, 1964.





   -  All existing and new public transit services, facilities and/or


      systems shall evaluate the potential for private sector


      participation through the use of competitive procurement based


      on Fully Allocated Costing methodologies.











CHAPTER                  REGIONAL STREETS AND


FIVE                       HIGHWAYS PROGRAM





INTRODUCTION








   New HOV facilities, freeway, gap closures, toll roads and Advanced


   Technologies offer tremendous opportunities for helping Southern


   California attain the transportation goals of the Regional Mobility


   Element.





   This chapter discusses those developments as well as policies for


   the SCAG region roadway program. Additionally, this chapter


   contains a status report on the changes to the freeways and


   highways since 1989 followed by a description of 1990 travel


   conditions.  Figure 5-1 shows the current SCAG state highway


   system.





   Mobility strategies contained in this RME chapter have potential


   for being integrated into the applicable air quality management


   plans for the air basins in the region. Further discussion of the


   TCMs can be found in Volume 2, Chapter 11, Regional Transportation


   Control Measure (TCM) Programs.








IMPLEMENTATION STATUS OF


THE REGIONAL STREETS AND HIGHWAYS PROGRAM





   The implementation status of the Regional Streets and Highways


   program is a partial reflection of the degree of funding available


   to local and state governments. Since 1989, jurisdictions within


   the region have obtained new funding sources that apply to regional


   streets and highways.  Changes in funding sources include local


   sales tax propositions, the Intermodal Surface Transportation


   Efficiency Act (ISTEA), and State Highway Programs.





   Status of Recommended State Highway and Freeway System Improvements





   Mixed-Flow Highway/Freeway: (1) A connection between Interstate 15


   between Route 60 and Route 91 was completed in June 1989. (2) The


   Interstate 105 Freeway opened in October 1993. (3) The


   Environmental Impact Statement of the Route 710 gap closure project


   is in the approval process and Route 30 is on target to begin


   construction in 1996 with a completion date of 2003. (4)


   Improvements on Route 86 in Imperial County have progressed. (5) In


   Ventura County, the 23/18 interchange was opened October 1993. (6)


   Route 118 widening in Saticoy is under construction.


______________________________





   5  A recent court decision has indicated that approval of all local


jurisdictions is required before a freeway can be constructed.  If


this decision is affirmed by higher courts, the opposition to the


recommended route by South Pasadena could effectively block completion


of the Route 710 gap.








   SCAG included an extensive network of High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV)


   lanes in the 1989 Regional Mobility Plan. Approximately 1,100


   centerline miles of HOV network were identified covering an


   extensive part of the freeway network. It was recognized that HOV


   lanes provide significant time savings incentives to form carpools


   and vanpools that assist in achieving improved air quality, thus


   relieving congestion and improving mobility. In addition, a number


   of HOV facilities were identified as part of an improved transit


   system, providing exclusive right-of-way for express bus service


   with, in some cases, on-line stations, transportation centers, and


   Park-And-Ride facilities.





   High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Program: (1) New HOV facilities have


   opened on segments of Interstates 5 and 405, and Route 57, (Orange


   County); Interstates 105, 210 and 405 (Los Angeles County), and a


   segment of Route 91. (2) The Interstate 10 El Monte Busway was


   extended into the Los Angeles Central Business District. (3)


   Several miles of HOV lanes are currently under construction on


   portions of the Interstate 110 Busway, Route 91, and Interstate 405


   (through the interchange with Interstate 105). Additional HOV lanes


   will be constructed on almost all metropolitan freeways by 2015.





   Status of Arterial HOV Program





   HOV lanes are planned for construction on most of the congested


   segments of the regional freeway network by 2015. While these


   facilities will assist in reducing congestion on the freeway


   system, congestion on many of the streets and roads classified as


   arterials (both principal and minor) will become more severe. 


   Although the 1989 RMP did not contain an arterial HOV program, many


   of the same measures that have been used to improve traffic flow on


   the freeway system have application to the region's arterial


   system.  For example, HOV lanesÄboth for automobiles and public


   transit vehiclesÄon the congested non-freeway arterials can provide


   some relief.





   Arterial HOV lanes are designed to give preference and time savings


   to transit or carpools on arterial streets.  The availability of an


   exclusive lane for transit buses reduces conflicts with mixed-flow


   traffic resulting in faster running times, reduced operating costs,


   lower bus emissions, and improved passenger attraction.  The use of


   arterial HOV lanes is consistent with policies that encourage


   maximizing people-carrying capacity.





   Arterial HOV lanes may be placed on one-way streets and/or two-way


   streets with simple re-striping, in separate rights-of-way.  They


   may be contra-flow (against the flow of traffic), concurrent flow


   (with the flow of traffic), or transit mall (reserved exclusively


   for the use of transit vehicles).  When developing arterial HOV


   lanes, consideration should be given to the volume of transit


   patronage and carpool users, the number of vehicles to be operated,


   the degree of conflict with mixed-flow traffic, and the general


   suitability of adjacent land uses and access needs.  Arterial HOV


   lanes may also be considered in potential high-density transit


   corridors where rail improvements may not be viable due to high


   cost or lack of right-of-way.





   Two selection criteria -- congestion duration and potential for


   improved transit operations -- make the HOV lanes effective in


   terms of performance measures, and they are visibly productive in


   the social and political sense.  The low cost of arterial HOV lanes


   and the potential for tangible operating costs savings and emission


   reductions from buses make implementation and measurement of


   immediate results possible.





   Existing Arterial HOV Facilities.  In downtown Los Angeles, a


   contra-flow bus lane expedites northbound public transit vehicle


   traffic on Spring Street.  The Spring Street lane is only available


   to public transportation vehicles.





   Status of Recommended Local Streets and


   Roads System Improvements





   Capital improvements to the local streets and roads system were 


   accomplished primarily through the Capital Improvement Programs of


   the region's CMPs, through the local sales tax measures and via


   city  and county budgets.





   Status of Recommended Transportation


   System Management Improvements





   Jurisdictions within the SCAG region have implemented several of


   the TSM projects recommended in the 1989 RMP.  Completed projects


   include signal synchronization, computerized signal systems,


   installation of ramp meters, and intersection improvements.  The


   status of the TSM program can be found in Appendix C.





   Status of Toll Roads





   California highways, with some notable exceptions such as scenic


   drives on the Monterey Peninsula, have historically been toll-free. 


   California statute does permit establishment of bridge districts


   and these districts have been able to construct facilities on the


   state highway system that charge tolls.  In the SCAG region, the


   Vincent Thomas Bridge (between San Pedro and Terminal Island, on


   State Route 47), charges a toll for crossing.





   Recognizing an era of limited resources yet desirous of mitigating


   congestion through enhanced capacity, the state has enacted


   legislation that would permit public funds to be used to build


   conventional highways that would charge tolls for use.  In the SCAG


   region, there are currently five toll projects: two toll lanes in


   each direction within the median of Route 91 between Riverside and


   Orange Counties, an AB 680 Project; and four facilities within


   Orange County: an extension of Route 57 between Route 22 and


   Interstate 405; an extension of Route 73 through the San Joaquin


   Hills; Route 231/261, known as the Eastern Corridors; and Route


   241, known as the Foothill Corridor.  The status of the projects is


   shown in Table 5-1.  Three miles of the Foothill Tollway opened in


   October 1993.








                               TABLE 5-1


                   STATUS OF THE TOLL ROAD PROJECTS








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                              FIGURE 5-1


                       (REGIONAL HIGHWAY SYSTEM)























                           FIGURE 5-1 CONT.


                           (REGIONAL SYSTEM)














Figure 5-1A











EXISTING (1990) REGIONAL SYSTEM


OPERATING CONDITIONS





   Table 5-2 summarizes major performance indicators for the 1990


   regional transportation system.  The system supported a tremendous


   amount of trips on a daily basis and the dominant mode was solo-


   driving (75.6 percent).  In 1990, the daily person trips and


   vehicle trips were 48.9 million and 35.4 million, respectively,


   yielding an average daily VMT of 294.2 million.  As a consequence,


   the average speed on the regional transportation system was only


   about 32.5 miles per hour, although about half of these trips took


   place on the region's extensive freeway system.  The total daily


   hours of delay amounted to 2.2 million hours (see Figure 5-1A, 1990


   E & F Levels of Service).








                               TABLE 5-2


                   SUMMARY OF PERFORMANCE INDICATORS


                       FOR 1990 REGIONAL SYSTEM








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   Source:  1990 Validation of the Regional Transportation Model,


March 1993


   * Mode split percentage when all modes (walk, cycle, telecommute)


are included.





   The poor operating status of the regional transportation system in


   1990 is also demonstrated by traditional measures of roadway system


   performance [e.g. level of service (LOS)]. A substantial portion of


   the region's freeway system experienced major congestion,


   especially around major activity centers (See Figure 2-1, 1990


   Level of Service on the Regional System Map, in Chapter 2, Volume


   I).














FRAMEWORK FOR DEVELOPING THE


REGIONAL STREETS AND HIGHWAYS PROGRAM





   The Regional Streets and Highways program was developed to support


   regional goal attainment. The program supports alternatives to


   single occupant vehicle travel. It considers freight transportation


   and its links to the economy and system operation.  Moreover, the


   program recognizes the critical issues related to the region's


   almost complete dependence on fossil fuels for mobility.   These


   issues are addressed through provision of Park-and-Ride lots and


   HOV facilities that directly link activity centers and areas.  The


   centers concept embraces the provision of transit and access via


   other modes such as walking and bicycling. System continuity,


   improved system operation, and enhanced fuel efficiencies are


   addressed by gap closures and technology.





   Regional Streets and Highways Program Development





   -  Broaden the role of local arterial roadways in achieving


      mobility objectives.





   -  Employ greater use of Smart Corridors, Smart Streets and


      technology.





   -  Expand the use of transportation system management.





   -  Support transit through provision of freeway HOV facilities and


      Park-And-Ride lots.





   -  Develop arterial HOV facilities to support transit.





   -  Use market pricing where appropriate as a strategy to achieve


      regional goals and objectives.





   Specific policies were formulated in the following areas:  freeway,


   HOV and toll facility development, arterial HOV facilities, Smart


   Corridors, Smart Streets and TSM.





POLICIES





   Freeway and HOV Facilities





   -  Potential down-stream congestion impacts from capacity enhancing


      projects will be studied.





   -  HOV facilities shall be constructed and operated to encourage


      use of public and private transit, smart shuttle transit,


      jitneys, carpools, vanpools and other HOVs.





   -  In addition to increasing occupancy thresholds on HOV


      facilities, consideration should be given to additional or


      expanded HOV capacity in the corridor.





   -  Alternative modes and projects shall be developed and


      implemented where implementation of HOV element projects is


      demonstrated to be unfeasible due to widespread local


      opposition.





   -  HOV lanes shall be provided for a new facility construction, gap


      closures, and for capacity enhancements of existing facilities


      in accordance with the HOV program.





   -  Certain freeway facilities within the SCAG region lack adequate


      median shoulder or existing Right of Way to add HOV lanes. When


      the formation of two plus occupancy carpools on these facilities


      yield consistent directional HOV volumes averaging 1500 vehicles


      per hour during the daily peak periods of congestion, SCAG shall


      request Caltrans to initiate a study as to how the HOV


      improvement can be implemented before programming the project.


      The study shall examine alternatives for the HOV, operational


      considerations (including IVHS), public support for HOV


      (including conversion) within the corridor, and pricing, as well


      as the legal and environmental ramifications of each specific


      project.





   Toll Facilities





   -  Toll facilities shall be designed, operated and priced to


      encourage use of public and private transit, carpools, vanpools,


      and other HOV.  Average vehicle occupancy (AVO) of the toll


      facilities shall be comparable to similar HOV facilities.





   -  Pricing policies may be applied to maintain appropriate levels


      of service on facilities.





   Arterial HOV Facilities





   -  Necessary steps to develop and implement arterial HOV facilities


      in support of transit and rideshare activities shall be


      initiated.





   Smart Corridors and Smart Streets





   -  Necessary steps to develop and implement Smart Corridors and


      Smart Streets to achieve regional mobility objectives shall be


      initiated.





   Transportation System Management





   -  Expanded transportation system management by local jurisdictions


      will be encouraged.





   -  The development and application of management systems by local


      jurisdictions as a means of optimizing the expenditure of scarce


      maintenance, operating and capital funds should be supported.





   -  New transportation infrastructure will incorporate advanced


      system technologies, where appropriate.





   -  TSM activities throughout the region shall be coordinated among


      jurisdictions.





   -  Methods to improve safety and reduce incidents on the regional


      transportation system will be considered.


______________________________





   ******  Assumes that once the conversion takes place, HOV traffic


volumes will increase 20%.








SUBREGIONAL INPUT





   Subregional input, as a part of the bottom-up planning process, is


   comprised of significant issues of concern as they relate to


   regional streets and highways. Tables 5-3 and 5-4 depict


   subregional input as related to the regional program.





                               TABLE 5-3


           SUBREGIONALLY RECOMMENDED IMPLEMENTATION PROGRAM








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______________________________





   ********  The County of Riverside has programs on a different


magnitude from WRCOG and CVAG.  Riverside County has diverse needs


between the subregions and the County government is an active member


in all the Riverside County subregions.














                               TABLE 5-4


                       SCAG REGION SUBAREA INPUT








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RECOMMENDED REGIONAL STREETS AND


HIGHWAYS PROGRAM





   The program recommends capacity expansions, enhanced system


   management, and feasibility studies to be implemented by the CTCs,


   the Transportation Corridor Agencies (TCAs), Caltrans and local


   jurisdictions.  The seven-year Capital Improvement Programs of the


   1992 Congestion Management Programs were found to be consistent


   with the 1989 RMP and compatible with adjacent county(ies) CMPs. 


   As such, the CMPs were incorporated into the Action Element of the


   RME as authorized by CMP legislation.








   Capacity Expansions





   Figure 5-2 shows the proposed mixed-flow capacity expansion


   projects to be implemented as a part of the 1994 Plan. Figure 5-3


   shows proposed HOV capacity expansion projects included in the


   Plan.  For reference purposes, existing mixed-flow and HOV lanes


   are also shown on the respective figures.





   In total, 2,710 additional lane miles of mixed-flow and HOV


   capacity are proposed.  Table 5-5 shows the breakdown of total


   mixed-flow and HOV lane mileage to be added by location within the


   region.  Of the 2,710 additional lane miles, mixed-flow freeway


   capacity expansions comprise 53 percent (1,446 lane miles) while


   expansions for HOV comprise 47 percent (1,264 lane miles).





   Projected Changes in Lane Mileage.  Table 5-5a shows the projected


   changes in existing lane mileage between December 31, 1990 and year


   2015.  Under the 1994 Plan, the region's mixed-flow lane mileage


   will be expanded from a 1990 total of 8,674 to 10,120 (a 17 percent


   increase); the region's HOV mileage will be expanded from a 1990


   total of 105 to 1369 (a 1,203 percent increase).





   The largest expansion in mixed-flow lane mileage will occur in


   Orange County while the greatest expansion in HOV lane mileage will


   occur in Los Angeles County.








                               TABLE 5-5


                      TOTAL MIXED-FLOW & HOV LANE


                MILES TO BE ADDED BY COUNTY 1990 - 2015








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   Source:  1994 Plan, *Caltrans District 11


   Note:  Includes new facilities, widening of existing facilities and


toll roads.








                              TABLE 5-5a


              PROJECTED CHANGES IN LANE MILEAGE BY COUNTY


                              1990 - 2015








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Source:  1994 Plan, *Caltrans District 11


   SCAG Forecasting, Analysis, and Monitoring, (4-1-94)








Expansions due to new facility construction and widening of existing


facilities.  Table 5-6 shows the breakdown of capacity expansions by


improvement type.  The construction of new facilities will add 958


lane miles of capacity.  Of the new facility mileage, approximately 81


percent will serve mixed-flow traffic, and 19 percent will be HOV


only.   Existing facilities will be expanded by 1752 lane miles.  Of


this total,   38 percent will serve mixed-flow while 62 percent will


be HOV only.





                               TABLE 5-6


                    PROPOSED CAPACITY EXPANSIONS BY


                           IMPROVEMENT TYPE


                               1990-2015








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   Source: 1994 Plan, *Caltrans District 11











            INSERT FIGURE 5-2 PROPOSED MIXED-FLOW PROJECTS











   INSERT FIGURE 5-3 HIGH-OCCUPANCY VEHICLE LANES 1990 EXISTING AND


PROPOSED














   Freeway HOV.  Discussions with Caltrans, county transportation


   commissions and transit operators indicate a continued support for


   HOV lanes as a mobility strategy for the region. Additional HOV


   lanes have been identified and commitments to building routes


   identified in the 1989 RMP are filling new identified demands. 


   Connections between segments of the HOV system also need to be


   developed, including the creation of direct HOV ramp connectors


   where costs and conditions warrant.  The reasonably funded


   infrastructure actions in the RME maintain the commitment to


   completion of the freeway HOV system.








SCAG REGION CONGESTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS





   The Congestion Management Program (CMP) is a state-mandated program


   intended as the analytical basis for transportation decisions made


   through the State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP) process


   and Regional Transportation Improvement Program.  Urbanized


   counties within the SCAG Region are required to adopt CMPs:


   Ventura, Orange, Riverside, Los Angeles and San Bernardino


   counties.  Under state law, Imperial County is not required to


   prepare a congestion management program.





   CMP Elements. Elements of the CMP include:





      -  a system of highways and roadways with minimum level of


         service performance standards designated for highway segments


         and key roadway intersections on the system;





      -  transit standards for frequency and routing of transit


         service and coordination between transit operators;





      -  a trip reduction and travel demand element promoting


         alternative transportation methods during peak travel


         periods;





      -  a program to analyze the impacts of local land use decisions


         on the regional transportation system, including an estimate


         of the costs of mitigating those impacts;





      -  a seven-year capital improvement program that benefits the


         CMP system.  The CIP is designed to maintain or improve


         traffic level of service and transit performance standards,


         to mitigate land use impacts, and to conform to vehicle


         emissions mitigation strategies.  Dependent upon the county,


         the roadway component of the CIP pertains to freeways and


         highways or arterials, or all three; and





      -  deficiency plan requirements that implement strategies that


         either fully mitigate congestion or alternatively provide


         measurable improvement to congestion and air quality.





   Relationship of the Congestion Management Programs to the Overall


   Regional Mobility Element





   The Congestion Management Programs are an integral part of the


   metropolitan transportation planning process, serving as a


   foundation for plan development and implementation.   The mandated


   elements of the CMPs are closely linked to the various strategies


   and major programs that comprise or are considered for


   incorporation into the regional plan.





   In accordance with CMP statute, SCAG evaluates the consistency


   between the CMPs and SCAG's RME and compatibility of adjacent


   County CMPs.   When SCAG's adopted criteria for consistency and


   compatibility are met, the CMP CIPs are incorporated into the


   Regional Action Program of the RME and into the SCAG Regional


   Transportation Improvement Program.  In this manner, the CIPs make


   up a portion of the financially constrained program of projects of


   the RME and the RTIP. The CMPs also are links to the Transportation


   Control Measures of the applicable air quality management districts


   within the SCAG region.





   An important aspect of the CMPs is the desired integration of the


   capital improvement strategies with both transit and transportation


   demand management actions and deficiency plans.  Deficiency plans


   are not, however, required to be tied to mitigate specific land-use


   developments.





   While the CMP is best viewed as a whole rather than in its


   constituent parts, the Regional Streets and Highways analysis deals


   only with the roadway portion of the programs.





   1992 Consistency Finding. Under Government Code Section 65089.2,


   SCAG is required to determine CMP consistency with the RME,


   compatibility with other CMPs in the region and consistency with


   SCAG's regional model and database.  SCAG's Transportation and


   Communications Committee approved an interim finding of consistency


   and compatibility for the CMPs within the SCAG region.





   The Capital Improvement Programs of the Congestion Management


   Programs (CMPs) are hereby incorporated by reference into the RME.








   Relationship of the Congestion Management Programs to the Regional


   Streets and Highways Program





   Local Streets and Roads Improvements.  The projects that


   specifically pertain to the local streets and roadways in the CMP


   CIPs are recommended as the local streets and roads improvement


   program.    Table 5-7 summarizes the seven-year CIP projects of the


   1992 CMPs by the type of improvement.  A total of $1.93 billion


   will be spent (44.7 percent) on CMP local streets improvements.





   Arterial Programs.SCAG Subregions have also developed arterial


   street programs that serve local and in some cases, regional


   travel.  Through its Regional Arterial Program, Coachella Valley


   acknowledges that regional transportation issues have been and will


   continue to be a primary concern in efforts to relieve congestion


   and provide subregional mobility.  The Coachella Valley Area


   Transportation Study (CVATS) identifies street and highway needs


   through the year 2010.  Mechanisms to fund these programs include


   Coachella Valley portions of Riverside County's Measure A sales tax


   and a Transportation Uniform Mitigation Fee (TUMF).  Forty percent


   of Coachella Valley's share of Measure A is estimated to  generate


   approximately $126 million during its 20-year life.  The


   Expenditure Plan links the implementation of a TUMF to the Regional


   Arterial portion of the sales tax measure.





   Of the $800 million system identified by the CVATS, approximately


   $590 million worth are approved as "Regional Arterials".  The


   projects include seven new or improved freeway interchanges, six


   new or improved railroad crossings south of Interstate 10, twelve


   new or improved bridges across the Whitewater River, twenty new or


   improved major arterials including the proposed Mid-Valley Parkway,


   and eleven new or improved bridges over other channels.





   Arterial HOV Lane Opportunities. Exclusive arterial lanes to


   support transit operations or as facility components of projects


   (e.g. the Santa Monica Boulevard Corridor) offer improvements in


   mobility through improvements in transit reliability, speed,


   safety, and operating efficiency.  Further, evidence suggests


   reduced congestion conflicts can improve the emissions from transit


   buses and improve air quality.  The RME recommends the development


   of arterial HOV lanes where opportunities with appropriate


   conditions can result in improved transit operations or can


   encourage shared rides through time savings to users.  Nine


   potential arterial HOV candidate corridors have been identified for


   the purposes of modeling and to determine their potential in


   achieving mobility objectives.





   1. Olive Street: from Olympic Boulevard to Fourth Street.


   2. Hill Street: from Olympic Boulevard to Temple Street.


   3. Broadway: from Olympic Boulevard to Temple Street.


   4. Vermont Avenue: from Exposition Boulevard to Santa Monica


      Boulevard.


   5. Santa Monica Boulevard: from Sepulveda to Century City.


   6. Century Boulevard: from Interstate 405 to LAX.


   7. La Tijera/Sepulveda Boulevards:  from Interstate 405 to LAX.


   8. Colorado Boulevard: through Eagle Rock (Tri-Cities Corridor).


   9. In corridors that access Metrorail stations where high volumes


      of buses occur (Alvarado Street, Ventura Boulevard, etc).





   The potential for additional lanes, both for the exclusive use of


   public transportation and for the mixed use of public


   transportation and carpools should be examined.  Both transit-only


   and transit/carpool HOV lanes on other principal arterials should


   be studied.  Similar facilities may have application in other areas


   of the region.





   Transportation System Management





   Recommended TSM improvements under Caltran's Urban Freeway Advanced


   Traffic Management System include freeway ramp metering and


   construction of Park-And-Ride lots (see Figures 5-4 and 5-5),


   changeable message signs and closed-circuit televisions (CCTV). 


   One of the major objectives of ramp metering is to balance demand


   and capacity.  Ramp metering may sometimes be a disincentive to


   using the freeway for short trips during the peak periods.  Ramp


   meters control the pace at which vehicles enter a highway.   Timed


   entry allows vehicles to merge safely without impeding existing


   traffic.  This diminishes the bottlenecking often associated with



   on-ramps because the controlled access rate matches the highway's


   ability to absorb the additional traffic.  Although motorists incur


   a delay on the ramp, the mainline capacity is enhanced, travel


   time, speeds, and emissions are improved.  Metered on-ramps may


   also include HOV bypass lanes so that carpools, buses and


   motorcycles can bypass the queue.





   Changeable message signs aid navigation around freeway events that


   cause congestion and delay while CCTV allows for surveillance of


   the network to detect congestion, incidents, accidents and to


   facilitate actions to reduce the duration of delay.





   Park-And-Ride facilities are constructed along major transit


   corridors to serve as staging areas for single-occupant motorists


   to join carpools/vanpools and board public transit or commuter rail


   for the trip to work, etc. The lots also provide convenient meeting


   spots for shopping and recreational trips.














                               TABLE 5-7


                      SUMMARY OF CMP CIP PROJECTS








Click HERE for graphic.








   Sources:


      1. San Bernardino Associated Governments, Congestion Management


         Program for San Bernardino County,November 1992.


      2. Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority,


         Congestion Management Program for Los Angeles County,


         December 1992.


      3. Riverside County Transportation Commission, Congestion


         Management Program for Riverside County, December 1992.


      4. Orange County Transportation Authority, Congestion Management


         Program for Orange County, December 1992.


      5. Ventura County Transportation Commission, Congestion


         Management Program for Ventura County, December 1992.











                              FIGURE 5-4


                             (RAMP METERS)








                              FIGURE 5-5


                             (PARK-N-RIDE)











   Safety and Accident/Incident Management





   Caltrans, the county transportation commissions and the California


   Highway Patrol (CHP) currently employ various incident management


   programs.  Mechanisms that allow for recovering the costs of


   incident/accident clean-up through incentive fees should also be


   examined.  Efforts should be made to quantify and evaluate the


   impacts of accidents and incidents on the region's roadways. 


   Mechanisms that address the accident/incident cost recovery should


   be investigated for possible implementation.





REGIONAL MOBILITY ELEMENT PLANNING TOOLS





   SCAG Region Congestion Management System (CMS)





   Section 1034 of the ISTEA requires development, establishment, and


   implementation of a traffic congestion management system by the


   State in cooperation with SCAG, and with affected agencies


   receiving assistance under the Federal Transit Act.  The roles and


   responsibilities of the affected agencies are to be mutually


   determined.  In December 1993, FHWA/Federal Transit Administration


   (FTA) released the Interim Final Rules for the Congestion


   Management System; the interim rules became effective on January 3,


   1994.





   A CMS is a process that provides information on transportation


   system performance and alternative strategies to alleviate


   congestion and enhance the mobility of persons and freight.  A CMS


   includes methods to monitor and evaluate performance, identify


   alternative actions, assess and implement cost-effective actions,


   and evaluate the effectiveness of implemented actions.





   By October 1, 1994 Caltrans must prepare a work plan that shows how


   full CMS implementation will be achieved; critical areas requiring


   analysis must be identified, and data collection activities must be


   initiated.  By October 1, 1995, the CMS must be fully operational


   and must provide projects and programs for consideration in


   developing metropolitan and statewide transportation plans and


   improvement programs. Until the CMS is fully operational, there are


   restrictions on the programming of federal funds for highway or


   transit projects that significantly increase capacity for Single


   Occupant Vehicles (SOV) (23 CFR 450.336(b).





   In TMAs that are nonattainment for carbon monoxide and/or ozone, a


   project that significantly increases the capacity for SOVs cannot


   be programmed for Federal funding unless the project results from


   an approved CMS.





   SCAG's Congestion Management System Task Force, expanded from the


   Intercounty Congestion Management Agency Working Group, has


   recommended that the SCAG Regional Council approve the following


   principles for CMS Development in the region:


______________________________





   8  Work plan means a written description of major activities


necessary to develop, establish, and implement a management or


monitoring system, including identification of responsibilities,


resources, and target dates for completion of the major activities.














   -  That the Southern California CMS focus on meeting basic federal


      requirements necessary to comply with ISTEA requirements for


      first year implementation.  The CMS can be enhanced in future


      years as experience is gained in CMS implementation, and as


      demonstrated needs arise.





   -  That the Congestion Management System requirement should use the


      existing state-mandated Congestion Management Program to the


      fullest extent possible in order to meet federal ISTEA statute,


      in order to:





      -  avoid creating a new layer of bureaucracy to an already


         complicated Southern California planning process.





      -  avoid creating costly new responsibilities for local


         governments.





      -  effectively integrate into the regional planning process, the


         three year effort on the part of local jurisdictions, and


         many other agencies and interests in developing and


         implementing the state CMP requirement.





   -  That Southern California agencies actively support federal


      approval to use the CMP to meet the CMS to the fullest extent


      possible.





            -  That the Inter-County CMA Group continue to explore


               with SCAG staff ways of improving technical


               coordination between the CMP and the RME.








   CMS Development in Imperial County. In following government


   requirements, SCAG will cooperate with Caltrans in the development


   of a congestion management system for the affected SCAG non-


   urbanized subregion.  SCAG's existing subregional planning


   framework will be used to assist in the development process.





   Relationship of the CMS to SCAG Metropolitan Transportation


   Planning Process. The CMS technical and policy development process


   is closely coordinated with existing well-established processes for


   congestion management to ensure that the CMS will be fully


   integrated into the metropolitan transportation planning process,


   in accordance with the Interim Final Regulation.





   The System of Regional Significance





   The regional transportation plan must describe the transportation


   system (including, but not necessarily limited to major roadways,


   transit, and multi-modal and intermodal facilities) that should


   function as an integrated Metropolitan Transportation System (MTS),


   giving emphasis to those facilities that serve important national


   and regional transportation functions.  The definition of the MTS


   will be examined and an improved definition developed, based on


   issues raised by county transportation commissions, Caltrans and


   others, subsequent to adoption of the 1994 RME.


______________________________





   9  23 U.S.C. 134(g)(2)(A)








   The existing SCAG System of Regional Significance (SRS) was


   approved in the 1989 Regional Mobility Plan and consists of


   approximately 3,380 miles of federal and state highways in addition


   to 3,450 miles of major arterials.  Arterials are defined as roads


   that transport 10,000 or more average daily traffic (ADT) and carry


   significant volumes of traffic on routes seven miles or more in


   length. (See Figure 5-6 System of Regional Significance.)





   In connection with ongoing efforts to better integrate the region's


   systems of highways, transit, airports, harbors etc., the SRS will


   be further refined to include the following criteria:





   -  Arterials parallel to a freeway that can be used as alternate


      routes.





   -  Routes that provide access to major activity centers such as


      amusement parks, regional shopping centers, and military bases.





   -  Routes that are included in each county's CMP.





   -  Goods movement routes including both truck routes and rail lines


      (including rural agricultural routes that provide goods to the


      region).





   -  Fixed transit routes such as light rail and commuter rail, and


      express bus routes.





   -  Intermodal transfer facilities.





   -  TDM facilities such as telecommunication centers, park-and-ride


      lots, bicycle transportation facilities, pedestrian walkways,


      and others; and





   -  TSM facilities such as ramp metering, Smart Corridors,


      Changeable Message Signs (CMS), Closed Circuit TV (CCTV), and


      others.





   -  Review  10,000 as the threshold figure for Average Daily Traffic


      (ADT) in defining arterials.





   National Highway System





   The National Highway System (NHS) is one component of the MTS.  The


   NHS will consist of the interstates, a number of strategic highways


   needed for national defense purposes, strategic highway connectors,


   and selected principal arterials.  Recommendations for the NHS were


   cooperatively developed by the state of California and the


   Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) and are shown in Figure


   5-7.  Congress is expected to approve the NHS by September, 1995. 


   Until that time, the NHS consists of the interstates and streets


   and roads currently classified as principal arterials.  While the


   NHS in the SCAG region comprises only 15 percent of the mileage of


   the MTS, slightly more than 50 percent of the region's VMT takes


   place on the system.


______________________________





   10  The definition for regionally significant was adopted as part


of the Regional Transportation Improvement Program Guidelines.  Some


county transportation commissions have suggested that the arterial


definition should vary by county, and that issues will be considered


and resolved during the public review of the RME. This and related


issues will be considered and resolved after the Spring 1994 adoption


of the RME.








   Efforts continue to refine the system based upon expanded criteria


   that are intended to integrate and focus planning efforts on the


   roadway system as a comprehensive whole and as a part of the


   overall MTS.











Figure 5-6


System of Regional Significance











Insert new figure/map here: System of Regional Significance Figure 5-6


cont.











Figure 5-7 - National Highway System














ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY IN TRANSPORTATION





   Advanced technology can be used to enhance the LOS provided by the


   existing roadway network without having to increase capacity.


   Advanced technologies include Smart Streets/Corridors, Intelligent


   Vehicle Highway System (IVHS), and applying electronics,


   communications or information processing to improve the efficiency


   and safety of the surface transportation system.  Table 5-8


   indicates the several IVHS technologies available. One of these


   technologies, Advanced Traffic Management System, is currently


   being developed in the County of Los Angeles by Caltrans [See


   Figure 5-8].








                               TABLE 5-8


                      INTELLIGENT VEHICLE HIGHWAY


                        SYSTEM (IVHS) PROGRAMS








Click HERE for graphic.








Source:  IVHS America, May 1992











Figure 5-8 (IVHS Map)











   Smart Corridors





   A Smart Corridor is one in which an agency's control and response


   decisions are made in agreement with the actions of other agencies


   involved in handling traffic congestion.  The agencies involved


   include Caltrans, CHP, local emergency services providers, and


   local transportation departments.  In addition, Smart Corridors


   will require direct involvement of the county transportation


   commissions.





   A Smart Corridor is also one in which all facilities, including


   freeways and surface streets, are used at their maximum efficiency


   during both normal periods of congestion and when an incident has


   occurred.  This would involve freeway surveillance and control,


   ramp metering, improved traffic signal control, incident detection


   and response, motorist service patrols and other traffic management


   features.





   Smart Corridors provide the driver with the information needed to


   make intelligent decisions on the best route to travel, given


   existing conditions.  In some cases, the motorist may delay trips,


   cancel trips, or use alternatives to their normal route.  Motorist


   information opportunities include commercial radio and television,


   changeable message signs, highway advisory radio, telephone call-in


   and computer bulletin boards.  They also include more sophisticated


   elements such as in-vehicle navigation systems, special television


   messages and dedicated in-vehicle radio signalling.





   Smart Corridors Under Development. The Santa Monica Freeway Smart


   Corridor covers an approximately 14.5 mile stretch of the Santa


   Monica Freeway.  Project implementation began in mid-1993. Project


   planning began in early 1993 with the purpose of assessing the


   effectiveness of project elements and the applicability of Smart


   concepts to other corridors.  The total project cost is


   approximately $48 million, which has been provided through federal,


   state and local sources.





   The Glendale/Pasadena/Burbank Smart Corridor Project is currently


   under development.  The Smart Corridor Project, (210, 134, I-5


   Freeways), including the cities of Pasadena, Los Angeles, Glendale,


   and Burbank, is funded by the ISTEA/Proposition C fund.





   Potential Corridors. In accordance with Assembly Bill 1239, the


   Smart Corridor Statewide Study identified combined freeway and


   surface corridors where significant congestion exists and where the


   Smart Corridor concepts will prove cost effective in reducing


   congestion. In the SCAG region, the Study included the urbanized


   portions of Los Angeles, Ventura, San Bernardino, Riverside, and


   Orange counties.  Also, all freeways in Caltrans Districts 7, 8,


   11, 12 were reviewed to evaluate the level of congestion and


   opportunities for implementing Smart Corridor techniques. Examples


   of potential Smart Corridors in the region are identified in Tables


   5-9 and 5-10.











                               TABLE 5-9


                          LOS ANGELES COUNTY


                       POTENTIAL SMART CORRIDORS








Click HERE for graphic.








   Source:  Statewide Smart Corridor Study





                              TABLE 5-10


                             ORANGE COUNTY


                       POTENTIAL SMART CORRIDORS








Click HERE for graphic.








   Source:  Statewide Smart Corridor Study








ISSUES IN NEED OF FURTHER STUDY





   Several issues remain to be considered relative to regional goal


   attainment including the following:








   -  The role that local streets and roads can and will play in


      achieving mobility.





   -  How the region will address immediate congestion problems while


      attempting to reduce the region's reliance on SOV.





   -  Roadway planning for clean fueled single occupancy vehicles.





   -  Effectively reducing the impact of freight transportation in the


      region.





   -  Improving the efficiency of freight transportation on the


      region's roadways.





   -  Coping with energy demands for transportation purposes if the


      reliance on the SOV continues.














CHAPTER                 REGIONAL NON-MOTORIZED


SIX                     TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM





INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND





   Non-motorized transportation, generally defined as walking and


   bicycling, is an important aspect of Southern California's overall


   strategy for meeting the region's mobility, air quality and energy


   goals. The increase of pedestrian and bicycle reliance has the


   long-range potential of ultimately reducing vehicle trips and


   vehicle miles in the region.  The region, however, must improve its


   existing non-motorized system. While non-motorized transportation


   is considered an element of the vehicle substitution strategy of


   Transportation Demand Management (TDM), bicycling and walking are


   distinct modes that not only share facilities with other modes, but


   also require unique facilities.


      


   To enhance bicycle and pedestrian travel, the State of California


   requires consideration of pedestrian programs and links to transit,


   where appropriate. The Regional Mobility Element (RME) itself is


   required to develop an action program that includes a program for


   developing intracity and intercity bicycle programs.








ASSESSMENT OF EXISTING NON-MOTORIZED


TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM AND PERFORMANCE     


      


   A major drawback to non-motorized transportation in Southern


   California is that the current bikeway system does not provide a


   safe, continuous network throughout the region.





   There are three classifications of bikeways. Class I are off-road,


   paved paths. Class II are on-road, signed and striped bicycle


   lanes. Class III are on-road, signed bicycle routes.





   Figure 6-1 illustrates that Class I bicycle facilities are not very


   extensive. It also serves to represent an image of the system as a


   whole. (The presentation of only Class I facilities in Figure 6-1


   does not represent any preference, funding or otherwise). Class II


   facilities are much more extensive, in terms of providing access on


   the arterial and highway network (where bikes are permitted). But


   even in combination with the Class I facilities, large gaps in the


   system remain. Class III bikeways may provide alternative routes to


   some high-volume, high-speed arterial, and thus seem to provide a


   much more connected system when connected with Class I and II. Each


   class, however, serves a different function: and therefore,


   connected facilities of different classes do not necessarily


   constitute a continuous system.











Map











map











   In addition to paved bicycle facilities, most of the counties have


   developed a trails program for hiking, mountain biking, and


   equestrian travel. Although these facilities are primarily


   recreational, they can provide travel to scenic and recreational


   areas.  Convenient non-motorized access to these sites can reduce


   the need for motorized trips to the destinations served by these


   facilities.





   With the existing infrastructure described above, the region is


   currently experiencing a home-to-work trip mode-split of almost 1


   percent for bicycling, and 2 percent for walking. The daily mode-


   split for all bicycling trip purposes is about 1 percent, and about


   8 percent for walking trips.





   A number of barriers currently impede a larger participation in


   non-motorized transportation by pedestrians and bicyclists. These


   barriers include the following:





   -  Negative perceptions about non-motorized commuting


   -  Unsafe, insufficient, and inconvenient infrastructure


   -  Crime, including both personal safety and security of property


   -  Lack of access to transit


   -  Land-use patterns and site designs that are unfriendly to


      pedestrians and bicyclists





   In addition, an institutional barrier which impedes the development


   of non-motorized facilities is concern about public and private


   liability.








GOALS AND OBJECTIVES


      


   The non-motorized transportation program has two goals aimed at


   improving the existing non-motorized system and helping the region


   meet its mobility, air quality, and energy goals.  The first goal


   is to make the overall transportation system accessible, safe, and


   convenient for bicycle and pedestrian travel (i.e., "user-friendly"


   to bicyclists and pedestrians). Accessibility for bicyclists is


   defined by the availability of bikeways (routes, lanes, paths);


   bicycle facilities (bicycle racks, lockers, and showers); and


   connections to transit (carpool/vanpool as well as bus/rail).


   Accessibility for pedestrians is defined as the availability of


   sidewalks and pathways and site designs that provide safe,


   convenient pedestrian access in residential, commercial, and


   employment sites and centers. The objective, therefore, is to


   increase the current level of non-motorized facility development.





   The second goal is to increase the pedestrian and bicycle mode-


   split, thus reducing vehicle trips and vehicle miles. The system


   will have to not only better accommodate existing  users but also


   encourage new potential


   users. The objective is to increase the level of daily bicycle and


   pedestrian trips to 10 percent of all daily trips, and increase the


   level of home-to-work bicycle and pedestrian trips to 5 percent


   (based on NPTS survey data).


______________________________





   11  1990 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS) - Data


covers the SCAG region











POLICIES





   A set of strategies is recommended for overcoming the barriers


   identified and meeting the program's objectives. These strategies


   can be categorized under the following four headings:





   -  Infrastructure improvements


   -  Education and promotion


   -  Enforcement


   -  Urban form, land-use and site designs





   Efforts in each of these areas are recommended to meet RME goals


   and non-motorized element objectives.





   The following policies are recommended to implement the four


   strategies identified above and are intended to comprehensively


   incorporate the planning, development, and operation of the non-


   motorized system into the existing transportation development and


   operations structure.





   -  The development of the regional transportation system should


      include a non-motorized transportation system that provides an


      effective alternative to auto travel for appropriate trips. The


      planning and development of transportation projects and systems


      should incorporate the following, as appropriate:





      -  Provision of safe, convenient, and continuous bicycle and


         pedestrian infrastructure to and throughout areas with


         existing and potential demand such as activity areas,


         schools, recreational areas (including those areas served by


         trails), which will ultimately offer the same or better


         accessibility provided to the motorized vehicle.





      -  Accessibility to and on transit (bus terminals, rail


         stations, Park-And-Ride lots), where there is demand and


         where transit boarding time will not be significantly


         delayed.





      -  Maintenance of safe, convenient, and continuous non-motorized


         travel during and after the construction of transportation


         and general development projects. Existing bikeways and


         pedestrian walkways should not be removed without mitigation


         that is as effective as the original facility.





   -  Entities and programs that currently support the auto should be


      encouraged to provide the same types of services for non-


      motorized transportation, including education, promotion, and


      enforcement.


   


   -  Urban form, land-use and site-design policies should include


      requirements for safe and convenient non-motorized


      transportation, including the development of bicycle and


      pedestrian-friendly environments near transit.








ACTION PROGRAM





   Chapter 14 identifies the actions to implement the policy program.


   The actions, which fall under the four major strategies, are


   intended to be implemented according to the needs identified by the


   subregions. However, to provide an effective non-motorized system,


   increase non-motorized trips, and thus reduce dependence on the


   single-occupant vehicle, it is expected that each strategy is


   necessary and will need to be implemented in each subregion.





   Subregional Input





   Without a coordinated regional non-motorized planning process, the


   identification of effective strategies and actions for each


   particular subregion has not been possible. SCAG and the


   subregions, therefore, will be coordinating in a regional planning


   effort which will assess the regional needs and opportunities for


   non-motorized transportation based on a subregional assessment of


   existing and planned actions. This effort will provide strategies


   and actions specific to each subregion. These actions are


   identified in Chapter 14. Currently, subregions which are CVAG,


   City of Los Angeles Subregion, IVAG, Orange County, North County,


   SANBAG, SELAC, San Gabriel Association of Cities, South Bay Cities,


   West Side Summit, WRCOG, and VCOG.











                               TABLE 6-1


           SUBREGIONALLY RECOMMENDED IMPLEMENTATION PROGRAM








Click HERE for graphic.














CHAPTER              REGIONAL GOODS MOVEMENT


SEVEN                PROGRAM








INTRODUCTION





   Goods movement in the SCAG region is a transportation activity with


   critical linkages to such areas as the economy, mobility, the


   environment, quality of life, and land use.  Formally defined,


   goods movement refers to the facilities, activities and people


   involved in  transporting commodities, data, raw materials and


   products for the purpose of consumption, manufacture, or disposal. 


   Public sector and private enterprises participate in goods movement


   activities as diverse as the movement of oil and water via


   pipeline; the transport of mail and packages via truck and plane by


   the United States Postal Service; the import and export of motor


   vehicles via seaports; the transfer of information via fiber-optic


   cable; and the shipment of agricultural produce from the Imperial


   Valley subregion to other SCAG subregions and the nation.





   The program discusses the movement of goods via rail, water, air


   and land, and conducted primarily by private enterprises.  It also


   acknowledges the role played by both public and private


   infrastructure in the conduct of these activities and the


   relationship of this infrastructure to other geographic areas and


   similar endeavors in the state, nation and the world.








IMPLEMENTATION STATUS OF THE 1989


REGIONAL MOBILITY PLAN





   Much activity in implementing 1989 Plan recommendations has


   occurred in the system development, regulatory and management


   arenas.  The Plan recommended that the San Pedro Bay port


   authorities and local governments form a Joint Powers Authority to


   develop the Alameda Consolidated Railroad Corridor.  The JPA was


   created in 1989.  The Preferred Alternative for the project was


   certified in January 1993.





   The City of Los Angeles pursued the development of a truck


   management plan that would have restricted truck travel on city


   arterials during peak periods.  The City Council decided not to


   pursue a truck management plan at this time because of probable


   adverse economic impacts on local businesses.





   Caltrans, the county transportation commissions and the California


   Highway Patrol (CHP) currently employ various incident management


   programs.  These programs evolved from the Los Angeles Area Freeway


   Surveillance and Control ProjectÄa demonstration project undertaken


   on a 42 mile loop formed by the Santa Monica (I-10) Freeway, Harbor


   (Interstate 110) Freeway, and the San Diego (Interstate 405)


   Freeway. Another program called Clearing Lanes Efficiently and


   Rapidly (CLEAR) involves the assignment of specially trained teams


   of CHP officers and supervisors to selected urban freeway corridors


   in Los Angeles during peak periods to provide rapid response,


   verification and removal of incidents.


______________________________








   1  Although freight, goods and cargo are used synonymously, freight


also refers to the charge for transporting goods.








THE 1994 RME FRAMEWORK


FOR GOODS MOVEMENT PLANNING





   The Goods Movement Program was developed in cooperation


   with representatives of the subregional governments whose members


   serve, along with the private sector, on various advisory and


   policy-making boards and committees.   At various stages of the


   development process, other Regional Mobility Element (RME) programs


   provided comments on goods transportation issues.





   In efforts to resolve identified problems and issues related to


   goods movement, SCAG will complete the Intermodal Goods Movement


   and the Railroad Consolidation Studies.  The Intermodal Study will


   provide information on intermodal operations in the SCAG region and


   their relationship to the economy, congestion, and air quality. 


   The Consolidation Study will investigate the feasibility of


   consolidating rail freight activities along an east-west corridor


   in the SCAG region, for the purpose of reducing rail related


   emissions.  These studies will be completed in fiscal years 1995


   and 1994, respectively.





   Intermodal Transportation Management System





   Section 3037 of the ISTEA requires development, establishment, and


   implementation of an Intermodal Transportation Management System


   (ITMS) by the State.  An ITMS is a systematic process of


   identifying key linkages between one or more modes of


   transportation, where the performance or use of one mode will


   affect another, defining strategies for improving the effectiveness


   of these modal interactions, and evaluation and implementation of


   these strategies to enhance the overall performance of the


   transportation system.





   The ITMS must provide for the efficient, safe and convenient


   movement of people and goods through integration of transportation


   facilities and systems; the ITMS must also improve the coordination


   of planning and implementation of air, water, and the various land-


   based transportation facilities. Because of their


   interrelationship, the development, establishment, and


   implementation of the ITMS must be coordinated with the


   development, establishment, and implementation of two other ISTEA


   management systems:  the Congestion Management System and the


   Public Transportation Management Systems.





   SCAG is cooperating with Caltrans in efforts to implement the ITMS


   and to develop interim products by the compliance dates. SCAG is


   also discussing the implications and requirements of the ITMS for


   the SCAG region. When the ITMS becomes operational, SCAG's Goods


   Movement Program should benefit from access to the system.








PROFILE OF THE GOODS MOVEMENT SYSTEM


IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 1990





   A major portion of the goods movement system in Southern California


   consists of fixed-location, publicly-owned infrastructure that


   accommodates privately-owned and operated freight carriers. 


   Components of the system (Figures 7-1 and 7-2) include all major


   modes of transport: airports, seaports, highways, freeways, and


   arterials (public), and railroads (private).   The system also


   includes intermodal transfer facilities, freight yards and truck


   terminals.  Figures 7-3, 7-4 and 7-5 depict truck and rail access


   to the seaports in the region.





   Intermodal System





   In its simplest form, intermodal goods transportation can be


   defined as the transport of goods via two or more different modes


   between its origin and final destination.  Various combinations of


   intermodal operations occur in the region: truck-train; truck-


   plane; truck-ship, and truck-truck.  The amount and quality of


   information on the intermodal system and intermodal goods movements


   relative to commodities, weight, values, volumes, operations, and


   economic markets vary tremendously. The region has always had some


   degree of intermodal operations.  Innovations in the shipping


   industry (e.g., containerized cargo), however, have greatly


   increased intermodal operations.  While the majority of cargo off-


   loaded at San Pedro Bay Ports is destined for the SCAG region, a


   significant segment of the total export and import cargo is


   intermodal.  The Intermodal Goods Movement Study will provide


   information on intermodal operations in the SCAG region.





   Goods Transportation and Ground Access





   The regional transportation system of interstates, state highways


   and designated truck routes provide ground access to local,


   subregional and/or inter-regional markets.  The ground


   transportation system also supports access to the major air carrier


   airports, seaports, intermodal facilities and military airfields.





   National Highway System (NHS).   Under the ISTEA, the NHS when


   approved by Congress in September 1995, will consist of the


   interstates and other strategic highways, which provide motor


   vehicle access between these facilities and major port, airport,


   public transportation facilities, or other intermodal


   transportation facilities (see Figure 5-6 in Volume 2, Chapter 5).





   The NHS largely replaces the federal-aid funding classification


   system. The federal government will maintain an interest in NHS


   facilities for the purpose of funding, operations, and maintenance.





            Institutional Influences On Goods Movement In


            Southern California





   Table 7-1 provides a partial listing of governmental agencies and


   their influence on goods movement.  Other governmental divisions


   such as the departments of Agriculture and of Fish and Game, though


   not shown,  have requirements with which movers of these goods have


   to comply.





   The five major air carrier airports (Los Angeles International,


   Glendale-Burbank-Pasadena, Ontario International, John Wayne/Orange


   County and Long Beach) and seaports (Los Angeles, Long Beach and


   Port Hueneme) operate as autonomous agencies within their


   respective local governments, and have jurisdiction over the


   various passenger and cargo carriers that operate therein.  Policy-


   making authority is vested in airport and port commissions


   appointed by their respective municipal governments.  The private


   users of the goods movement system function as independent


   operators and through representation in industry organizations such


   as the American Trucking Association, California Trucking


   Association, American Association of Railroads and the Steamship


   Association of California.





   Goods Movement Markets





   Several market service areas and mode relationships are discernable


   depending on the geographic market area.  This analysis deals with


   goods movement markets within the SCAG region, and between the SCAG


   region and the rest of the world.  Local and subregional markets


   are those within the SCAG region.  Inter-regional goods movement


   occurs between the SCAG region and the regions of the continental


   United States.  Goods movement between the SCAG region and other


   countries defines the international markets; goods movement between


   the SCAG region and the U.S. regions that are not on the continent


   are also included under international markets.











                              FIGURE 7-1


                         (GOODS MOVEMENT WEST)











                              FIGURE 7-2


                          (GOODS MVMNT EAST)











                              FIGURE 7-3


                             (RAIL ACCESS)











                              FIGURE 7-4


                            (TRUCK ACCESS)











                              FIGURE 7-5


                            (PORT HUENEME)











                               TABLE 7-1


             A SELECTED LISTING OF GOVERNMENT AGENCIES AND


                   THEIR INFLUENCE ON GOODS MOVEMENT


                          IN THE SCAG REGION








Click HERE for graphic.








Mode-Market Relationships





Table 7-2 and Figure 7-6 show the markets served by the various modes. 


Heavy-duty trucks generally serve all markets, including the


contiguous international markets of Mexico and Canada. Planes and


airports serve domestic and international markets.  The three major


railroads operating in the region (Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe;


Southern Pacific; and Union Pacific) primarily serve interstate


transportation needs, but a significant amount of traffic exists


between Mexico, Canada and Southern California.





                               TABLE 7-2


                   MARKETS SERVED BY DIFFERENT MODES








Click HERE for graphic.








    Barring exceptions, freight trains haul goods from the SCAG


   region to regions only outside California.








                                Figure 7-6








Click HERE for graphic.








   Land-bridge and Mini-Land Bridge Traffic





   The SCAG region is strategically located and is a major gateway for


   trade with the Far East countries.  In this capacity, a significant


   amount of cargo traffic to and from these countries is handled at


   San Pedro Bay Ports and transferred to rail or motor carrier for


   shipment to other land-based destinations within the region, the


   continental U.S. or to another port of exit/entry.  While the


   majority of cargo in terms of volume off-loaded at San Pedro Bay


   Ports is destined for the SCAG region, a significant portion of the


   total export and import traffic is intermodal and bridge-traffic in


   nature.





   Land-bridge traffic involves an operation/transfer between the


   steamship companies that operate out of the San Pedro Bay ports and


   the SCAG regional railroads and motor carriers who contract with


   the steamship companies to provide this service.  (In some cases,


   the steamships companies own their own trucking companies).  Land-


   bridge traffic is generally bound for the east coast for shipment


   to European and other markets and is predominantly shipped by rail.





   A majority of the "bridge" traffic is mini- or micro-land bridge


   traffic from the San Pedro Bay Ports to destinations in the


   continental U.S., not shipped thence to overseas points.  Mini-


   bridge refers to goods to other port cities (East Coast or Gulf of


   Mexico), while micro-bridge pertains to traffic to intermediate,


   inland destinations such as Kansas or Illinois. Though these


   markets are served by both rail and motor carrier, rail is used


   predominantly.





   The practice of land-bridge, mini- and micro-bridge traffic evolved


   to serve the demand for capacity to transport certain relatively


   high-value commodity shipments and to take advantage of time


   savings to markets other than in the SCAG region.














ISSUES AND IMPACTS ASSOCIATED WITH GOODS TRANSPORTATION





   Issues





   While the region's only mobility goal associated with energy is to


   reduce its consumption,  energy choices and decisions influence all


   aspects of the region, notably: transportation system development,


   mode choice, business growth, competitiveness and location,


   environmental and community quality, and relationship of the SCAG


   region to trade partners and competing areas of the country and


   world (see Figure 7-7).





                                Figure 7-7








Click HERE for graphic.








   Increased government regulation has created the perception that the


   region is not business-friendly and business/regional economic


   competitiveness cannot be achieved/maintained.





      Few resources are allocated to planning and programming for


      goods movement activities.





      Land-use design and infrastructure development do not adequately


      accommodate the needs of goods movement.





      Heavy freight movement activities contribute to the cost and


      maintenance of the regional streets and highway system.





   Growth in the demand for air cargo movements may out-pace air cargo


   capacity and increase the competition for space between air cargo


   and passengers, especially with anticipated increases in trade.





   Impacts





   -  Accidents and incidents on the region's affected roadways.





   -  Mode and system inefficiencies and conflicts.





   -  Environmental damage:  The various air basins in the region are


      designated as non-attainment areas for various air pollutants;


      increased ambient noise levels.





   -  Increased congestion in the airways and on the region's streets


      and highways.











POLICIES





   Transportation System Development, Use, Management and Safety





   -  Growth in the demand for goods movement will be accommodated


      through the provision of adequate multi-modal and intermodal


      infrastructure that is consistent with overall regional goals,


      objectives, and policies.





   -  Pricing strategies will be considered as one of the strategies


      to reduce peak period congestion.





   -  The feasibility of air cargo transport at all major air carrier


      airports in the region will be considered as a means to address


      growth in cargo volumes.





   -  Demand for increased goods movement will be given consideration


      in corridors where system connectivity and gap closure projects


      are being planned.





   -  The development and use of pipelines within suitable utility


      corridors or public rights-of-way will be encouraged.





   -  The siting, routing, and construction of pipelines will be


      conducted so as to avoid disruptions of sensitive environments,


      to improve the safety and reliability of the system and to


      protect ground water quality.





   -  The inter-regional and intra-regional transport of crude oil by


      modes which lower the risk of spills, reduce air pollution


      emissions and lessen consequences of spills will be encouraged.





   Regional Economy, Mode Efficiency and Competitiveness





   -  The ports and major air carrier airports in the SCAG region are


      regionally significant and important trade links with the


      remainder of the world and shall be supported as a major


      foundation of the regional economy.





   -  Arterial truck access routes will be coordinated for the purpose


      of improving system connectivity, eliminating circuitous


      routings and reducing delays.





   -  The potential for adverse impacts to mode shares, diversion of


      business to other ports and loss of cost-competitiveness in


      goods movement to, from and through the SCAG region will be


      considered in the development and implementation of local and


      regional plans.








   Land Use





   -  Planning to accommodate multi-modal and inter-modal goods


      movement shall be an integral part of the land use and


      circulation elements of local government general plans and


      specific plans.





   -  Local governments shall consider requiring off-street dock


      facilities for all new buildings and for existing buildings that


      are approved for extensive renovation; the facilities should be


      sufficient to accommodate the shipping and receiving needs of


      such buildings.





   -  In order to assist in the identification of potential


      bottlenecks that could occur downstream of cargo flows, the


      identification of potential intermodal routes that cross or


      connect to provide future transfer facility nodes (highway,


      rail, harbor or airports) shall be encouraged.








SUBREGIONAL INPUT





   As a part of the bottom-up planning process, subregional input


   provides information and recommendations regarding significant


   issues of concern on the parts of local jurisdictions.  Table 7-3


   depicts subregional input as related to the Goods Movement program.














                               TABLE 7-3


           SUBREGIONALLY RECOMMENDED IMPLEMENTATION PROGRAM








Click HERE for graphic.








Click HERE for graphic.








______________________________





   2  Caltrans considers construction of this facility to be vital as


Mexican trucks will be operating in California beginning in December


1995 as a result of the passage of NAFTA.   Caltrans is seeking


funding for this facility.











1994 PLAN





   Goods Transportation Site-Specific Recommendations





   Site-specific and ground access improvements in the vicinity of the


   seaports and major air carrier airports in the region are


   recommended.  Improvements are detailed in Volume 2, Chapter 14 -


   Regional Action Program.  The single largest facility and


   operations improvement identified is construction of the Alameda


   Corridor.  Completion of the Alameda Corridor project is "the most


   important single transportation improvement project in the State;


   it has statewide and national significance; and the consequences of


   inadequate funding to implement the project would have disastrous


   economic consequences."





   Feasibility Studies





   Several feasibility studies which address specific problems


   associated with goods transportation are recommended, including


   evaluating the congestion and air quality impacts of queued traffic


   at railroad crossings in the region; studying the economic


   feasibility of the phased elimination of at-grade railroad


   crossings of high traffic flow arterials; and conducting a study to


   examine the feasibility of pricing to reduce accidents, incidents


   and associated congestion on the freeways.   It is also recommended


   that the feasibility of high-speed freight transportation be


   ascertained and that this issue be addressed in future studies of


   high-speed rail passenger service.





   The efficiency of freight transportation via truck will be enhanced


   through improvements in the operating conditions on the region's


   regional streets and roads.   As a part of the Regional Streets and


   Highways Program (Volume 2, Chapter 5), expansion of mixed-flow and


   HOV4 capacity and improved system management are recommended. 


   Arterial HOV facilities, Smart Corridors and application of advance


   technologies are endorsed for study and possible implementation,


   where appropriate.





   Relationship of Goods Movement Strategies to Congestion Management


   Programs





   State statutes that authorized the creation of Congestion


   Management Programs (CMP) do not require that CMPs address goods


   movement activities and non-recurrent congestion.  Thus, the


   adopted CMPs do not address issues directly related to goods


   movement.  However, elements of the CMP do have potential for


   benefiting goods transportation insofar as the Capital Improvement


   Programs (CIP), Land Use Elements, TDM and Transit elements may


   lead to improved operation and management of the system for both


   people and goods.  The CIPs are Congestion Management Agency input


   into the Regional Transportation Improvement Program for the SCAG


   region.  The adopted CMPs were found to be consistent with the 1989


   RMP and their respective CIPs were integrated into the Action


   Element of the RME (See Volume 2, Chapter 14, Regional Action


   Plan).


______________________________





   3  Source: SELAC Subregional input to Regional Comprehensive Plan:


Excerpts of speech by Mr. Daniel Wm. Fessler, President, California


Public Utilities Commission; Member, California Transportation


Commission, speaking at the TRANSCON 2000 International Conference:


Future Transportation Technology, Palm Springs, California, October


25, 1993.





   4  Excludes heavy duty-vehicles.











   Technology





   One way to increase goods movement system efficiencies is to turn


   to technology.  In goods movement, operators handling the goods


   need answers regarding the location of their goods, when they will


   reach their destination and the condition of their goods


   (temperature, humidity, damage, etc.).





   Electronic information flows promise developments that can answer


   these crucial questions.  Specific examples are "tagging" and "time


   slots".  Tagging makes use of an automatic equipment identification


   by satellites or wayside scanners placed along railroad rights-of-


   ways.  Time slots allow ocean-carriers to plan land-side


   requirements at least forty-eight hours in advance for imports.





ISSUES IN NEED OF FURTHER STUDY





   Industrial development.  Adequate funding to develop, operate and


   maintain the region's significant existing and proposed freight


   movement facilities could be key in revitalizing the region's


   economy and achieving long-term stability.   Completion of the


   Alameda Corridor, for example, could form a core objective that


   solidifies the region's actions to help create jobs, to maintain


   trade links and to enhance the competitiveness of the region and


   the state.  Other regionally significant major infrastructure, as


   identified in the RME, would also be key in considering the


   economic stability and policy development for the region.





   Energy. While the region's only mobility goal relative to energy is


   to reduce its consumption, decisions concerning energy help shape


   the region's economic base, transportation, land use development


   patterns, recreation, quality of life and environment.  In the


   absence of major energy crises, the risk that the region faces is


   not apparent.   The type of energy consumed by residents, mobile


   sources and industry, however, will continue to determine the


   fundamental challenges that confront the region.  Subregional


   decision-makers may want to focus on additional aspects of energy


   and how decisions and choices regarding energy can help achieve


   subregional goals and objectives.





   Key issues involving energy and goods movement include:





   -  Fuel types and achieving air quality.





   -  Reducing dependence on fossil fuels for transportation and


      developing alternative fuel sources.





   -  Mitigating the direct adverse impacts of the energy decisions on


      jobs directly related to goods movement.





   -  Mitigating the indirect impacts of goods movement-related energy


      decisions on jobs, industry, business and residents.





   -  Reducing the impacts of current fuel sources for goods movement.





   Public-private sector improvement initiatives.  The public sector


   should provide leadership in improving communication between the


   two and in considering strategies to address outstanding issues


   such as the following [The ISTEA encourages the formation of


   partnerships between the public and private sectors in resolving


   critical issues]:





   -  Developing and funding important infrastructure such as the


      Alameda Corridor.





   -  Integrating goals for the region's energy and goods movement


      future into the framework for planning for the economy,


      transportation, the environment, land use, and quality of life.





   -  Establishing a national and state legislative agenda that


      promotes regional goals in the areas of energy, goods movement,


      transportation, technology and the environment.





   -  Maintaining a competitive regional economy and strengthening


      links to global trade and domestic markets.





   -  Integrating advanced technologies and technology transfers that


      facilitate the intermodal transportation system.





   Safety.  Reduction in delay and congestion associated with


   vehicular accidents can improve mobility.  Studies should be


   undertaken to determine ways to improve safety on the system.














CHAPTER           REGIONAL AVIATION SYSTEM


EIGHT             PROGRAM








INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND





   The SCAG region includes 56 public-use airports, which makes it the


   largest airport system of any region in the world (see Figure 8-1). 


   The breakdown of these airports includes 44 general aviation (GA)


   airports, 10 commercial service airports, one closed military


   airbase for which civilian reuse has not been determined, and one


   military/civilian joint-use airport.  The five urban airports that


   serve most of the region's aviation demand are Los Angeles


   International (LAX), Ontario International (ONT), John Wayne/Orange


   County (SNA), Burbank-Glendale-Pasadena (BUR), and Long Beach


   (LGB).  Palm Springs (PSP) serves urban areas in the low desert


   east of the Los Angeles basin.  Palmdale (PMD) serves the Antelope


   Valley, and may relieve airports in the Los Angeles basin in the


   future if high-speed access can be provided.





   While the SCAG region is first in aviation activity compared to any


   other region, it faces several present and potential problems. 


   Foremost among them has been an expected shortfall in commercial


   airport capacity for both air passengers and air cargo.  Further


   discussion of air cargo in the broader context of goods movement is


   presented in Volume 2, Chapter 7.  This shortfall may be offset


   with the possible closure of one additional military air base in


   the region, and the possible joint use of two others.





   Commercial airport ground access is another major concern.  As


   airports reach their physical capacity, access infrastructure for


   passengers and cargo will become increasingly congested, so the


   need for inter-modal and multi-modal access strategies will


   increase.





   The general aviation system is under increasing budgetary pressures


   as local governments experience the effects of recession.  This is


   occurring during a period when the roles of general aviation


   airports are changing from recreational uses to more support for


   business and government use, and for emergency response to natural


   disasters and civil unrest.





   Another major concern is the strategic role of the aviation system


   in contributing to the economic recovery of the region and future


   economic development, particularly in relation to international


   trade.





   Updated information regarding military airbases, and airport ground


   access will be added to this Chapter in the 1995 Plan Amendment. An


   update to the Aviation Action Program in Chapter 14 will also be


   provided.











                              FIGURE 8-1


                            (AVIATION MAP)














                           FIGURE 8-1 CONT.


                              (AIRPORTS)











COMMERCIAL AIRPORT CAPACITY








INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND





   In 1988, commercial airports of the Los Angeles basin served 57.9


   million annual passengers (MAP), roughly 13 percent of the total


   air traffic in the United States.  By 1993 these same airports


   served 65.9 MAP.  Currently, policy constraints limit the


   commercial airport system to serving fewer passengers than its


   physical capacity would allow.





   Some immediate capacity relief may be provided by existing outlying


   airports.  Palm Springs Regional Airport, for example, is a


   commercial airport that serves 800,000 passengers annually and has


   recently added runway capacity.  Palmdale Plant 42 has authority


   for 400 commercial flights per day under a joint-use agreement with


   the Air Force, and may in the future provide relief for commercial


   airports in the Los Angeles basin.  However, even with relief from


   these outlying airports, several commercial airports in the Los


   Angeles basin are expected to surpass constrained passenger levels


   during the next decade.  LAX, it should be noted, went beyond its


   policy constraint in 1987.








GOAL





   -  Enhance airport system capacity to accommodate increased air


      passenger demand.








OBJECTIVES





   -  In the 1995 Regional Aviation System Study, identify multiple,


      short-term and long-term aviation-related strategies that are


      needed to solve/mitigate the capacity and congestion issues at


      existing airports.





   -  In the 1995 Regional Aviation System Study, identify non-


      aviation strategies to address capacity and congestion issues at


      existing airports.








ASSESSMENT OF NEEDS AND DEFICIENCIES





   Demand pressure on the region's five metropolitan commercial


   airports is expected to increase dramatically during the next two


   decades.  They are projected to serve 123.4 MAP by the year 2015,


   which represents an 87 percent increase over 1993 levels.





   The adequacy of its commercial airport capacity is of great concern


   to the region, particularly in terms of reaching the Regional


   Mobility Element (RME) strategic goal of enhanced regional mobility


   for inter-regional travel.  While there have been infrastructure


   improvements at LAX and John Wayne Airport during the past 10-15


   years and other improvements are planned for Burbank and Ontario,


   the existing airports will still experience a capacity shortfall.





   Efforts to locate new airport sites have been unsuccessful, as


   documented in the 1980 Aviation System Study and the 1991 Aviation


   System Study Update.  Remote sites are available, but must


   demonstrate that they have sufficient demand, carrier support,


   funding support, and technical feasibility.  This applies to sites


   identified in the Imperial County Regional Airport Feasibility


   Study.  Capacity shortfall for air cargo was documented in SCAG's


   Air Cargo Assessment as were options for increasing cargo capacity. 


   Consequently, current efforts are focused on better utilization of


   existing airports in SCAG's Commercial Airport System Capacity


   Study.  Another effort, the Military Airbase Contingency Study, is


   examining the civilian utility of military air bases that are


   scheduled to be closed by the Department of Defense.  The bases


   should be evaluated as to the feasibility and desirability of


   upgrading them to commercial facilities.  A later study should


   assess the costs and benefits of such an upgrade.  The current


   study includes George Air Force Base (AFB), Norton AFB, and Marine


   Corps Air Station (MCAS) El Toro which have been or will be closed,


   and March AFB, which is scheduled for realignment and downsizing. 


   Another study, to be completed in 1994, will examine the potential


   for joint-use at Naval Air Weapons Station (NAWS) Point Mugu.


   (Project lists for capital improvements being prepared are


   available upon request.)








POLICIES





   -  Support the more efficient use of commercial airport facilities


      to serve growing air passenger demand in the region.  Airport-


      generated noise, air quality and ground access impacts resulting


      from increasing air service should be mitigated.





   -  Each subregion should provide environmentally acceptable


      capacity within its own market area to meet local, short-haul


      air passenger demand due to shorter access time of short-haul


      passengers.  Subregion in this context refers to county-sized


      subregional market areas.





   -  For those military airbases, which are, or will be closed by the


      Department of Defense, support conversion to commercial air


      service if such bases have been determined to have a high


      technical and market potential for use as commercial airports. 


      This policy most strongly applies to those subregions which


      cannot otherwise provide sufficient, environmentally acceptable


      capacity to meet their own local, short-haul air passenger


      demand.





   -  Examine the feasibility of commercial air passenger service at


      remaining active duty air bases if invited to do so by the


      military.





   -  Support outlying airports, such as Palm Springs, George AFB and


      Palmdale to serve their own market area.  Also, examine high-


      speed access systems to attract passengers from the metropolitan


      areas of the Los Angeles basin.





   -  Support continued examination of new technologies and their


      potential impact on the aviation system, and its inter-modal


      connection to the rest of the Metropolitan Transportation System


      (MTS).  This would include locational opportunities for


      tiltrotor service, and possible applications of high-speed rail. 


      It would also include development of a multi-modal


      transportation demand model for various ground modes to assess


      their ability to attract air passengers.





   -  Policy constraints on existing air carrier airports should be


      defined in terms on environmental impacts and should remain in


      place, except where relevant noise, air quality, and ground


      access impacts are mitigated.4   Airport proprietors and/or the


      Regional Airport Authority are encouraged to reassess


      constraints to determine if additional service can be provided,


      but in no case should constraints be lifted until negative


      impacts are mitigated.








MOBILITY BENEFITS





   The improved inter-regional mobility benefits of an enhanced


   aviation system have an enormous implication for the economic


   development of the region.  The challenge of the enhanced system is


   to meet environmental requirements.


______________________________





   4  Significant impacts other than noise, air quality, and ground


access that might occur over and beyond existing policy constraints


should also be mitigated.








COMMERCIAL AIRPORT GROUND ACCESS





INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND





   In 1982, SCAG adopted policies that support increased air service,


   but only if the resulting environmental and ground access impacts


   are mitigated.  This was interpreted to mean that impacts


   associated with air service above policy constrained levels in 1982


   would be mitigated.





   The outcome of the mitigation policy was the Airport Impact


   Mitigation and Management Study, Phase I study (AIMMS), which was


   completed in 1985.  That study contains an inventory of noise, air


   quality, and ground access impacts for the base year of 1982 and


   the forecast year of 2000.  Later, consultants to SCAG prepared a


   comprehensive list of mitigations for each impact category, which


   are contained in the 1990 Phase II report.





   The AIMMS studies, and others conducted by local agencies, have


   focused predominantly on highway facilities.  However, state law


   now requires multi-modal ground access studies for all commercial


   airports, and the federal Intermodal Surface Transportation


   Efficiency Act (ISTEA) emphasizes the need to assess airport ground


   access in the context of regional intermodal access of the MTS as a


   whole.  Consequently, detailed intermodal studies and


   transportation modeling will be conducted by SCAG for all five


   commercial airports.  The first of these studies is for LAX and


   began in 1993.  These studies will follow guidelines for the ISTEA


   Inter-modal Management System.








GOAL





   -  Provide adequate intermodal ground access for air passengers and


      air cargo to the region's commercial airports so that they can


      fulfill their transportation and economic functions.








OBJECTIVES





   -  By 1995 to conduct adequate intermodal and multi-modal analyses


      of ground access to the region's five metropolitan commercial


      airports.





   -  Provide an environmentally compatible ground access system and


      to meet all air quality standards.








ASSESSMENT OF NEEDS AND DEFICIENCIES (FINDINGS)





   The consultants to the AIMMS study identified three tiers of


   roadway improvements for each airport area and prepared cost


   estimates for them.  Needed roadway improvements will be updated in


   upcoming modeling and airport access studies.  However, they will


   only be one component of the access studies; other components will


   include transit, Transportation System Management (TSM) and


   Transportation Demand Management (TDM).





   The respective roles and responsibilities of the various agencies


   involved in implementing aviation Transportation Control Measures


   (TCM's) are still being debated.  Currently, SCAG is developing


   ground access plans for all of the air carrier airports, the SCAQMD


   is developing an indirect source rule that will be applied to these


   airports, and EPA is developing an airport control strategy


   pursuant to the Federal Implementation Plan (FIP).  The exact


   division of responsibilities between these agencies in implementing


   aviation TCM's will be determined in the future.





   Findings





   Even though there are serious limitations to the AIMMS data, a


   number of observations can be made that will be relevant to future


   airport ground access studies.





   -  A wealth of traffic and engineering studies have been produced


      for the highway element of ground access at all five commercial


      airports.  However, much more work is needed for transit, rail,


      TDM, TSM and the intermodal connectivity with the rest of the


      MTS.





   -  Total congested lane miles at the five airports would increase


      from 222.3 in 1982 to 466.0 by year 2000, which is a 109.6


      percent increase.  While these figures do not account for recent


      developments, they suggest a significant increase in congestion


      by 2000 and imply an even greater increase by 2010.  These


      increases in congestion highlight the need to emphasize non-auto


      strategies for improving airport ground access.








POLICIES





   -  In accordance with state law (Assembly Bill 2487), SCAG will


      conduct multi-modal and intermodal ground access studies of the


      region's commercial airports for each update of the Regional


      Transportation Plan (RTP).





   -  Traffic impacts generated by significant new off-airport


      development should be mitigated if they worsen ground access to


      a commercial airport and reduce that airport's operational


      capacity.  This especially applies to those areas where the


      commercial airport is host to nationwide and international air


      service.  This type of mitigation should be a condition of


      project approval.





   -  Traffic impacts generated by non-aviation developments on-


      airport should be mitigated through prudent planning.  Such


      development is encouraged for revenue purposes, but only if it


      utilizes excess capacity not needed for aviation purposes.





   -  SCAG, in cooperation with appropriate transportation agencies,


      should ensure that airport-related ground access projects are


      placed in the Regional Transportation Improvement Program


      (RTIP).  It is important to include airport planning staff in


      the identification of airport-related projects, especially those


      which link directly to the airport roadway system.





   -  Support development of a multi-modal transportation demand model


      which integrates various ground transportation modes.








MOBILITY BENEFITS





   LAX is the region's gateway to the rest of the world, particularly


   the Pacific Rim.  It is also the gateway to the rest of the nation. 


   In those two roles, it provides invaluable mobility for the


   region's citizens and is a significant factor in the regional


   economy.





   The subregional airports provide mostly intra-state mobility, which


   is invaluable in terms of mobility and the economy.  They also


   serve more local air passengers, and take pressures off LAX and its


   ground access system.














COMMERCIAL AIRPORT AIR CARGO








INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND





   The shipment of freight by air is a growing phenomenon in the  SCAG


   region.  It parallels the region's increased integration into the


   global economy, the growing importance to that economy of quick and


   reliable freight movement, and the expanded production of high-


   value and time-sensitive products.  Airborne exports have become


   increasingly important to the region's economy, as evidenced by the


   fact that the total value of airborne exports shipped out of the


   Los Angeles Customs District in the late 1980s exceeded the value


   for waterborne exports, although that has since reversed due to


   recession.





   During the past 12 years (1979-91), cargo volumes at the five air


   carrier airports in the region have increased by about 72 percent,


   from about 922,000 tons to about 1.5 million tons.  It is


   interesting to note, however, that even during this recessionary


   period, international air cargo volumes increased by 19 percent


   during the first nine months of 1992.  Because of ongoing


   structural changes in the economy, total air cargo volumes are


   expected to rise once again when recessionary conditions abate. 


   Projections made by a recent SCAG study, Air Cargo in the SCAG


   region, indicate that volumes are expected to reach 2.7 million


   tons by the year 2000, and 4.8 million tons by 2010.  Commercial


   airport capacity to handle air cargo will only reach 3 million tons


   by year 2000, so there will be a shortfall of capacity after that. 


   Closing military air bases may ease that capacity shortfall.








GOAL





   -  Enhance air cargo handling capacity to serve demand and reduce


      congestion.








OBJECTIVES





   -  Quantify major trends in the air cargo industry since the advent


      of deregulation in 1979.





   -  In the 1995 Regional Aviation System Plan, recommend measures to


      reduce projected shortfalls in cargo handling capacities by


      enhancing the cargo handling efficiencies of existing cargo


      facilities.





   -  Recommend measures to reduce projected shortfalls in cargo


      handling capacities by adding major capacity increases to the


      existing system in the form of new or converted airports, or


      military airports if they became available.





ASSESSMENT OF NEEDS AND DEFICIENCIES (FINDINGS)





   The results of the recent air cargo analysis indicated the


   following:





   -  Existing and currently planned cargo handling capacity in the


      region are able to accommodate projected year 2000 cargo


      volumes.  However, existing and planned capacity falls short of


      meeting the 2010 projection by about 63 percent.





   -  The greatest need for new cargo handling capacity in the region


      is to serve Orange County, not only to provide additional needed


      capacity, but also to minimize trucking impacts on the regional


      highway network associated with transporting cargo from Orange


      County manufacturing centers via truck to other airports.  Since


      John Wayne Airport has very limited capacity potential to serve


      air cargo, other alternatives should be examined.








POLICIES





   -  Support development of a comprehensive strategy to find


      additional air cargo handling capacity in the region to reduce


      projected shortfalls in that capacity.  A regional strategy


      should locate potential additional capacity as close to where


      cargo is produced as possible, and should evaluate the


      feasibility and relative effectiveness of new airports,


      conversion of military airports to commercial uses, and


      increasing cargo handling efficiencies at existing airports.





   -  Ground freight routes should be planned that minimize impacts


      upon residential neighborhoods and heavy commuter routes.





   -  The conversion of Norton AFB to civilian/commercial use is a


      most promising alternative for adding substantial new cargo


      handling capacity to the regional airport system.





   -  For those military airbases that are, or will be closed by the


      Department of Defense, support conversion to commercial air


      service, including air cargo, if such bases have been determined


      to have a high technical and market potential for use as


      commercial air passenger and air cargo service airports.  This


      policy most strongly applies to those subregions that cannot


      otherwise provide sufficient, environmentally acceptable


      capacity to meet their own local air cargo shipment demand.





   -  Examine feasibility of commercial air cargo service at remaining


      active duty air bases if invited to do so by the military.





   -  Long-term trends in the regional economic profile of Southern


      California, their relationship to the world economy, and their


      implications for air cargo forecasts and handling capacity


      shortfalls, should be explored in an aviation strategic plan for


      the SCAG region.








MOBILITY BENEFITS





   The primary mobility benefit that would potentially result from the


   implementation of the study's recommendations would be increased


   number of air passengers that could be served through the more


   effective use of available airport capacity, as well as future


   capacity increases such as the conversion of Norton AFB to a major


   air cargo facility.  Since airports would also be less congested,


   there would also be fewer flight delays and less passenger


   inconvenience.  This is in recognition that all of the air carrier


   airports in the region are ultimately subject to capacity


   constraints, and that there is competition between cargo and


   passenger flights for available airport capacity.





   Another potential mobility benefit would be the reduction of


   impacts of cargo-carrying trucks on the regional highway system,


   resulting from locating additional cargo handling capacity close to


   where the cargo is produced.  In particular, the location of new


   cargo-handling capacity near manufacturing centers in Orange County


   would have significant beneficial impacts on surface transportation


   mobility.








INSTITUTIONAL ISSUES








   An airport may at once be a local, regional, national, and


   international asset.  For many years, there has been a policy


   question as to which of these levels should predominate in planning


   for and operation of commercial airports.





   Local communities affected by busy airports have emphasized the


   need for local participation in the mitigation of environmental and


   ground access impacts.  While there has been progress in mitigating


   impacts over the past decade, particularly in the area of aircraft


   noise, environmental concerns remain for a number of affected


   communities.





   The business community has generally emphasized the regional,


   national, and international aspect of commercial airports in their


   role as generators of economic activity.  This role is of growing


   importance during the prolonged recessionary period experienced in


   the SCAG region.  The importance of the role of commercial airports


   in economic recovery is presented in the Aviation Strategic Element


   of this chapter.  However, to fulfill this economic role,


   commercial airports must accommodate the demand for increased air


   service which generates impacts of concern to local communities.





   A number of mechanisms have been developed to achieve a balance


   between airport growth and environmental mitigation.  In terms of


   noise, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) developed the


   Federal Air Regulation (FAR) Part 150 Noise Study program which


   included the participation of adjacent local jurisdictions.  Part


   150 studies were conducted for LAX, Burbank, Long Beach, and


   Ontario airports.  These studies satisfied some communities, but


   not others.  In addition, some local jurisdictions felt excluded


   from the Part 150 process and seek a mechanism to address their


   concerns.  In other cases, local concerns resulted in environmental


   lawsuits which produced mixed results.  SCAG has occasionally


   functioned as a mediator, but has no statutory authority in the


   area of airport noise.





   In terms of air quality mitigations, SCAG does have a statutory


   role in the development of aviation Transportation Control Measures


   (TCMs) which appeared in the 1989 and 1991 Air Quality Management


   Plan (AQMP).  The TCMs necessarily relate to airport ground access


   which is another area where SCAG has a role.  SCAG is now required


   by state law to conduct multi-modal airport ground access studies


   as noted earlier in this chapter.





   The mechanisms noted above and others have brought satisfaction to


   some communities, but not others.  This is particularly the case in


   terms of airport noise.  A number of local elected officials have


   indicated that an adequate mechanism has yet to be developed to


   address their concerns, and that this issue needs to be


   acknowledged.














GENERAL AVIATION AIRPORT SYSTEM








INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND





   The primary focus of SCAG's aviation planning has traditionally


   been on the commercial airport system.  However, the system of 44


   general aviation airports in the SCAG region is the largest


   regional system in the world, and is deserving of SCAG's attention. 


   This general aviation system is predominantly represented on SCAG's


   Aviation Technical Advisory Committee (ATAC).  All airports in the


   region are represented on ATAC, which is one of the longest-


   standing and most active of SCAG's committees.  Collectively,


   general aviation and commercial airport managers have made immense


   contributions to SCAG's aviation planning during a very long period


   of time.





   The last SCAG General Aviation System Study was completed in 1987. 


   A data update of the region is urgently needed, to verify trends


   that appear to be underway, and to formulate regional policy to


   guide the system in the future.  A general aviation study began in


   the summer of 1993, and is under the guidance of ATAC.  The


   resulting general aviation plan will identify capital needs,


   funding shortfalls, and new roles which general aviation airports


   could pursue.








AVIATION STRATEGIC ELEMENT








INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND





   In economic terms, the SCAG region is one of the largest


   metropolitan areas in the world.  In 1991, the gross regional


   product of the SCAG region was $331 billion, making this region the


   10th largest "nation" in the world economically.  A few of the


   economic issues are described below and could be included in the


   Aviation Strategic Element.  Accordingly, it has important


   financial, technical, social, and political relationships with


   other large economic regions in the world.  All these relationships


   have implications for air travel and airport infrastructure, but


   they have never been studied in a systematic way.  There is a need


   to assess and examine these relationships to better understand and


   formulate regional policy to guide the aviation system during the


   next two decades.  That assessment would result in an Aviation


   Strategic Element of the regional Aviation System Plan, which is


   part of the RME.  The following is a short description of some of


   those relationships that need to be examined.








   Airport Capacity and Air Service Implications





   -  The capacity of commercial airports is nearing physical limits


      in this region, but also in other metropolitan regions in this


      country, around the Pacific Rim and in parts of Europe.  What


      are the implication for the air movement of people and goods,


      and what are the implications for the regional economy and


      growth?  Also, what implications does this have for closing


      military air bases?





   -  Considerable additional airport capacity will be made available


      at the new Denver Airport and at the potential new international


      airport on the U.S.-Mexico border south of San Diego.  Other


      capacity remains at existing airports in the San Francisco Bay


      area and Portland.  What are the implications for the production


      and movement of air cargo?  Does this portend the shift of


      production from the SCAG region to other regions?





   -  How does the commercial airport system benefit the regional


      economy and job creation?  How does the benefit compare to the


      cost of investment in airport infrastructure?





   -  Commercial air routes from Pacific Rim countries over the former


      Soviet Union to Europe are currently being negotiated.  Since


      those routes are more direct and are shorter, will Pacific Rim


      air traffic bypass the U.S. and the SCAG region?  What are the


      implications for the regional economy and trade?





   -  International air service for both air passengers and air cargo


      is the fastest growing component of air service and travel


      demand in the SCAG region.  Will LAX be able to handle all of


      the international air service or will the other commercial


      airports need to accept international flights in the future? 


      While it is recognized that not all subregional commercial


      airports can accommodate international service it may be


      important to identify which ones can.  It may also be important


      to identify which of the closing military airbases can handle


      international service.  What are the implications for Customs


      service and additional Customs districts?  Will domestic service


      at LAX have to be constrained to accommodate the international


      traffic?  Will the subregional airports need to host more


      medium- and long-haul service?





   Economic Implications





   -  The SCAG region has many economic ties with other regions in the


      Pacific Rim, Canada, Latin America and Europe.  What are the


      major economic trends in these other regions and what is the


      nature of their ties to the SCAG region?  What is the future for


      international commerce and tourism between the U.S. and its


      international trading partners?  What are their implications for


      commercial airports and air service in the SCAG region?





   -  The North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) may soon be


      ratified.  What are the long-term economic implications for


      Southern California, particularly in terms of economic


      development in Mexico?  How will this affect the potential new


      U.S.-Mexico international airport and commercial airports in the


      SCAG region?  How might it affect air cargo commodity production


      and movement in the SCAG region?  What percentage of the cross-


      border cargo movement stimulated by the agreement will move by


      air versus trucks?





   Technology Implications





   A number of new technologies are now being implemented and others


   are on the horizon.  They all have implications for the aviation


   system, a few of which are noted below.





   -  The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a multiple satellite


      system now being put in place.  Its accuracy will revolutionize


      the air navigation system and precision approaches.  What affect


      will GPS have on airspace and airport capacity?





   -  Some aircraft manufacturers have indicated their desire to


      produce a mega-airliner (800-1,000 seats), although currently


      there is no movement in that direction.  Will economic recovery


      of the airlines and a shortage of airport capacity lead to


      renewed interest in the mega-airliner?  Will such an aircraft


      significantly increase the air-side capacity of the region's


      airports?  Can the airports accommodate such an aircraft?








ISSUES IN NEED OF FURTHER STUDY





   As the SCAG region's airport system moves through the next two


   decades, it will experience major problems, but it will also


   provide significant opportunities for the larger community.  In


   that context, the following outstanding issues should be addressed


   in SCAG's aviation planning program.





   -  The provision of adequate commercial airport capacity will


      continue to be the major challenge for the region's airport


      system.  After the year 2000, the system will gradually


      experience a shortfall of capacity for serving both air


      passengers and air cargo.  Further studies need to examine the


      implications for high-speed rail, remote airports, and the reuse


      of closed military air bases.





   -  As the commercial airports near their physical capacity, ground


      access traffic congestion will worsen and may become the


      constraining factor in airport operations.  Further airport


      ground access analysis and modeling are needed to identify


      appropriate multi-modal and inter-modal solutions.





   -  General aviation airports in the region's airports system are


      experiencing the same fiscal pressures as local governments. 


      SCAG's current general aviation study will examine how these


      airports can survive financially and what emerging roles will


      reinforce their value to the community.





   -  During the next two decades, the SCAG region will experience


      dynamics resulting from airport capacity limitations,


      competition from airports in other regions and changing


      international relationships.  There is a need to develop an


      aviation strategic element to assess these larger issues.  One


      of the key issues is how to enhance economic opportunities


      generated by the commercial airport system.














CHAPTER


NINE        LONG-RANGE CORRIDORS








INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND





   To meet mobility needs beyond the year 2015 and foster economic


   development, it is likely that future long-range corridors will


   need to be identified and preserved in the SCAG region. Long-range


   corridors are defined as locations beyond the year 2015 where


   potential multi-modal transportation facilities might be built or


   sites that may be enhanced by adding facilities to increase the


   multi-modal nature of the corridor.





   This chapter highlights the importance of identifying future multi-


   modal transportation corridors and setting aside the necessary


   right-of-way, especially in areas where development may block a


   long-range corridor.  Figure 9-1 provides a general description of


   corridors that have been proposed or discussed through a variety of


   study efforts.








EXISTING SETTING





   Many long range corridor studies have been completed or are


   ongoing. Imperial County and Los Angeles County have developed a


   20-year and 30-year plans, respectively. Currently Orange County is


   developing a long-range corridor plan. Riverside County and San


   Bernardino County corridors have been identified in the Inland


   Empire Long Range Corridor Study and through other study efforts


   such as the Sierra-Cedar, the North-South, the Southwestern


   Transportation Corridor, and the Ramona Expressway Corridor


   studies. In addition, Caltrans through its system management plans


   has identified future multimodal and intermodal corridors and


   longterm gaps.





   Depending on the degree of urbanization, the application of


   different long-range corridor strategies is foreseeable. In the


   highly urbanized portions of the SCAG region, long-range corridor


   projects that enhance existing corridors requiring the acquisition


   of little right-of-way or using abandoned railroad lines are


   probable approaches. In the less-urbanized areas, more


   possibilities exist to identify and preserve new corridors. Local


   governments have an opportunity to capitalize on preservation


   efforts before urbanization reduces the availability of land for


   new transportation facilities, especially in areas that already


   have insufficient transportation capacity. Early efforts to


   identify and preserve right-of-way will reduce costs and minimize


   the difficulties of developing a corridor.














Map continued











                              FIGURE 9-1


                        (LONG RANGE CORRIDORS)














POLICIES





   Guiding policies toward the development of long-range corridors


   include the following:





   -  Support long-range corridors that will employ multi-modal and


      intermodal strategies designed to maintain mobility for people,


      goods, services, and information in ways that are safe,


      efficient, cost effective, meet environmental mandates, and


      foster economic development.





   -  Support long-range projects and right-of-way preservation


      programs that foster the development of an urban form conducive


      to reducing single-occupant vehicle trips.








ASSESSMENT OF NEEDS & DEFICIENCIES





   Reports such as Imperial County's (Long Range) Transportation Plan,


   the Los Angeles County Transportation 30-Year Integrated


   Transportation Plan,  the Orange County Transportation Authority's


   Long-Range Transit Systems Plan and Development Strategy, plus the


   Orange County 2020 Vision (presently being drafted) illustrate the


   type of long-range corridor concepts that will need to be included


   in the region's future mobility plans. To develop these types of


   corridors there will need to be more linkages between land-use


   planning and transportation planning efforts. At present there are


   limited provisions at the local level for this type of


   coordination, especially with regard to preserving right-of-way.


   This issue, however, is addressed in the Mobility Element of the


   Western Riverside Council of Government's Subregional Comprehensive


   Plan that encourages local jurisdictions to establish land use


   patterns that support a multi-modal transportation network. These


   policies are generally unpopular and therefore, difficult to


   implement despite a need for land use policies that protect right-


   of-way, reward infill development, and discourage projects at the


   urban fringe that induce sprawl. Regardless of how difficult the


   process to preserve corridors, the region's future economic well-


   being is dependent on how well post-2015 transportation needs are


   addressed.








RECOMMENDATIONS





   Given the number of long-range plans focused at the county level, a


   regionwide post-2015 long-range corridor study is needed to provide


   a broader perspective of future needs. This effort should focus on


   the identification of corridors, the protection of right-of-way,


   and the development of the institutional framework to formalize the


   process. This effort will require developing criteria that guides


   the identification and prioritization of corridors and will involve


   considerable consensus building among competing public and private


   interests.





   Implementing the recommendations presented above is best served by


   developing a public information program that details the importance


   for local governments and subregions to proactively develop a long-


   range corridor program. This type of effort should also illustrate


   how the long-range corridor process complements short-term and


   long-term economic development strategies. A first step would


   include comprehensively analyzing studies done at the local,


   corridor, or subregional level that identify long-range needs. In


   addition, the long-range corridor effort should also involve the


   identification and setting aside of ROW for utility, communication,


   and freight corridors.








MOBILITY BENEFITS





   The identification, prioritization, and implementation of projects


   on post-2015 corridors provides the opportunity to develop


   multimodal and intermodal transportation systems that can provide


   benefits over present-day efforts constrained by managing


   congestion with limited resources.  In the highly urbanized


   portions of the SCAG region, the enhancement of transportation


   corridors that move people and goods more efficiently with less


   reliance on the single-occupant vehicle will produce significant


   mobility benefits in this auto-oriented environment.  In the less


   urbanized areas, the opportunity exists to develop corridors that


   meet a variety of transportation needs but may also influence the


   development of an urban form that will substantially improve all


   aspects of mobility.








ISSUES IN NEED OF FURTHER STUDY





      -  What additional corridors should be included?





      -  What are the appropriate actions to preserve identified


         corridors?





      -  What are the priorities of these corridors for the


         implementation of transportation facilities and services?





      -  What are the financial and mobility benefits for the early


         identification and purchase of right of way?














CHAPTER


TEN         FINANCIAL PROGRAM








INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND





   The RME estimates that over the 20-year planning period, $56.2


   billion in expenditures for traditional highway and transit


   programs and projects can be funded with reasonably available


   revenues of $56.3 billion.





   While regional expenses and revenues generally balance over the 20-


   year life of the Plan, historical spending trends, air quality and


   congestion mitigation, costs of maintaining an older


   infrastructure, declining gasoline tax revenues, and mounting


   transit operation expenses all threaten the region's precariously


   balanced budget. It should also be noted that the end of the


   planning period may have too little facility investment given the


   expected population growth.           Consequently, it is evident


   that the region's traditional funding sources for the foreseeable


   future are insufficient to pay for the Advanced Transportation


   Technologies and other corridor improvements which are needed to


   meet air and mobility mandates.  Thus, the RME considers innovative


   funding through Market Incentives, including a series of user-based


   fees.





   It is expected that approximately $15-29 billion will be needed to


   finance the range of various Advanced Transportation Technology


   improvements and performance-based projects which are crucial to


   the Plan's strategy through 2015.  As part of the financial plan,


   the costs for the advanced transportation technology and


   performance based transit programs will be continually examined. 


   As costs change, the market incentive program will also be reviewed


   for change.  It is clearly understood that the Advanced


   Transportation Technology strategy requires additional refinement. 


   It is expected that this refinement will be conducted by a SCAG


   appointed committee over the next two years and will be based in


   part by demonstrations and actual experience.





   Public and political acceptability is an essential requirement of


   Innovative funding. The region needs to understand what services


   will be provided and the efficiencies of such services.  In


   developing Innovative funding, a public education component of the


   financial plan will be developed.  Ultimately, the perceptions of


   elected officials and the public will determine which options will


   be implemented.








   The RME includes Innovative funding options such as a Vehicle Miles


   Traveled (VMT)/Emissions Registration Fee, congestion pricing, or


   other market incentives. Pursuant to the financial plan, any Market


   Incentives would be established by legislative process or by a


   ballot initiative.





   Market incentive development, refinement of new user based fees,


   advanced technology implementation strategy, as well as pricing


   levels, and a legislative agenda will also be studied by a


   committee appointed by the Regional Council.  This committee, which


   will include members from the transportation community will


   consider issues of equity, nexus of benefit to those shouldering


   the costs, and project efficiency/performance.








ISTEA





   The 1994 RME contrasts with the financial projections of the 1989


   Regional Mobility Plan (RMP) for the period 1990 through 2010,


   which forecast transportation capital revenues of about $21 billion


   against planned capital expenditures of about $44 billion -- thus


   identifying a $23 billion deficit.





   Enactment of ISTEA changed the playing field.  Under the new


   requirements, the Plan must do the following:





      "Include a financial plan that demonstrates how the long-


      range plan can be implemented, indicates resources from


      public and private sources that are reasonably available to


      carry out the plan, and recommends any innovative financing


      techniques to finance needed projects and programs, including


      such techniques as value capture, tolls, and congestion


      pricing."5





CRITERIA FOR REASONABLY


AVAILABLE FUNDING





   SCAG is using the following criteria to determine whether a funding


   source should be considered "reasonably" available.  These criteria


   are generally consistent with the Final FHWA/FTA Rules on


   Metropolitan Transportation Planning, issued on October 28, 1993:





   -  Has the proposed implementing agency (local, regional, state or


      federal government or private organization) taken a formal


      action by the time of Plan adoption to authorize the funding


      source?





   -  Is there a historical trend that resources of this type are


      usually approved by the public or their representatives?





   -  Have private sector organizations (such as the Chamber of


      Commerce, trade organizations, businesses, private task forces,


      etc.) shown support (e.g. policy, action, education) for the


      proposed funding mechanism?





   -  Has the state or federal government taken action required as a


      prerequisite or condition for enabling the resource by the time


      of Plan adoption?





   In order for a funding measure/mechanism to be considered


   "reasonably expected," at least one of the criteria must be


   answered YES or NOT APPLICABLE except that a YES to the criteria of


   private sector organizations support must be joined by an


   additional YES to another criteria.  Funding sources used to


   establish revenues in the RME must meet this standard.


______________________________





   5  ISTEA (23 USC 134 et seq.)








EXISTING REVENUE SOURCES





   Under the working criteria for reasonably available, the following


   sources of funds are considered "Reasonably Available."





   Federal Revenues





   -  Federal Fuel Tax (through Highway Trust Fund) (Portion allocated


      to Transportation) will continue at current rate through the


      Plan period.





   -  General Funds provided for transportation purposes will continue


      at current levels.





      The two foregoing sources provide the funds for the following


      ISTEA programs:





      -  Interstate Completion, Interstate Maintenance, National


         Highway System, Surface Transportation Program (STP),


         Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ), Federal


         Lands, and Federal Transit Section 3 Discretionary,


         Federal Transit Sections 9, 16(b)2 and 18 Formula funds.








   FTA Operating Assistance





   The Federal Transit Administration Section 9 program provides


   formula funding to transit operators.  These funds may be used for


   either capital or operating assistance (operating assistance,


   however, is subject to an annual cap established through the


   Congressional appropriations process).





   The ability to improve air quality and provide mobility in this


   region demands that federal public transportation operating


   assistance be continued throughout the Plan period (1995-2015). 


   The 1994 RME financial plan assumes continuation of Section 9


   funding for operating assistance.





   State Revenues





   -  State Fuel Tax will continue at rate authorized by statues


      approved as of 1993.





   -  General State Funds provided to transportation will continue at


      current levels.





   -  State Transit Bonds assumes $3 billion as approved by voters in


      1990 (Prop. 108, 116).





   -  Registration/Weight Fees will continue at rate authorized by


      statutes approved as of 1993.





   The foregoing state revenue sources fund the following State


   Transportation programs:





   -  Local subventions, TSM, State-Local Partnership, Enhancements,


      Maintenance and Rehabilitation, Flexible Congestion Relief,


      Soundwalls, Interregional Roads





   Reduced Motor Vehicle Fuel Taxes





   The financial forecasts of the Regional Mobility Element are based


   on existing motor vehicle fuel taxes.  Currently, both the federal


   government and California collect fuel taxes on gasoline and diesel


   fuel.  These revenues are placed in the Federal Highway Trust Fund


   and the State Highway Account, respectively, and are used


   exclusively for transportation purposes.





   Gasoline and diesel fueled vehicles are becoming more efficient


   over time.  In addition, it is expected that more and more vehicles


   will be using alternative fuels exempt from the fuel tax in the


   future.  Thus, it should be expected that revenues from the sale of


   motor vehicle gasoline and diesel fuel will decline over time.  In


   preparing the financial forecasts, this decline in fuel tax


   revenues has been taken into account.  It is anticipated that by


   2015, fuel tax collection will be reduced by approximately 25% from


   current levels.  This 25% reduction has been built into the revenue


   forecasts.





   In addition to the decline of motor vehicle fuel taxes due to


   alternative fuels, the purchasing power of the motor vehicle fuel


   tax declines over time.  In 1990, California increased its fuel tax


   by five cents per gallon.  The federal government also recently


   increased the fuel tax (although the increase was earmarked for


   deficit reduction).  While it is anticipated that over the lifetime


   of the RME, both the State and Federal governments will probably


   increase the motor vehicle fuel tax,  at this time, however, no


   projections have been made for such an increase in the financial


   plan for the RME.





   As additional empirical data is available, an improved forecast of


   the impact of lower motor vehicle fuel tax revenues will be


   prepared.  A portion of the innovative revenues, recommended to


   implement advanced transportation technologies, may offer a


   replacement for some of the diminishing motor vehicle fuel taxes.





   Local Revenues





   -  Transportation Development Act (TDA) revenues will continue for


      entire plan period.





   -  County Sales Tax Measures will continue for entire plan period


      (through 2015) for Los Angeles County and will be extended


      through at least 2015 for Imperial, Orange, San Bernardino, and


      Riverside Counties.6


______________________________





   6  In Imperial, Orange, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, the


voter approved local 1/2 cent sales tax measures are to expire in the


2009-2011 period.  The Financial forecasts of the RME assume that


these measures will be extended recognizing that the implementing


agencies have not taken policy action regarding this issue.











   -  County Bond Measures.  Any county bond measures currently


      authorized by voters are considered reasonably expected even if


      actual bonds not marketed





   -  Private Bond Measures.  Any private bond measure currently


      authorized by the required private organizations are considered


      reasonably expected even if actual bonds have not been marketed.





   -  Benefit Assessment District Revenues.  Any revenues being


      received from currently authorized benefit assessment districts


      are considered reasonable and will continue





   -  Development Fees.  Current agreements for Development Mitigation


      Fees are considered reasonably available





   -  Toll Roads.  Tolls from roads/projects currently open, under


      construction, or planned, which have legally complete and


      enforceable agreements, will be considered reasonably expected.





   Figure 10-1 illustrates the anticipated mix of tradition federal,


   state, and local revenues being available over the time frame of


   the Regional Mobility Element.  This figure does not include


   revenues that may be attributable to innovative funding sources.





     


INNOVATIVE FINANCING





   The language of ISTEA states that "innovative" financing techniques


   may be recommended in the RME.





   Discussions with Federal Highway Administration officials suggest


   that while they will accept local decisions with respect to


   reasonably expected innovative funding, they will look for post-


   plan adoption actions to determine the commitment of the region to


   implementing the innovative measures.





   Language of implementing regulations of the Clean Air Act refer to


   the language of ISTEA and include the following:





               "51.399  Fiscal constraints for


               transportation plans and TIPs





         "(a)  Transportation plans.  The ISTEA requires that


         the transportation plan include a financial plan that


         demonstrates how the transportation plan can be


         implemented, indicates resources from public and


         private sources that are reasonably expected to be


         available throughout the plan's time frame, and


         recommends any innovative financing techniques to


         finance needed projects and programs,[emphasis added]


         including such techniques as value capture, tolls, and


         congestion pricing.


      


   The following innovative funding sources will be further studied as


   part of the ISTEA required financial plan:





   -  Emissions Fees





   -  Congestion Pricing Fees





   -  Tariffs





   -  Accident Reduction Fees





   -  "Pay at the Pump" Funding (e.g. for transportation-related


      programs)








REVENUE FORECAST





   The financial summary presented here relies on revenues derived


   from federal, state, local, and private sources.  While the


   involvement of each sector remains strong, it is important to


   emphasize the significant effort made by the several local


   governments involved to finance improvements to, and maintenance of


   the transportation network.





   Federal Share





   The 1991 ISTEA defines federal participation in transportation


   financing. The Act is significant in several ways, including the


   added flexibility in the use of funds.  This attribute is


   considered essential in heightening the efficiency of


   transportation investment.  Also, the ISTEA recognizes the


   relationship between transportation and air quality policies.  To


   this end, the ISTEA contains funds within the Congestion Mitigation


   and Air Quality Program (CMAQ) to overcome the negative effects of


   the transportation network.





   ISTEA provides roughly 110 percent of the funding available from


   the previous six-year period.  The RME revenue forecast assumes the


   same of annual funding for all years of the Plan (1995-2015). 


   These funds are then anticipated to be distributed within the state


   based on the existing north-south split and county minimum


   allocations.  Based on these assumptions, about $11.5 billion


   (expressed in 1995 dollars) will be available to the state from


   FHWA and FTA sources during the plan period.





   Included in Federal Funding sources are the Surface Transportation


   Program (STP) funds and the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality


   Program (CMAQ) funds.  It is estimated that approximately $1.13


   billion in CMAQ funds will be available to the three ozone non-


   attainment areas in the SCAG region through 2015 and approximately


   $1.8 billion will come to the six SCAG counties through the STP


   program.





   Additionally, federal funding from the Federal Aviation


   Administration (FAA) and the Federal Railroad Administration may be


   available to finance portions of the Metropolitan Transportation


   System.  These funds are currently not included in the Revenues and


   Costs of Tables 10-1 through 10-6.





   State Share





   State revenues continue to reach the region through existing


   funding programs, including programs for system management,


   congestion relief and transit assistance.  Also available is


   funding from Propositions 108 and 116.  The latter, Proposition


   116, authorizing the state to assume $1.99 billion in long-term


   debt, was not anticipated in the 1989 RMP. Proposition 108, in


   addition to authorizing $1 billion in debt, was the first of three


   such measures authorized by the California Legislature.  The second


   of these measures to come up, Proposition 156, was defeated by the


   voters in 1992. Immediate repairs to the transportation


   infrastructure are being largely covered with federal disaster


   relief funds. However, the State must still address the need to


   accelerate costly seismic retrofit projects. The financial


   projections included here are based on the estimates of various


   funds, developed every two years and adopted by the California


   Transportation Commission.





   Although some state transportation resources are derived in part


   from general taxation, the majority of transportation funds are


   gained from the state gasoline tax and motor vehicle license fees. 


   The assumption that state funding will continue at a constant level


   is made without regard for how the revenues are generated.  It is


   strongly recommended, however, that the state continue to rely on


   the gas tax as a source of revenues, and that steps be taken to


   ensure a constant stream of funds, considering greater fuel


   efficiency standards and transition to alternative fuels.





   With the assumptions stated above, it is expected that


   approximately $5.9 billion (in 1995 dollars) will be available in


   the region from the state.





   California statute (SB 707) requires that Regional Transportation


   Planning Agencies (SCAG is an RTPA), develop a regional airport


   capital improvement program.  The Regional Airport Capital


   Improvement Program was completed for the first time in 1993.  It


   contains $2.2 billion in commercial airport projects and $3.3


   billion in general aviation projects.  Revenue data are not


   available, but a survey is underway to obtain the information.  The


   $5.5 billion is not included in the cost estimates of Table 10-1.





   Local Sources





   In the past few years, revenues generated at the local level has


   shown the greatest increase of all sources.  Since the 1989 plan


   was adopted, four of the six counties in the SCAG region have


   adopted half-cent sales tax measures -- Imperial, Orange, Riverside


   and San Bernardino; Los Angeles County approved a second 1/2 cent


   sales tax.  Ventura County defeated a proposition for a 1/2 cent


   sales tax.  While officials in Ventura County again expect to place


   the measure on the ballot sometime during the Plan period, the


   revenues to be generated are not included at this time.  Local


   transportation programs and projects continue to receive support


   from the Local Transportation Fund, the quarter-cent sales tax


   collected in all SCAG counties.  In addition, the county


   transportation commissions are making strong efforts to realize the


   value of existing holdings and future investments through joint


   development and mixed-use facilities at transit-related sites.





   Although the potential for generating revenues is great, certain


   distinct flaws in use of sales tax has become evident.  Along with


   most general taxation alternatives, the sales tax is inequitable


   and fails to equate use of a service with the related costs.  Also,


   as is evident not only in the SCAG region, but across the state and


   nation, this form of taxation is inseparable from the overall state


   of the economy.  Witness the current recession and its significant


   impact on transportation revenues dependent on the sales tax. 


   While, sales tax can be a powerful fund generation tool and is


   anticipated to remain a significant part of the revenue mixture,


   decision makers are examining user-based financing of


   transportation improvements as a key form for enhancing financial


   stability of the transportation system as well as a replacement for


   the future decline of the gasoline and diesel fuel tax.





   Both the bus and rail networks will contribute to local revenues


   through fare-box returns.  It is anticipated that up to $4.5


   billion (in 1995 dollars) can be generated by the farebox, assuming


   the transit operators are allowed to keep fares in line with


   inflation.  This issue has been continuously addressed by the


   transit community and public policy-makers generally, because of


   the needs of the transit-dependent.  However, given that it is


   difficult to anticipate any general increase in subsidies, the


   transit properties must have the latitude to support operations


   through either fares or other internal revenue sources.





   Despite these limitations, local share has become the dominant form


   of transportation financing.  Through the Plan period, it is


   anticipated that about $31 billion or about one-half of the


   revenues (in 1995 dollars) will be generated from local programs.





   The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority is


   currently facing a $126 million shortfall in its transit operating


   program beginning in FY 1995.  This shortfall also will have some


   impacts on the transit capital program if not resolved.  To respond


   to this issue, the Los Angeles County MTA has adopted a special


   work program to resolve this critical issue.  The LACMTA, by a vote


   of its Board, has committed to resolving the shortfall through a


   series of measures including staff reductions, transit service


   cutbacks, possible increases in fares, and other cost saving


   measures.








   Innovative Sources





   In developing the 1994 RME, it was recognized that additional


   programs beyond those funded through traditional sources will be


   needed in order for the SCAG region to maintain mobility and meet


   the requirements of the Clean Air Act.  At the present time, SCAG


   has identified five advanced transportation technologies - Electric


   Vehicles, Alternative Fuels, Smart Shuttle Transit, Intelligent


   Vehicle Highway Systems, and Telecommunications.  Each of these


   programs can provide an effective part of the regional


   transportation system.





   Preliminary cost estimates of Advanced Technology and performance-


   based transit projects are approximately $15 to $29 billion.  For


   purposes of modeling, the RME proposes that a VMT/Emissions


   Registration Fee be developed to finance these improvements.  This


   fee would be implemented gradually over several years.





   In developing the specifics of this innovative source, SCAG will


   consider both the funding measure, giving full consideration to


   equity of the fees and how they are applied.  In addition, as part


   of the financial plan, the specific uses of the funds raised


   through this innovative technique will be identified.





   Political and public acceptance are a key component for


   implementation of market incentives.  The financial plan requires a


   extensive public involvement program, exploring attitudes towards


   transportation financing, designed to reach consensus on Market


   Incentives.  In addition, in order to implement this innovative,


   market-incentive fee, state legislation will be required.





MARKET INCENTIVES





   Uses of various transportation facilities are influenced by


   financial considerations.  For example, a commuter who enjoys free


   parking at the job site may tend to shun use of public


   transportation while a neighbor who has to pay for parking his


   vehicle might consider taking the bus.  Another commuter might be


   persuaded to rideshare if there was some financial incentive. 


   Towards this end, SCAG established a Market Incentives Task Force


   to explore the ways that the market place may be used to influence


   the demand on transportation facilities.





   Another example of a market incentive would be congestion-pricing. 


   For example, use of a facility might be free during off-peak hours


   while a fee would be charged during peak demand periods.  Or,


   perhaps, a facility might be free for a three-person carpool, a


   small fee for a two-person carpool, and a larger fee for a single


   occupant vehicle.





   Market incentives have considerable potential for revenue creation


   as well as replacement for existing gasoline-based revenue sources


   which may diminish over time.





   There are a large number of additional ways of using market


   incentives to both achieve adopted policy goals of the region as


   well as to raise adequate revenues to finance the needed


   infrastructure. As part of the financial plan, as the needs for


   additional revenues are identified, market incentive solutions will


   be offered for consideration.


   For additional information regarding market incentives, please see


   the discussion in Chapter 3, Regional Transportation Demand


   Management.





                             FIGURE 10-18








Click HERE for graphic.








COSTS (EXPENDITURE PROJECTION)





   The RME identifies five traditional cost categories, including


   highways and regional streets and roads capital, transit (both bus


   and rail) capital and operating, Highway/Street and Road


   maintenance and operations, and Advanced Technology.  The costs


   required to provide the levels of service identified in the Plan


   are presented at the end of this chapter.  Figure 10-2 illustrates


   the approximate regional mix of project expenditures for transit


   capital and operations and highway capital and


   operations/maintenance.  The figure does not include expenditures


   for advanced technology or performance-based transit programs.


______________________________





   7  Does not include revenues which could be attributed to Market


Incentives








   Highways





   Capital expenditures identified in the highway network, including


   High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes and all related facilities will


   cost approximately $11.7 billion in 1995 dollars through 2015. 


   This figure also includes the cost of Orange County toll facilities


   which will be funded in part through private sources.





   Regional Streets and Roads





   Integration of local arterials into the regional transportation


   network is supported by specific funding at all levels.  Some of


   the Highway project capital costs are for regional streets and


   roads.   For example, some of the improvements on the Alameda


   Corridor will be on regional streets rather than State Highways.8





   Transit





   The transit costs for the study period total about $27.4 billion


   for both capital and operating.  The transit program contains


   roughly $21 billion in rail and bus operating costs with bus and


   rail capital programs totally about $6.4 billion.  This total


   combines local and express bus, commuter rail and intra-city rail


   programs.





   The transit costs assume no change in the aggregate level of bus


   service; the capital costs identified are for bus replacement only. 


   However, some redeployment is likely.  The rail expenses focus on


   the local services in Los Angeles County -- the Red, Blue and Green


   lines -- and Metrolink operations throughout the region.  The SCAG


   baseline also includes six candidate urban rail corridors or


   corridor extensions not currently programmed by the implementing


   agencies in the Regional Transportation Improvement Program (RTIP)


   but expected to be implemented before 2015.


______________________________





   8  Local and Regional Streets and Roads operating and maintenance


costs are supported by a variety of funding sources.  A portion of the


Federal Surface Transportation Program funds available in each County


are being used in much the same manner as the Federal-Aid Urban (FAU)


funds were used.  In addition, the State provides funding for local


street operations and maintenance through the fuel tax subvention


program.  The Alameda Corridor Project is estimated to cost about $1.3


billion (1993 dollars).








   Local Programs





   Local governments receive a share of federal9  , state10   and


   local11   funds for their own programs.  These programs often have


   the potential for positively affecting regional transportation


   trends; for instance, signalization and intersection improvements


   are done from this mix of funds.  Local governments are also


   responsible for a significant amount of maintenance and operating


   costs for the regions street and roadway network.





   An analysis of data regarding local street and roadway maintenance


   reveals that the level of maintenance and operations funding,


   adjusted for population increases has remained relatively constant


   and currently the projected costs reflect this consistency.





   SCAG is also aware that while the level of operating and


   maintenance projects has remained constant, this level of funding


   may not be adequate to meet any performance indicators that should


   be established.  ISTEA requires that a Pavement Management System


   be implemented no later than October 1, 1995.  It is anticipated


   that the data collected for developing this management system,


   along with Highway System Monitoring System (HPMS) data should be


   very useful in determining the performance indicators that should


   be developed and whether or not adequate resources to reach the


   performance standards is available.  Work on this issue is proposed


   as part of the FY 1995 SCAG Overall Work Program (OWP).








   Advanced Transportation Technology/Performance Based Transit





   Advanced technology defined as electric vehicles (ZEVs),


   alternative fuel vehicles, the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System


   (IVHS), telecommunications, and smart shuttle transit, is estimated


   to cost approximately $15-29 billion between 1995 and 2015. (See


   also Chapter 2, Goals, Objectives, Strategies, Finance for a brief


   description of Advanced Transportation Technology strategies.)


______________________________





   9  Under the ISTEA Surface Transportation Program, funding is


guaranteed to rural areas to replace funds formerly available under


the Federal Aid Secondary (FAS) program.  Under California statute, a


portion of the STP funds are also guaranteed to the cities and


counties at 110% of Federal Aid Urban (FAU) program levels.





   10  A portion of the California Motor Vehicle Fuel Tax is returned


to the cities and counties for transportation purposes.





   11  In several SCAG counties, a portion of the Local Transportation


Fund collected in each county is used by cities and counties for local


street and road purposes.











                             FIGURE 10-212





Click HERE for graphic.        








LIFE CYCLE COSTS





   Life-cycle costs are taken into account through assuring that


   Highway operating and maintenance expenses are included.  The State


   of California has enacted legislation which takes maintenance and


   operations costs "off-the-top" of funds available for state highway


   projects through the Highway System Operations and Plan Protection


   (HSOPP) program; these funds are not subject to the North-South


   split and/or county minimums.  Transit bus replacements are


   scheduled every 12 years per federal guidelines.  It is expected


   that approximately 300 buses will be replaced each year and these


   costs have been included in Table 10-1.  An examination of rail


   transit replacement and rehabilitation costs, in addition to other


   bus transit life-cycle costs, is underway to insure that these


   costs are reflected in the financial tables.








STP AND CMAQ PROGRAMMING


POLICIES





   In 1992, SCAG adopted several policies regarding programming of the


   federal Surface Transportation Program (STP) and Congestion


   Mitigation and Air Quality Program (CMAQ) funds:





   -  Programming of the Surface Transportation Program (STP) funds


      and Congestion Mitigation funds shall be the primary


      responsibility of the respective County Transportation


      Commission, consistent with federal and state law, the Regional


      Transportation Plan (RTP), and in conformance with the


      applicable Air Quality Management Plan.





   -  Implementation of transportation control measures (TCMs)


      required by the Air Quality Management Plan, including growth


      and demand management measures, shall be a high priority for


      expenditure of all STP and CMAQ funds.





   -  Cities and Counties are eligible to utilize the STP and CMAQ


      funds for demand management and growth management transportation


      control measures and will be so advised by the appropriate


      County Transportation Commission.





   -  The County Transportation Commissions have the responsibility


      either directly or through an agreement to document expeditious


      implementation of the TCMs.


______________________________





   12  Does not include expenditures for Advanced Technology or


Performance-Based Programs which might be funded through Market


Incentives or Innovative funding.








   -  A local Surface Transportation Program (LSTP) shall be developed


      and administered established within each County area consistent


      with state implementing legislation.  LSTP projects will be


      prioritized in each County by the County Transportation


      Commission consistent with the new ISTEA federal legislation


      which requires multimodal flexibility.  Maintenance and


      rehabilitation projects which do not increase capacity are


      exempt from conformity.  Following a transition period not to


      exceed three fiscal years, all LSTP programming decisions must


      be based on a discretionary process; formula apportionments will


      no longer be acceptable.  Each county area will be apportioned


      an amount not less than 110% of the FY 1990-91 FAU apportionment


      for the LSTP program.  There will be a 2-3 year period, as


      needed, to transition from the old FAU program to the new LSTP


      to all projects currently in the adopted RTIP to continue


      without interruption.





   -  County Transportation Improvement Programs shall be submitted to


      SCAG before County Transportation Commission adoption for review


      and comment through the AB 1246 process.  The Regional TIP will


      be adopted by SCAG following its presentation and review by the


      1246 Committee.  SCAG adoption will include a conformity


      finding.  If SCAG is unable to resolve identified conflicts,


      SCAG will adopt the components of the program which are possible


      to adopt and refer back to the respective CTC those projects


      which present conformity conflicts for reconciliation.  In the


      event that the respective CTC is unable to reconcile the


      conflict in a timely fashion, recommendations will be made by


      the 1246 Committee.








                              TABLE 10-1


           TOTAL ESTIMATED HIGHWAY AND TRANSIT EXPENDITURES


                               BY COUNTY


                      ($millions in 1995 dollars)








Click HERE for graphic.











                              TABLE 10-2


             TOTAL ESTIMATED TRANSIT CAPITAL EXPENDITURES


                               BY COUNTY


                      ($millions in 1995 dollars)








Click HERE for graphic.








                              TABLE 10-3


                   ESTIMATED TRANSIT OPERATING COSTS


                               BY COUNTY


                      ($millions in 1995 dollars)








Click HERE for graphic.











                              TABLE 10-4


            ESTIMATED HIGHWAY AND LOCAL STREET MAINTENANCE


                    AND OPERATIONS COSTS BY COUNTY


                      ($millions in 1995 dollars)








Click HERE for graphic.








                              TABLE 10-5


                    ESTIMATED HIGHWAY CAPITAL COSTS


                               BY COUNTY


                      ($millions in 1995 dollars)











Click HERE for graphic.














                              TABLE 10-6


                  ESTIMATED TOTAL COSTS AND REVENUES


                       BY COUNTY  -  1995 - 2015


                      ($millions in 1995 dollars)








Click HERE for graphic.








Click HERE for graphic.








For Additional information on the financial plan, please see Chapter 2


- Goals, Objectives, Strategies, Finance, and Appendix F - "Financial


Assumptions".











CHAPTER           REGIONAL TRANSPORTATION


ELEVEN            CONTROL MEASURE (TCM) PROGRAMS





INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND





   Transportation Control Measures (TCMs) are transportation and land-


   use strategies designed to reduce air pollution from motor vehicles


   by altering the way people make trips, decreasing traffic


   congestion, and promoting alternatives to single-occupant


   vehicles.                 These measures include the use of High


   Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) and bus lanes, automobile use restrictions,


   Advanced Traffic Management Systems on freeways and arterials,


   traffic flow improvement strategies, advanced traffic management


   systems on freeways and arterial streets, transportation pricing


   changes, alteration of local land-use patterns, institution of


   demand management strategies, and efforts to reduce aviation, goods


   movement, and locomotive emissions.





   Both federal and state legislation provide a significant role for


   the development, funding and implementation of TCMs in non-


   attainment areas. It is crucial that the mobility strategies


   contained in the RME provide for the implementation of TCMs in the


   respective air quality plans to ensure that air quality


   improvements continue and the flow of transportation funding to the


   region is maintained. Moreover, requirements at the state and


   federal level specify that all reasonably available TCMs be


   implemented as part of an air quality attainment strategy.  The


   federal attainment status for each non-attainment area is


   summarized in Table 11-1.  The air basin and air district


   boundaries are noted in Figures 11-1, and 11-2, respectively.





                              TABLE 11-1


              ATTAINMENT STATUS FOR NON-ATTAINMENT AREAS








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Map:  Air Basins














Map: Air Districts














   The RME contains a broad range of potential strategies available


   for development as TCMs.  However, those strategies selected from


   the RME as TCMS will have to be further refined to meet more


   stringent requirements placed on TCMs - enforceability, detailed


   accountability, and quantifiability.





   The degree to which TCMs are to be relied upon in an area's


   attainment strategy is key in determining the mobile source


   emission budget used for conformity purposes. This budget is


   essentially the maximum amount of emissions which may come from


   mobile sources. In the event this budget is exceeded, both vehicle


   controls and TCMs must be used to mitigate the greater emission


   impacts.





   The TCM Chapter focuses on the efforts being undertaken in the


   region to refine TCMs for inclusion in the federal attainment plan


   submittals due to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) by


   November 15, 1994.  Additional information on both the air quality


   plans, TCM implementation efforts to date, and overarching issues


   that have arisen in developing a comprehensive attainment strategy


   which contains TCMs can be found in the Air Quality Element of the


   RCP.





   TCM Development and Implementation Requirements





   By November 15, 1994, non-attainment areas for ozone are required


   to submit an ozone plan as required by the federal Clean Air Act


   (CAA). For severe and extreme non-attainment areas, these plans


   must contain TCMs. The South Coast Air Basin (SCAB), the Ventura


   County portion of the South Central Coast Air Basin (SCCAB) and the


   Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District are in the process of


   refining the TCMs in the existing Air Quality Management/Attainment


   Plans for their respective areas. In addition, Federal


   Implementation Plans (FIP) are also in the process of being


   developed for SCAB and Ventura County.





   Federal and State Requirements





   While the relative necessity of including TCMs in the overall air


   quality attainment strategy differs by air basin, failure to


   attempt to maximize their use in conjunction with all other


   strategies has the potential to create significant financial


   ramifications for the region. In the federal CAA, Section 179 (b)13 


    provides for highway sanctions, which may be imposed by the EPA


   Administrator. Although safety projects are categorically exempted,


   all remaining projects could be sanctioned.





   Both state and federal requirements exist for TCMs. These are


   contained in the federal CAA, the Lewis-Presley Act for the South


   Coast Air Basin, the California Clean Air Act (CCAA) for the


   Ventura and SEDAB, and in the Intermodal Surface Transportation


   Efficiency Act. These requirements noted in Table 11-2 identify


   actions that must be considered and requirements regarding


   transportation conformity and funding. Any mobility-based


   strategies intended to be included as a TCM in an attainment plan


   must meet these criteria. Moreover, the federal CAA requires the


   implementation of all reasonably available TCMs, as summarized in


   Section 108(f)14   of the CAA and Table 11-3.


______________________________





   13  42 USC 7408





   14  42 USC 7408(f)(1)(A)











                              TABLE 11-2


                           TCM REQUIREMENTS








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   Conformity





   Conformity is the process by which the Metropolitan Planning


   Organization (SCAG in its six-county region), ensures that the


   projects, programs and plans adopted, funded and implemented in the


   region provide for the implementation of TCMs contained in the


   applicable State Implementation Plan (SIP) for each air basin.


   Section 176(3)(c)15   specifies that no department, agency, or


   instrumentality of the federal government shall engage in, support


   any way, provide financial assistance for, license or permit, or


   approve any activity that does not conform to an attainment plan


   after it has been approved. Thus, it is critical that the RME


   provide for the implementation of TCMs contained in the applicable


   attainment plans.  The Conformity Working Group has existed since


   January, 1990.


______________________________





   15  42 USC 7506(c)








                              TABLE 11-3


                   FEDERAL REASONABLY AVAILABLE TCMS


                            Section 108(f)





   1.  Programs for improved transit


   2.  HOV and bus lanes


   3.  Employer-based transportation management plans


   4.  Trip reduction ordinances


   5.  Traffic flow improvements


   6.  Fringe and corridor park and ride facilities


   7.  Auto use restrictions


   8.  Provision of HOV/shared ride services


   9.  Limitations to encourage use of facilities/areas by pedestrians


       and bicycles


  10.  Bicycle facilities


  11.  Programs to control extended vehicle idling


  12.  Programs to reduce extreme cold start emissions


  13.  Employer-sponsored flexible work schedules


  14.  Programs and ordinances to facilitate alternatives to SOV use


       in planning and development, including new shopping centers,


       special events and other centers 


  15.  Construction of non-motorized and pedestrian facilities


  16.  Programs to encourage voluntary removal of pre-1980 vehicles








   TCM Commitments





   Both the federal Clean Air Act and ISTEA legislation reinforce the


   necessity of firm commitments to implementation of TCM actions.


   Such commitments must be legally enforceable, quantifiable,


   accountable and replicable.








TCM REFINEMENT EFFORTS BY AIR BASIN 





   SCAG, local governments, subregional associations, county


   transportation commissions, and Caltrans play important roles in


   coordinating with both each other and with the appropriate


   AQMD/APCD in developing and implementing TCMs. Nevertheless, it is


   anticipated that the breadth of strategies contained in the RME


   will be more comprehensive than the TCMs ultimately agreed upon in


   the 1994 AQMP. To the extent that differences may occur, the RME


   may need to be amended to refine the scope of the transportation


   actions which implement TCMs.





   South Central Coast Air Basin - Ventura County





   The Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (APCD) is


   undertaking the effort to reexamine the six groups of TCMs


   contained in the 1991 AQMP. These include: ridesharing strategies,


   non-motorized strategies, traffic flow improvements, land-use


   strategies, transit, and clean fuels.





   Since June of 1992, the Ventura County APCD has been holding


   meetings of its TCM Working Group to develop TCM options.


   Significant effort has been undertaken to: provide all participants


   in the process with an understanding of both the state and federal


   requirements; prepare TCM issue papers; identify potential


   strategies and implementation actions; identify sources of funding


   for TCM implementation; describe legally enforceable mechanisms;


   obtain commitments to implement TCM actions; and integrate


   Congestion Management Program (CMP) processes and programs to


   receive air quality credit.





      As currently identified, there exists a strong correlation


      between the facility/capital-based measures contained in the


      attainment strategy and the county's short- and long-term


      expectations for improvement of these facilities. Mutually


      reinforcing actions of Rule 210 (Employee Commute Option) and


      the CMP are also identified. Quantification of potential TCM


      actions has also been a key work effort by APCD staff.


   


      Southeast Desert Air Basin - Desert Portions of San Bernardino


      County





      In the Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District (MDAQMD)


      portion of the Southeast Desert Air Basin, the effort to develop


      and implement TCMS has focused on implementing the ten measures


      amended into the 1991 AQMP. Rule 1701 helps provide a foundation


      for much of the AQMD's current TCM framework.





      In response to California Air Resources Board (CARB) comments on


      its 1991 Air Quality Attainment Plan and information from its


      newly reformed board, staff at the MDAQMD are reexamining the


      area's attainment strategy, including TCMs. Efforts to date have


      focused on attempting to better identify what proportion of the


      emission and traffic problem are within the MDAQMD's sphere of


      regulatory influence and attempting to identify appropriate


      strategies.    














   Southeast Desert Air Basin - Coachella Valley


   


   As noted in Appendix II-A of the 1991 AQMP for the SCAB, the SCAQMD


   shares responsibility with CARB for the Coachella Valley portion of


   SEDAB. The SCAQMD is primarily responsible for stationary source


   controls while CARB's responsibility lies with on-road vehicle


   emissions and some consumer products.





   The primary pollutant being addressed locally in the Coachella


   Valley through the mobile source reduction strategies is PM10.


   While ozone standards are also exceeded, reductions in ozone


   precursors from the implementation of TCMs are seen as secondary


   benefits from the implementation of congestion relief and demand


   management measures. Substantial effort has been devoted by the


   Coachella Valley Association of Governments to developing a


   Transportation Demand Management (TDM) plan, which can serve as a


   framework, in conjunction with the facilities needed within the


   subregion, for the development and preparation of specific TCM


   strategies. Appropriate non-commute and commute trip reduction


   strategies are being examined. Local government efforts in


   Coachella Valley have been coordinated through CVAG.





   While it is unclear to what extent TCMs could be used to mitigate


   air quality versus congestion impacts, this effort continues being


   studied. One key focal area under examination is more closely


   linking CMP monitoring and mitigation programs with air quality


   programs.





   Southeast Desert Air Basin - Northern Los Angeles County


   


   Appendix II-A of the 1991 AQMP for the SCAB describes that the


   SCAQMD shares responsibility with CARB for the Antelope Valley


   portion of SEDAB. The SCAQMD is primarily responsible for


   stationary source controls while CARB's responsibility lies with


   on-road vehicle emissions and some consumer products.





   The North Los Angeles County subregion has identified several key


   areas in which the planning and implementation of mobility


   strategies has occurred which could also potentially credited as


   TCMs. These are: implementation of the county CMP; implementation


   of deficiency plan strategies in areas in which deficiencies are


   identified; SCAQMD's Regulation XV program; and local CEQA review,


   mitigation requirements and monitoring.





   South Coast Air Basin





   Section 40460(b) of the State Health and Safety Code states that


   SCAG is responsible for the development of the TCMs to be included


   in the AQMP for the SCAB.

















   Subregional Input into the South Coast Air Basin TCMs





   Subregions were asked for recommendations for how TCMs could be


   refined for the 1994 Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP). This


   process was intended to continue the evolution from strict "command


   and control" implementation of TCM actions to a more performance-


   based, market-oriented approach toward TCM development and


   implementation.


   Through provision of subregional performance targets, use of


   quantification methodologies, and reporting of results, local


   governments and subregions have been able to more clearly identify


   what they can more realistically expect from the implementation of


   different types of traditional TCM actions. More readily identified


   as a result of this effort are: actions which subregional members


   are taking; local government actions they would like to take and


   receive credit for mobility, but for which a barrier to


   implementation or taking air quality credit exists; and actions


   that are not supported under existing circumstances.





   Information provided by subregions have offered recommendations on


   various types of transportation strategies which should be


   contained in the RME. These are reflected in the individual


   chapters. On a broader basis, however, subregions have offered


   several suggestions on how to approach the framework for TCM


   development and implementation which are summarized in Table 11-4.





   Regional Task Forces





   In the summer of 1993, a joint SCAG/SCAQMD TCM Policy Committee was


   formed to consider this information, recommend TCM refinements and


   assist in development of implementation strategies in the South


   Coast Air Basin with SCAG and the SCAQMD. The committee is composed


   of elected officials from each of the subregions in the SCAB, the


   four county transportation commissions, the SCAQMD, and SCAG. A


   companion TCM Technical Advisory Group (TAG) also includes


   representatives from business, environmental interests, Caltrans,


   EPA, and Commuter Transportation services to provide staff input to


   the Policy Committee. This committee structure replaced the TCM


   Working Group formerly established by the SCAQMD.





   In addition, SCAG formed two Task Forces composed of local elected


   officials - an Advanced Transportation Technologies Task Force and


   a Market Incentive Task Force. Both task forces included a member


   of Caltrans. Each Task Force was charged with preparing options to


   be considered for the respective issue areas and making


   recommendations for inclusion in the RME.





   To address emissions for railroads, the Regional Railroad Air


   Quality Emission Reduction Board was formed. Consisting of


   representatives of both public and private sector organizations, as


   well as elected officials from both SCAG and the SCAQMD, the Board


   is responsible for overseeing development of a TCM to reduce air


   quality emissions from railroads.





   When the RME is adopted, transportation strategies which implement


   draft TCMs conveyed to the SCAQMD for discussion in the draft 1994


   AQMP will be included. Finalization of the TCMs is scheduled for


   summer 1994 when SCAG adopts the local government measures and TCMs


   to be included in the AQMP. It is anticipated that the breadth of


   strategies contained in the RME will be more comprehensive than the


   TCMs ultimately agreed upon. To the extent that significant changes


   occur as a part of the continued consensus building process, the


   possibility exists for the need to amend the RME to reflect these


   changes.





   Overall, the committees were intended to provide the maximum degree


   of flexibility in identifying which strategies and actions are


   believed to be the most appropriate for implementation for mobility


   and air quality purposes. This approach is also intended to


   recognize common interests of neighboring communities in preparing


   compatible options for TCM implementation and also being sensitive


   to important differences in available infrastructure,


   transportation services, land uses, and travel patterns in a


   diverse region.








TCM PROGRAM FOR THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN





   The Transportation Control Strategy for the 1994 AQMP is part of a


   comprehensive strategy to improve air quality by reducing emissions


   from mobile sources, enhance mobility by decreasing congestion


   levels, and create new jobs by encouraging and advancing the use of


   new technologies.





   The implementation program for the strategy is based upon the


   Implementation Principles summarized below. The principles


   emphasize looking first to advanced transportation technologies and


   market incentives as the most effective means for bringing about


   the emissions reductions required by state and federal legislation.


   Of key importance to the strategy is the concept of phasing-in


   control measures over time as the conditions emerge for their


   implementation and success. Efforts begin immediately at all levels


   to create favorable conditions for measures to be implemented in


   the long term.














                              TABLE 11-4


                    SUBREGIONAL TCM RECOMMENDATIONS











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IMPLEMENTATION PRINCIPLES





   The Transportation Control Strategy includes the following


   principles for implementing the Near Term and Long Term Measures:





   (1)   Regional Emissions Budget - A regional "on road" mobile


         source emissions budget would be prepared by SCAG/AQMD.





   (2)   New Technologies - The maximum feasible effort will be made


         to insure the application of technologies, such as


         telecommunications, Advanced Shuttles, and IVHS, to the


         reduction of emissions in the AQMP. This would include


         aggressive support of federal and state requirements for


         cleaner vehicles, fuels, etc.





   (3)   Market Incentives - Every effort would be made to identify


         and implement acceptable market pricing mechanisms which


         would result in the reduction of vehicle trips. This could


         include a revised basis for vehicle registrations, etc.





   (4)   FIP Measures - A determination of new, additional mobile


         source emission reductions that will be achievable through


         the Federal Implementation Plan (FIP) shall be included.





   (5)   After the impacts of (2), (3) and (4) are achieved:





      a. Feasibility and Cost Effectiveness - The emission reduction


         budget for TCMs in the 1994 AQMP will be determined based on


         existing knowledge about the feasibility and cost


         effectiveness of TCM implementation at the regional,


         subregional and local level.





      b. Subregional Targets - Subregional targets would be


         disaggregated from the TCM budget to the county level within


         the South Coast Air Basin.





      c. Other Control Options - Due to the above limitation, regional


         measures and rules capable of subregional implementation


         would not necessarily be designed to make up the remaining


         "on road" mobile source emission budget for the 1994 AQMP;


         depending on the size of the remaining budget, other mobile


         source control options would need to be reexamined.





   (6)   Substitution - All regional rules prepared in (5) would allow


         for "substitution" by a subregional or local implementation


         plan or measure capable of achieving the commensurate level


         of emission reduction regardless of the source of the


         proposed reduction.





   (7)   Delegation - If a rule was proposed that was considered


         necessary to achieve attainment, and it was agreed that its


         application must be applied to a specific source to avoid


         inequitable economic impacts, specific requirements to


         achieve the emissions reduction from the specific source


         covered in the rule (called "delegation" in the Regional Rule


         option) could occur.





   (8)   Special Circumstances Waiver/Subregional Peer Review


         Committee - If a source specific reduction were to be


         required by a "delegable" rule, there would be a provision


         for a special circumstance waiver. This waiver could be


         granted to a subregion or local government for a site


         specific facility within the jurisdiction if it could


         demonstrate that achievement of the emissions reduction would


         create an unfair economic impact and that the subregional or


         local implementation program was capable of achieving the


         commensurate emissions reduction from other sources. Such


         waivers would be granted by AQMD after suitable review by a


         subregional peer review committee consisting of a


         representative from each of the subregions.





   (9)   Uniform Regional Rules - Uniform regional rules should be


         developed in advance of, or simultaneously with subregional


         or local implementation plans.





   (10)  Subregional/Local Plans - Subregional or local implementation


         plans must be ready for implementation when the uniform


         regional rules take effect. However, subregional or local


         implementation plans may be submitted after regional rules


         take effect in accordance with schedules specified in the


         1994 AQMP.





   (11)  Multi-Site Businesses - Multi-site regional business doing


         business in more than one subregion and located within areas


         utilizing subregional or local implementation plans will be


         allowed to choose between subregional or local implementation


         plans and uniform regional rules at the time of the


         preparation of the Subregional or Local Implementation Plan.





   (12)  Monitoring and Enforcement - Monitoring and enforcement of


         subregional or local plans must allow for differences between


         subregional or local agencies and the district, provided that


         the emission reductions from subregional or local


         implementation plans can be independently verified.





   (13)  Minimum SCAQMD Administrative Oversight - Subregional or


         local implementation plans must be structured to utilize a


         minimum of AQMD administrative oversight.





   (14)  Responding to Monitoring Results - If monitoring shows that


         optional subregional or local implementation plans are not


         achieving their emission reduction targets consistent with


         specified schedules, there shall be an opportunity to revise


         the implementation plan and in the event that targets are


         still not achieved under the revised plan, uniform regional


         rules will be implemented in those subregions not


         demonstrating achievement of targets.








   The five categories of transportation programs to be implemented


   under the strategy are identified and briefly described below. 


   Transportation programs include advanced transportation


   technologies, market incentives, transportation improvements,


   indirect source controls, and other measures. These transportation


   programs are described in greater detail in Appendix IV-C to the


   AQMP for the South Coast.








   Advanced Transportation Technologies (ATT)





   ATTs are intended to provide consumers with products and services


   that preserve the same quality of life and convenience of mobility


   they experience today. These measures are expected to achieve the


   greatest emission reductions if an aggressive implementation


   program is put in place to achieve moderate to high levels of


   market penetration.





   Proposed ATTs include:





   -  Zero-Emission Vehicles


   -  Alternative Fuel Vehicles


   -  Telecommunications


   -  Intelligent Vehicle Highway System


   -  Advanced Shuttle Transit








   For example, innovative funding such as a VMT/Emission fee could


   help create the necessary infrastructure to develop a marketplace


   for ATTs to become a reality. Available funding for infrastructure


   improvements, system design or other basic needs related to ATTs


   may include special ISTEA funding, AB 2766 funding, funds currently


   spent by employers to implement Regulation XV trip reduction plans,


   various local proposition funds, demonstration grants or other


   funding sources which may be available. New funds also may be made


   available through implementation of market incentive strategies.


   Creative opportunities to mix funds or provide offsetting revenues


   will be explored to the maximum extent possible, including changes


   in existing funding authority.





   Implementation and advancement of these transportation technologies


   will be facilitated by industry and government "clusters" which


   will develop a strategy to deploy their technology as quickly as


   possible. The feasibility of ATTs will be enhanced by identifying


   client groups, organizations and activity hubs for which initial


   implementation of ATTs would be useful and who could provide


   valuable insight on further improvements based on their experience.





   Market Incentives





   Market incentives help to send a reinforcing message regarding the


   travel changes needed for congestion and air quality improvements.


   Market incentive programs can create a revenue stream to support


   the development of ATTs as well as other infrastructure


   improvements. Market incentive programs can be designed to be


   revenue neutral, so that financial burdens are not placed


   inequitably on disadvantaged segments of the population.





   Examples of possible market incentives include:





   -  Annual VMT/Emissions Registration Fee


   -  At-the-Pump Pricing


   -  Congestion Pricing


   -  Parking Cash-Out





   A Market Incentive Transportation Improvement Fund could be created


   through legislation or a ballot measure. Funds generated could be


   invested in basically three ways: 1) reinvestment in the


   transportation system in economically leveraged uses (including,


   but not limited to, ATTs); 2) addressing equity issues which may


   result from the market pricing; and 3) reinvestment of corridor-


   level revenues into transportation improvements along that


   corridor. This approach responds to both improved overall mobility


   as a key factor in economic vitality and equity for those whose


   participation in the social and economic fabric of the region


   depends on some basic level of mobility.





   Transportation Improvements





   Transportation facility improvements will be implemented through


   the region's Regional Mobility Element/Regional Transportation


   Improvement Plan (RME/RTIP) process and therefore would not be


   enforced through a regional rule. Transportation improvements are


   intended to offer expanded transportation alternatives and to


   improve mobility by reducing congestion and improving access.


   Transportation improvements also will help to provide supporting


   fueling and other infrastructure for some ATT applications.





   Components contained in the measure include capital-based actions,


   such as HOV projects and their pricing alternatives, transit


   improvements (i.e., bus, rail and shuttle), park and ride lots and


   intermodal facilities, and bicycle and pedestrian facilities. Non-


   capital based actions such as rideshare matching and information


   services, congestion plan-based demand management strategies,


   telecommunication facilities and satellite work centers, and


   transit passes are also included. Not included in this measure are


   projects and programs which are exclusively locally funded.





   Indirect Source Controls





   State and federal law enable the AQMD to adopt indirect source


   programs which are aimed at sources that generate or attract


   vehicle trips. Rules to reduce emissions from vehicle trips and


   vehicle miles traveled from the following sources will be


   developed:





   -  Special Event Centers


   -  Shopping Centers


   -  Airport Ground Access


   -  Schools


   -  Enhanced Rule 1501


   -  Parking Cash-Out


   -  New Development (Part I and II)


   -  General Development (Part I and II)





   Under the 1994 AQMP, the AQMD will adopt rules to implement the


   various Indirect Source Rule (ISR) programs, and provide subregions


   and local governments with an opportunity to take over the programs


   through delegation and substitution if they so choose. These


   programs were chosen for regionwide implementation because it was


   believed that there needed to be some level of consistency between


   jurisdictions. However, the opportunity to tailor the program for


   local characteristics and needs has been retained. As part of the


   rulemaking process, source responsibility for emission reductions


   and/or implementation of supporting actions needs to be addressed.





   Other Measures





   Several other measures have been identified for inclusion in the


   strategy which do not fall neatly into any of the categories


   previously described. Nonetheless, significant efforts have been


   underway that recognize their importance in achieving emission


   reductions. These other transportation control measures include:





   -  Railroad Emission Reduction Measure


   -  Fleet Purchase Rule


   -  Stage I Episode Plans


   -  Increase Driving Age to 18








MONITORING/PROGRAM EVALUATION METHODOLOGY





   Monitoring of transportation control measures is important for


   three reasons. First, monitoring is a federal statutory requirement


   to ensure compliance with CAA and ISTEA.  Second, monitoring can be


   used to assist with duplication of successful strategies for other


   jurisdictions by highlighting effective approaches and methods of


   implementation. Third, the implementation of standardized data


   collection methods for monitoring purposes will provide necessary


   information for the evaluation of mobile source emission reduction


   strategies' effectiveness.


   Although the most appropriate types of monitoring programs will


   depend on the TCMs which are ultimately adopted, several methods


   are available to monitor and evaluate TCM strategies:





   Regional Monitoring and Evaluation





   Monitoring on a regional level can occur in two ways. First,


   overall indicators of travel demand, such as average vehicle


   occupancy, transit mode split, and non-motorized mode split can be


   monitored by periodic origin and destination surveys and by


   evaluating travel data gathered through the U.S. Census Bureau.


   Second, conformity reporting for the Regional Transportation


   Improvement Plan and the Regional Mobility Element requires a


   current evaluation of local implementation efforts on a region-wide


   basis.





   Subregional Reporting





   Subregional organizations can serve as an important conduit for


   monitoring and evaluating demand management programs.  Through this


   structure, local jurisdictions will be able to provide direction on


   the selection and implementation of appropriate monitoring


   mechanisms for their specific subregion. This structure could help


   to ensure consistency among local programs, to permit comparisons


   of evaluation conclusions, and to realize savings through the


   pooling of monitoring resources.





   Coordination with CMP Monitoring





   CMP statute requires that each county Congestion Management Agency


   (CMA) monitor local jurisdictions to determine if they are


   complying with CMP responsibilities. The CMP provides for a


   reporting process which should be closely integrated. On the local


   level, each jurisdiction must ensure the implementation of TDM


   Ordinance requirements.





   Existing methods have the potential to be utilized for monitoring


   compliance with development standards. Common monitoring methods


   available to local jurisdictions include:





   -  Level of service (LOS) monitoring





   -  Site monitoring prior to issuance of certificate of occupancy or


      business license





   -  Other building site reports or surveys which the local


      jurisdiction may deem appropriate





   -  CEQA mitigation monitoring








   The monitoring system utilized by CMAs can provide a useful tool


   which will allow an assessment of how local jurisdictions are


   implementing actions described in the various air quality


   attainment plans. Additionally, the CMP-required trip reduction-TDM


   ordinances and subsequent analysis of land-use transportation


   implications provide an opportunity to refine and focus the scope


   and funding of control measures programs implemented at both the


   county, subregional, and local levels. The implications for


   regional mobility are important, for monitoring can be used to


   assess the effectiveness of TCM programs and serve as a mechanism


   for assessing progress toward performance goals.





ADDITIONAL TCM CONSIDERATIONS





   Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs)





   The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is in the process of


   developing FIPs for both the South Coast Air Basin and Ventura


   County in response to separate court cases. While more information


   will become avavailable when formal rule-making is finalized, the


   presence of FIP action serves as a significant backdrop for the


   development of the 1994 AQMPs -- and, thus, the TCMs -- in both


   Ventura and South Coast.





   The FIP also presents an opportunity to address sources which are


   under federal jurisdiction. These include: trains, planes, trucks,


   ships and some off-road vehicles.





   Several policy issues arise from the FIP. First, the proposed


   relationship between locally developed AQMPs and the FIPs for the


   respective areas is unclear. Will the FIP build off (modularly) of


   the local AQMPs or allow locally developed measures to substitute


   for measures in the FIP? Second, have the options available to


   areas subject to the FIPs been clearly identified, particularly on


   the TCM strategy side, within the context of measures willing to be


   undertaken? Finally, how has public acceptance been for local


   action in a modular FIP versus those locally developed actions


   which could be supported for substitution for FIP actions?








   Contingency Measures





   Both the federal and state Clean Air Acts require that contingency


   measures be adopted in the event adopted control measures do not


   achieve interim goals or maintain adequate progress toward the


   attainment of standards. In the past, contingency measures have


   included TCMs and other strategies which were not considered to be


   feasible at the time of adoption of an attainment plan by the


   district boards and California ARB. Examples include increasing gas


   taxes, limits on vehicle registration, no-drive days, and emission


   charges on vehicle use.





   Another approach for consideration in the region is the use of


   pricing. This approach could include charging for emissions through


   various means (e.g., dirty fuels fees, emission-related mileage


   fees, congestion charges, parking fees) which, in turn, would


   reduce the type of travel behavior that produces emissions, or


   cause a shift in demand away from higher-emitting vehicles toward


   the use of lower-emitting vehicles.  Such "market-based" measures


   would likely require legislative action to be made enforceable.





   Transportation Control Measure Funding





   Funding for TCMs is available through a variety of sources. Perhaps


   most important are two categories of ISTEA funding: Surface


   Transportation Program (STP) and Congestion Mitigation and Air


   Quality Improvement Program (CMAQ). Funding through STP is the most


   flexible, allowing funds to be spent on the National Highway System


   as well as other components of the regional transportation network.


   A subset of the STP funds -- Transportation Enhancement Activity


   funds -- are available to facilitate non-motorized forms of travel.


   CMAQ, on the other hand, was established specifically to fund


   projects that will contribute to the attainment of national ambient


   air quality standards. CMAQ funds are to be distributed based on


   formulae that give priority to ozone and carbon monoxide non-


   attainment areas.





   In May, 1992, SCAG and the county transportation commissions agreed


   on a set of principles, which would guide the programming of STP


   and CMAQ funding, as shown in Table 11-5.














                              TABLE 11-5


              EXISTING PRINCIPLES FOR PROGRAMMING OF STP


                      CMAQ FUNDS RELATED TO TCMS





   -  Programming of STP and CMAQ funds shall be the primary


      responsibility of the respective county transportation


      commission, consistent with federal and state law, the RTP, and


      in conformance with the applicable Air Quality


      Management/Attainment Plan.





   -  Implementation of TCMs required by the Air Quality


      Management/Attainment Plans, shall be a high priority for


      expenditure of all STP and CMAQ funds. Cities and counties are


      eligible to utilize the STP and CMAQ funds for demand management


      and growth management TCMs and will be so advised.





   -  The county transportation commissions have the responsibility


      either directly or through an agreement to document the


      implementation of TCMs.





   Funding for the implementation of specific types of TCM (e.g.


   transit, High-Occupancy Vehicle lanes, rail construction, and


   traffic signalization) is available through a variety of state and


   local funding sources, including gas taxes, bonds, and local sales


   taxes. Additional funding sources include increase in motor vehicle


   registration fees to $4. Local jurisdictions have also relied upon


   local development, parking and permit fees to help provide for


   traffic mitigation strategies, many of which qualify as TCMs.














CHAPTER


TWELVE      SOCIOECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS








INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND





   Southern California has perhaps the most diverse socio-economic


   landscape in the country, helping shape what the news media has


   labelled "America's First Third World State." Groups from diverse


   ethnic, racial and socio-economic backgrounds impact life


   dramatically in the region, including in the area of


   transportation.





   The Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) is


   required  by federal law to evaluate and analyze regional effects


   of transportation  decisions. Specifically, the Intermodal Surface


   Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991 directs SCAG as the


   Metropolitan Planning Organ- ization (MPO) to examine social and


   economic effects of regional transportation decisions.





   Various other federal legislation such as Title VI of the 1964


   Civil Rights Act and the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)


   require that no person shall be denied the benefits of, or be


   subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving


   federal financial assistance.





   Quality of life for all people in the SCAG region, and particularly


   for the elderly, the disabled, the low-income, and other


   disadvantaged people, is integrally linked to successful


   implementation of the region's transportation system.





   Consistent with federal legislation, a primary goal of the 1994


   Regional Mobility Element (RME) is to make the region accessible to


   everyone. This chapter will analyze how and to what degree regional


   mobility goals are impacting disadvantaged and low-income


   populations.








POPULATION AND TRIP CHARACTERISTICS





   The SCAG region currently has a population of approximately 15


   million people, the majority of them ethnic minorities. SCAG's


   forecast indicates this number will increase to 22 million by the


   year 2015. These demographic trends will continue beyond the 2015


   planning period.           Members of minority groups, especially


   Hispanics and African-Americans, comprise an unusually large


   percentage of the low-income and disadvantaged population in the


   SCAG region (see Figure 12-1). Hispanics comprise one-third of the


   population in the region but over half of those live in poverty.


   African-Americans comprise 8 percent of the population and make up


   13 percent of the poor in the region.





   Over one-fourth of the residents in the SCAG region are foreign-


   born, and 30 percent of those immigrants -- 1.8 million -- entered


   the United States between 1985 and 1990. Residents of Asian


   heritage were the fastest growing segment of the population.








                              FIGURE 12-1





Click HERE for graphic.








SELECTED MOBILITY TRENDS





   The 15 million people in the SCAG region own 10 million motor


   vehicles (see Figure 12-2). Paradoxically, but not unexpectedly,


   over the years, growth in automobile ownership has given rise to


   increased peak-hour traffic congestion and significantly degraded


   mobility for the region.





   Between 1970 and 1990, the number of licensed drivers in the region


   increased from 6 million to 9.5 million, a 58 percent increase.


   People aged 65 or older have increased their share of licensed


   drivers by 130 percent. For the future, the number of licensed


   drivers will increase with the 5-to-17 age group as well as with


   the "baby boomers" (35-44 age group).





   People who have purchased cars and/or secured drivers licenses can


   be expected to be a population largely or frequently dependent on


   automobiles for mobility.





   Non-work trips represent 77 percent of the region's daily trip


   total. Even during the peak period, non-work trips account for 68


   percent of all trips (see Figure 12-3).





                              FIGURE 12-2








Click HERE for graphic.








   Non-work trips comprise three categories: family and personal


   business trips, social and recreational trips, and shopping trips.





   The average travel times for work and non-work trips were 22 and 14


   minutes, respectively.





                              FIGURE 12-3





Click HERE for graphic.








DISADVANTAGED AND LOW-INCOME POPULATIONS





   Overview





   For most people, a transportation problem may be a work trip that


   is too long or too congested. But for disadvantaged populations,


   the problem can be the inability to find employment because timely


   and reliable public transit is not readily available. This section


   will identify the mode of travel most used by the specified


   populations.





   Elderly





   According to the 1990 Census, approximately 1.4 million elderly


   (those people aged 65 and over) live in the SCAG region. Seniors


   make up 9.5 percent of the region's population and will grow


   another 54 percent by the year 2015.





   A variety of social and demographic changes will accompany the


   aging of the population.  People will live longer so the need for


   specialized care and other services will increase. These


   demographic changes will also raise significant questions about


   accessible transportation to meet the mobility needs of the


   elderly.





   The majority of trips made by the elderly are not into or out of


   the Central Business District (CBD) but rather between two suburban


   locations. Transit systems that serve the suburbs generally carry


   passengers toward the central city and not to other suburban


   locations where medical and social services may be located.


   Consequently, more than 90 percent of trips made by the elderly,


   nationwide, are made by automobile, and reliance on the private


   vehicle is growing. The elderly drive fewer miles than do the rest


   of the population, but their mileage will likely increase in the


   future for the following reasons:





      -  Based on Department of Motor Vehicles data, the number and


         proportion of the elderly holding driver's licenses has been


         increasing for the past 10 years.  During this period elderly


         people with driver's licenses have increased 56 percent.





      -  Most of the elderly live in urban areas, but their numbers in


         the low-density suburbs where reliance on the automobile is


         both a convenience and a necessity, is increasing.





   The elderly face a number of obstacles that discourage mode shift


   from automobile dependency. First is the very serious concern of


   the elderly with personal security. Real or imagined, these fears


   have a great impact on transportation decisions made by elderly


   people.





   Additionally, studies have shown that most of the elderly cannot


   easily change their current car trips into walking trips because


   trip destinations are widely scattered throughout a community.


   However, these same studies show that mass transit could


   effectively be substituted for some automobile trips if transit


   services were conveniently available within four blocks of a


   senior's residence.





   Disabled





   In 1990, 802,331 disabled people with a mobility limitation lived


   in the region. Of the total disabled population, 28 percent were


   elderly. As the disabled population parallels increases in the


   elderly population, there will be new demands for special


   transportation services that are easily accessible, reliable, and


   more importantlyÄaffordable.





   The case for specialized service for the disabled rests on three


   points. First, not every community, urban or rural, has local


   public transit service. Second, public transportation is still


   largely designed to accommodate home-to-work trips but trips by the


   disabled tend to be non-work related. Further, a substantial number


   of non-work trips are made in off-peak hours (see Figure 12-3) when


   there are fewer buses on the road and schedules are different.


   Third, in bad weather passengers in wheelchairs have difficulty


   maneuvering from home to inconveniently located bus stops, which


   may not have shelters.





   The mode choice for disabled people depends on the severity of


   their disability. People who are visually impaired and people who


   have minor physical disabilities are oriented toward the regular


   bus and automobile-passenger modes in terms of preference and use.


   This group travels more frequently and for more purposes (i.e.,


   medical trips, shopping, personal pleasure trips).





   People with severe physical disabilities are oriented toward para-


   transit or demand-responsive service, which offer door-to-door


   service, assistance on and off the vehicle, convenience, comfort,


   and more personalized service.





   Women





   According to the 1990 Census, there were 7.3 million women in the


   SCAG region, accounting for 50 percent of the region's population. 


   Five percent of the total female population were female-headed


   households with children under the age of 17.





   Nationwide, according to the 1990 National Personal Travel Survey


   (NPTS), from 1983 to 1990, travel by women increased greatly, from


   6,382 annual miles per female driver in 1983 to 9,528 miles in


   1990Äa 49 percentage change. This increase was due, partially, to


   the increase in women joining the work force.





   The number of trips taken by women for family and personal business


   also grew by 37 percent for the same period.





   For the expanding population of working mothers, the location of


   child-care facilities plays a major role in the transportation mode


   women choose. If a child-care facility is beyond walking distance


   of the home, it is very likely that an auto, if available, will be


   used to drive the child to the care facility. It follows that the


   balance of the commute trip will be by car as well.





   In the case of older children, school location relative to home or


   work site can also impact the mode choice of a working parent. This


   is particularly the case where schools are not within walking


   distance or are not serviced by a school bus or public


   transportation.





   As with seniors, safety and concern for personal bodily harm are


   another major factor in the choice of a transportation mode.


   Specific times, places, and even modes of transportation may be


   considered off-limits by women for fear of personal violence.





   Youth





   Approximately 2.6 million school-age (ages 5-17) children live in


   the SCAG region.





   In the Los Angeles Unified School District alone (which represents


   the Los Angeles City and 16 other cities and communities), there


   are approximately  641,000 children enrolled in school for


   kindergarten through the 12th grade. Approximately 13 percent or


   80,000 students take district-owned or contracted school buses and


   11,000 take public transportation to school. This would mean that


   approximately 85 percent of the youth either walk to school, are


   driven by parents, or are driving themselves.





      Low-Income Households





   The 1990 Census defines poverty as a family of four with an annual


   income of less than $12,674. In 1989, there were 1.9 million people


   below the poverty level in the SCAG region. This was a 40 percent


   increase over 1979.





   Hispanics comprise one-third of the region's population and more


   than half of the Hispanic population have incomes below the poverty


   line. The African-American population, which constitutes 8 percent


   of the region's population, makes up 13 percent of the region's


   low-income families.


      


   Although it would seem that workers in low-income households would


   tend to rely more heavily on transit or carpooling, nationally,


   this is not the case. Data from the 1990 NPTS shows a substantial


   shift away from transit for work purposes by populations in


   poverty.





   According to the NPTS, approximately 60 percent of the low-income


   wage earners drive to work. This group also spends a great deal of


   time commuting between home and work.





   On a regional level, travel patterns examined for South-Central Los


   Angeles, where approximately 35 percent of the area population are


   African-American and 60 percent are Hispanic, 23 percent use


   transit.  The remaining 65 percent use the automobile for the work


   commute.





   In another local example consistent with national trends, the Pico-


   Union District in Los Angeles, which is approximately an 8-square-


   mile community predominately populated by Hispanics (65 percent),


   27 percent of the Hispanic population used public transportation to


   commute to work. Forty percent of the total households in this


   community were households without autos.     


   In addition, SCAG's transportation studies have shown that workers


   in the region commute progressively longer distances from their


   homes to their places of employment. Means of transportation to


   work do not necessarily reflect the supply of transportation


   alternatives to the single occupancy vehicle. Fifteen percent of


   renter-occupied units represent households without vehicles, and a


   total of all occupied renter units are inhabited by residents


   without vehicles. Presumably, an overwhelming number of these


   residents are low-income and obviously  disadvantaged.


                              CONCLUSION





   The economy has undergone a restructuring over the last two decades


   in which traditional, unionized, high-wage manufacturing employment


   has declined, while employment has increased in the services sector


   and in high technology manufacturing away from traditional


   industrial cores -- which also are often the residential cores of


   low-income, disadvantaged groups, many of which in Southern


   California happen to be minorities.





   The loss of high-wage jobs in South-Central Los Angeles, for


   instance, contributed to the decline of the area's neighborhoods at


   a time when the community was experiencing a radical demographic


   transformation. The effect on transportation of job losses in areas


   such as South-Central has meant that residents of those communities


   have often had to seek employment longer distances away from their


   neighborhoods, increasing the distance of their commutes.





   The need to economically revitalize disadvantaged communities in


   the region takes on additional significance when its impact on


   future transportation goals and objectives is taken into account. A


   renewed job economy in those communities would significantly reduce


   the daily "worker flight" with all its ramifications on traffic


   congestion, automobile exhaust pollution, and stress on the


   region's transportation system.











CHAPTER


THIRTEEN    URBAN FORM AND MOBILITY








INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND








   Throughout the years, development in the SCAG region has been


   dispersed along the available freeway network. Traditional zoning


   laws that separate residential, commercial, and industrial land


   uses, have led to the spatial disconnection among different types


   of activities. Ultimately, the freeways and disconnected activity


   areas have been among the factors fostering an ever-increasing


   dependence on the automobile as the main mode of transportation.





   The 1991 federal Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act


   (ISTEA) stresses the integration of land-use policies and


   transportation programs. The legislation provides funding for


   transportation programs that are consistent with short- and long-


   range land-use planning and puts new emphasis on transit,


   pedestrian, and bicycle facilities.               Future land-use


   strategies in the region are aimed at relieving the pressures of


   population and job growth on the Southern California transportation


   system by achieving more balanced developments.





   Land use in the 1989 Growth Management and Mobility Plans





   The jobs/housing balance policy proposed in the 1989 Growth


   Management Plan (GMP) was included in the 1989 Regional Mobility


   Plan (RMP) as a strategy to regain 1984 mobility levels. It was


   also included as a Transportation Control Measure (TCM) in the Air


   Quality Plan (AQMP Measure 17).  





   The 1989 GMP subregional trend projections of jobs and housing were


   modified. Nine percent of the regional job growth between 1980 and


   2010 was redirected from job-rich to job-poor subregions, and 5


   percent of the housing growth was redirected from housing-rich to


   housing-poor subregions.  Increasing the opportunities of


   individuals to take care of most of their daily needs within a


   reasonable commute radius reduced the length of home-to-work trips


   and the amount of congestion.  The forecast 2010 increase in VMT


   was reduced by 8 percent and congestion by 37 percent.





   It should be recognized that the phasing and timing of development


   are as important as achieving the proper jobs/housing balance to


   yield the desired transportation and environmental benefits.


   Equally important is the match between the types of jobs and


   housing prices within a community.





   Job/housing balance, as a growth management and mobility strategy


   and as a Transportation Control Measure (TCM), has been riddled


   with implementation difficulties and has also been the subject of


   an ongoing regional debate. Nevertheless, the promotion of land-use


   development patterns, including job/housing balance, that enhances


   the efficiency of the transportation system remains an important


   goal of the  Growth Management and Mobility elements. A few


   subregions, WRCOG and SANBAG for example, have explicit policies


   that encourage job-housing balance, balanced communities, and


   transit-oriented development.








LAND USE AND TRANSPORTATION ANALYSIS





   Effects of Land Use on Mobility Characteristics





   Understanding the relationship between land use and travel behavior


   helps shape the decision-making process regarding the integration


   of urban form as a mobility strategy. For this purpose, three model


   runs of the regional TRANPLAN model were designed to test the


   sensitivity of travel demand to changes in land-use patterns. All


   three runs were based on identical assumptions and methodologies


   except for socio-economic distributions. This procedure enabled the


   isolation and comparison of the effects of different land-use


   assumptions on travel characteristics and travel demand.





   The first sensitivity run, referred to as the Trend Base Case


   scenario, was based on the Draft Growth Management Forecast


   distributions (July 1993). These were derived through the bottom-


   up, interactive process, reflect most probable market-driven future


   patterns of development and only include local land-use policies.





   The second sensitivity run, referred to as the Urban Form scenario,


   was based on a modification to the Trend Base Case forecast to


   direct future growth in a concentrated way around the existing and


   proposed rail network. To this effect, it was assumed that 35% of


   future housing growth and 45% of employment growth between 1990 and


   2010 would take place within one-half mile of rail stations.





   The third sensitivity run, labeled Job-Housing Balance, was based


   on a different alteration of the Trend Base Case forecast. Under


   this scenario, future growth was assumed to take place in a more


   balance way in all areas of the region. The Trend Base Case


   distribution of growth imply job-housing balance ratios which are a


   marked improvement over the job-housing balance ratios in the 1989


   GMP. Nevertheless, the ratios deteriorate in a few areas. The Trend


   Base Case forecast distributions were modified in areas where the


   job housing balance ratio gets worse in 2010 compared to the 2010


   ratios in the 1989 GMP. The modifications to jobs and housing in


   such areas brought the job housing balance ratios in line with the


   1989 GMP ratios.





   Table 13-1 presents a summary comparison of travel characteristics


   during morning rush hours between the three scenarios. Compared to


   the Trend Base Case, both the Urban Form and Job-Housing Balance


   scenarios show a reduction in vehicle miles traveled and in hours


   of delay as well as an increase in travel speed. The beneficial


   effects of  Job-Housing Balance are more pronounced.  Results of


   the Job-Housing Balance sensitivity run indicate a reduction in


   congestion expressed in hours of delay of close to 20 percent, and


   an improvement of 9.21 percent in speed on the regional highway


   system, compared to the Trend Base Case.





   The data shows modest improvements when the Urban Form scenario is


   compared to the Base Case. These results should be interpreted in


   light of the fact that the regional model was not initially


   designed as a tool to test the relationship between land-use and


   travel behavior. Furthermore, factors such as changes in vehicle


   ownership, increases in pedestrian trips, and reductions in access


   time to transit, which are likely to come about with concentrated


   growth, are not accounted for in the cause-effect chain of


   variables influencing travel behavior.








                              TABLE 13-1


                  IMPACTS OF DIFFERENT SOCIO-ECONOMIC


                       DISTRIBUTIONS ON MOBILITY








Click HERE for graphic.








Effects of Land Use on Transit Patronage





SCAG commissioned a team of consultants, led by the Urban Innovations


Group, to investigate different theoretical urban form alternatives


relative to regional mobility and air quality objectives, and to


research the interconnection between land use and patronage of the


extensive interregional proposed rail system. The team identified


three cases of transit-oriented Urban Form and created a model for


each case to estimate the modal split for transit.





The analytical method consisted of the following steps: 1) Estimating


how many workers live in transit-oriented zone in 2010; 2) Estimating


how many of these workers also have a job in a transit-oriented zone;


3) Estimating how many of these workers who both live and work in a


transit-oriented zone choose to use transit; 4) Adding baseline


transit use for those outside transit-oriented zones; 5) Comparing to


modal split goal necessary to achieve mobility and air quality


goals.16





The first case (Case AÄRail Station Concentrated Growth and Rail


Emphasis) directed growth to occur in concentrated development within


walking distance of existing and planned rail stations. The second


case (Case BÄActivity Center Concentrated Growth, and Rail and Express


Bus Emphasis) directed growth to occur in concentrated development


within walking distance of rail stations and in existing activity


centers serviced by intra-center shuttles with express bus routes to


other centers. The third case (Case CÄTrendline Growth and Rail,


Express Bus and Paratransit) implied trendline distributions of


population and employment, and relied on a demand-responsive three-


tiered transit system capable of servicing a large market.


______________________________





   16  For more detailed information on methodology and results of the


Urban Form study, see the UIG August 9, 1994 report in the Growth


Management Component appendix .











   Analytical results showed that for each of the three cases, modal


   split for transit in the home-to-work travel market increases


   compared to trendline projections. However, concentrated growth by


   itself does not produce the modal split goal of 19 percent, by


   2010, for all home-to-work trips established by the 1989 RMP.





   The estimated modal split for Case A falls in the 5-to-7 percent


   range and for Case B in the 7-to-10 percent range. Case C yields an


   estimated modal split in the 15-to-25 percent range. This suggests


   that a multi-tiered transit system including intra-regional rail


   (e.g., Metrolink), inter-urban bus service, and an intra-urban


   Smart Shuttle Transit, has significant beneficial effects on


   mobility and air quality. This demand-responsive multi-occupant


   vehicle transportation system and fine tuning multiple-use


   neighborhood development will retard private vehicle usage. The


   Smart Shuttle Transit is also beneficial in the non-home-to-work


   market in which it can reduce public expenditures and can create


   sustainable employment and economic development opportunities. In


   addition, a preliminary cost estimate revealed that the combined


   capital and operating costs were competitive in comparison to


   intra-urban rail transit.





   Study conclusions emphasize the importance of land-use decisions


   that complement proposed investments in the Metropolitan


   Transportation System (MTS). Concentrated development and mixing


   transportation-friendly land uses throughout the region will


   increase pedestrian and bicycle access and potentially result in


   VMT reduction due to local trip containment and consolidation. Many


   motorized work- and non-work-related trips may be eliminated and


   replaced by walking or cycling.17





   The effect of such measures on vehicle trips and VMT reductions are


   hard to model. Nevertheless, empirical evidence of the positive


   effects of land-use on transportation abound.18   According to a


   survey of existing studies results conducted by the California Air


   Resources Board (ARB), mixed-use development and increased


   densities can reduce 4-to-11 percent of a region's vehicle trips


   and 20- to- 50 percent of site-specific trips. Ranges encompass


   results obtained from application of different land-use measures in


   diverse environments.


______________________________





   17  The Urban Form study was revised to address comments received


at meetings of policy and technical advisory committees, and comments


of SANBAG, MTA, NRDC, ARB, City of Brea, and City of Simi Valley.





   18  Calthorpe Associates, "Transit Oriented Development Design


Guidelines", 1992 for the City of San Diego. Holtzclaw/NRDC,


"Explaining Urban Density and Transit Impacts on Auto Use", 1990.


Local Government Commission, "Land Use Strategies for Livable Places",


1992. Transit/Residential Access Center, "Incentives for Trip


reduction Through Location of Housing Near Rail Transit Stations",


1991. Air Resources Board, "CCAA Guidance for the Development of


Indirect Source Control Programs", 1990.








LAND USE AS A MOBILITY STRATEGY








Approach





In addition to enhancing regional mobility, achieving clean air


standards, and reducing energy consumption, a land-use component of


the mobility strategy is expected to maximize access to the


transportation system and options to choose among travel modes. Land-


use decisions should also enhance economic development and help avoid


social polarization.





Local jurisdictions are instrumental in the decision-making process


regarding urban form and have the primary authority regarding land use


decisions. The proposed approach reflects the subregional and local


input to the 1994 Plan and Growth Management Element.





The general consensus that emerged from subregional plans19  ,


comments, and recommendations received is that land-use policies


should be part of a strategy to improve regional mobility. The


preferred approach to meet mobility, air quality, and sustainable


economic development is the small scale localized implementation of


land-use measures. This does not necessitate redirecting future


development regionwide, or massive concentration of new development


along transit stations and transit corridors.





Nevertheless, there remains a concern shared by some subregions


(SANBAG, WRCOG, Arroyo Verdugo, City of Los Angeles) that relying on


the small scale localized approach, on  forecast distributions which


reflect most likely market trends and implementation of local policies


is not enough to achieve regional goals. It is also argued that this


approach would promote the status quo by allowing continued growth in


outlying areas which do not adequately provide employment, therefore


putting excessive strains on the transportation system. The inclusion


of policies in the Growth Management Element and 1994 Plan which


encourage promotion of more balanced growth, both at the local and


regional level, could help mitigate transportation and air quality


impacts of growth, reduce infrastructure costs, and contribute to


improvement of the region's quality of life and economic vitality.





This concern was discussed at meetings of SCAG's policy committees who


recognized the importance of regional guidance for the achievement of


balanced communities and suggested that an aggressive educational


strategy as well as a process and program to achieve regional goals


through land use actions be put in place. The public needs to be


informed about the mobility, air quality and quality of life benefits


of urban form policies. The committees also recommended the formation


of a subcommittee to explore the issue of promoting and implementing


balanced development.  Recommendations of this subcommittee will be


incorporated in the Regional Mobility Strategy.


______________________________





   19  This position reflects the growth management goals and policies


in the Arroyo Verdugo, San Gabriel Valley, VCOG and WRCOG subregional


plans, and comments and recommendations from Los Angeles City, CVAG,


SANBAG, ARB, NRDC, LA County/MTA, SCAQMD, California Environmental


Associates, and City of Simi Valley.








Local Implementation Tools





Changes to existing zoning, general plan amendments, and specific


plans that encourage concentrated, mixed-use, transit- and pedestrian-


oriented development are tools that can be used by local jurisdictions


to foster land-use policies, which, along with adequate Transportation


Demand Management (TDM) and Congestion Management Programs (CMP) and


non-motorized infrastructure, can reduce environmental and economic


costs of motorized trips.





   Local actions to affect site-specific patterns of development


   include allowing the combination of usually separated land uses


   within a single development; increasing development density along


   transit corridors and stations; clustering development to preserve


   open space; achieving better jobs-housing balance at the micro-


   scale; and a better match between the types of jobs and the price


   of housing. Such actions can be carried out through local


   jurisdictions' regulatory powers. The City of Los Angeles' "Land


   Use/Transportation Policy" approved by the City Council in November


   of 1993 provides examples of local actions.





   Design standards improvement actions are another category that


   could affect urban form at the local level. These include the


   provision of physical features that encourage transit use, cut the


   need for cold starts, and encourage pedestrian and bicycle travel.


   Amenities such as bus shelters and bus pullouts to improve transit,


   physical improvements that support pedestrian traffic, the


   construction of bike lanes and provision of secure bike racks, and


   parking arrangements that facilitate ride sharing can help achieve


   the vehicle trip reduction goals.





   Local land-use policies that foster mixed- and higher-density uses


   should target both work and non-work trips. It should also be


   recognized that localized changes in urban form are incremental,


   and their resulting impacts on mode split and congestion are long-


   range, not likely to be felt until after 2010 and 2015.





   Supporting Regional Policies





   The following policies in the Growth Management Component support


   goals and objectives of this proposed land-use component of the


   RME:





   -  The timing, financing, and location of public facilities,


      utility systems, and transportation systems shall be used by


      SCAG to implement the region's growth policies.





   -  SCAG shall encourage patterns of urban development and land uses


      that reduce costs on infrastructure construction and make better


      use of existing facilities.





   -  SCAG shall support and encourage settlement patterns that


      contain a range of urban densities.





   -  SCAG shall support provisions and incentives created by local


      jurisdictions to attract housing growth in job-rich subregions


      and job growth in housing-rich subregions.





   -  SCAG shall encourage local jurisdictions' efforts to achieve a


      balance between the types of jobs they seek to attract and


      housing prices.





   -  SCAG shall encourage existing or proposed local jurisdictions


      programs aimed at designing land uses that encourage the use of


      transit and, thus, reduce the need for roadway expansion, reduce


      the number of auto trips and VMT, and create opportunities for


      residents to walk and bike.





   -  SCAG shall encourage local jurisdictions' plans that maximize


      the use of existing urbanized areas accessible to transit


      through infill and redevelopment.





   -  SCAG shall support local plans to increase density of future


      development located at strategic points along the regional


      commuter rail, transit systems, and activity centers.





   -  SCAG shall support local jurisdictions strategies to establish


      mixed-use clusters and other transit-oriented developments


      around transit stations and along transit corridors.





   -  SCAG shall encourage developments in and around activity


      centers, transportation corridors, under-utilized infrastructure


      systems, and areas needing recycling and redevelopment.





   The highest priority should be assigned to projects and programs


   designed to maximize the effectiveness of alternatives to solo


   driving. SCAG, having the responsibility to determine


   transportation system conformity, could use this technique to


   ensure implementation of coordinated land-use and transportation


   policies. Communities that demonstrate a commitment to adopt zoning


   and approve development consistent with proposed transportation


   projects would be given priority in funding.














CHAPTER


FOURTEEN    REGIONAL ACTION PROGRAM








INTRODUCTION





   This chapter summarizes, in table form, the recommendations


   contained in the previous chapters of the Regional Mobility


   Element. These recommendations are based on discussions with county


   transportation commissions and local governments, dialogue at SCAG


   working group meetings, and subregional input.





   A more detailed discussion of the recommendations  listed in the


   following tables can be found in the referenced chapters.         


   The action program includes actions from the following chapters:


   Chapter Three, Regional TDM Program; Chapter Four, Regional Transit


   Program; Chapter Five, Regional Streets & Highways Program; Chapter


   Six, Regional Non-Motorized Transportation Program; Chapter Seven,


   Regional Goods Movement Program; Chapter Eight, Regional Aviation


   System Program; and Chapter Nine, Long Range Corridors.  It is


   important to note that the CIPs of the SCAG Region Congestion


   Management Programs (CMPs) were found to be consistent with the


   1989 Plan.  As such, the CIPs were incorporated into the Regional


   Action Program, as provided for under CMP statute.











CHAPTER THREE


RECOMMENDED REGIONAL TRANSPORTATION DEMAND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM





                              TABLE 14-3


                         TDM: SHORT/LONG-RANGE


                      PROGRAM (7/20 YEAR PROGRAM)








Click HERE for graphic.








Click HERE for graphic.











Click HERE for graphic.

















CHAPTER FOUR


RECOMMENDED REGIONAL TRANSIT (BUS AND RAIL) PROGRAM





                             TABLE 14-4(A)


                          SHORT RANGE PROGRAM








Click HERE for graphic.








                             TABLE 14-4(B)


                    LONG RANGE BUS AND RAIL PROGRAM








Click HERE for graphic.











CHAPTER FIVE


RECOMMENDED REGIONAL STREETS AND


HIGHWAYS PROGRAM








                              TABLE 14-5A


                      TOTAL MIXED-FLOW & HOV LANE


                MILES TO BE ADDED BY COUNTY 1990 - 2015








Click HERE for graphic.








   Source:  1994 Plan


   Note: Includes new facilities, widening of existing facilities and


         toll roads.


   Proposed is defined as open and operational within the given time


   frame.





                              TABLE 14-5B


           PROPOSED CAPACITY EXPANSIONS BY IMPROVEMENT TYPE


                               1990-2015








Click HERE for graphic.








    Source: 1994 Plan








   Long-range Freeway-Based HOV Expansion -- HOV expansion is


   recommended on portions of the Interstates 5, 10, 15, 215, and


   Route 101 beyond 2010.








   Transportation System Management





   System management improvements such as freeway ramp metering,


   installation of changeable message signs, and construction of park-


   and-ride lots along transit corridors are recommended.








   Local Streets and Roads Improvements





   The projects that specifically pertain to the local streets and


   roadways in the CMP CIPs are recommended as the local streets and


   roads improvements.  Table 14-5(C) is a summary of the seven-year


   CIP projects of the 1992 CMPs by the type of improvements as


   related to both regional highways and streets, and to local streets


   only.





                             TABLE 14-5(C)


                      SUMMARY OF CMP CIP PROJECTS








Click HERE for graphic.








   Sources: 1. San Bernardino Associated Governments, Congestion


            Management Program for San Bernardino County,   November,


            1992


      2. Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority,


      Congestion Management Program for Los  Angeles County, December,


      1992


      3. Riverside County Transportation Commission, Congestion


      Management Program for Riverside County,  December, 1992


      4. Orange County Transportation Authority, Congestion Management


      Program for Orange County,       December, 1992


      5. Ventura County Transportation Commission, Congestion


      Management Program for Ventura County,    December, 1992














                             TABLE 14-5(D)


                   ARTERIAL HOV CANDIDATE CORRIDORS








Click HERE for graphic.








   Note: Corridors have been identified for modeling purposes and to


         determine their potnetial in improving mobility








   POTENTIAL SMART CORRIDORS





   Los Angeles and Orange County potential Smart Streets Corridors are


   identified for the purpose of providing cost effective methods in


   reducing congestion.








                             TABLE 14-5(E)


                          LOS ANGELES COUNTY


                       POTENTIAL SMART CORRIDORS








Click HERE for graphic.








   Source:  Statewide Smart Corridor Study











                             TABLE 14-5(F)


                             ORANGE COUNTY


                       POTENTIAL SMART CORRIDORS








Click HERE for graphic.








       Source:  Statewide Smart Corridor Study








   Safety and Accident/Incident Management





   Caltrans, the county transportation commissions, and the California


   Highway Patrol (CHP) currently employ various incident management


   programs. Mechanisms that allow for recovering the costs of


   incident/accident clean-up through incentive fees should also be


   examined. A study should be done to quantify and evaluate the


   impacts of accidents and incidents on the region's roadways.


   Mechanisms that address the accident/incident cost recovery should


   be investigated for possible implementation.











CHAPTER SIX


REGIONAL NON-MOTORIZED TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM








                              TABLE 14-6


                     NON-MOTORIZED ACTION PROGRAM








Click HERE for graphic.








Click HERE for graphic.














CHAPTER SEVEN


REGIONAL GOODS MOVEMENT ACTION PROGRAM20





                             TABLE 14-7(A)


              SHORT-RANGE GOODS MOVEMENT ACTION PROGRAMS








Click HERE for graphic.








______________________________





   20  Passage of the ISTEA resulted in funding for projects


benefitting goods movement activities in the SCAG region.  These


projects are funded out of Urban Access and Mobility, Innovative, and


Intermodal categories, and have been incorporated by reference into


the 1993 RME.








                             TABLE 14-7(B)


                  LONG-RANGE GOODS MOVEMENT PROGRAMS








Click HERE for graphic.














CHAPTER EIGHT


RECOMMENDED REGIONAL AVIATION SYSTEM PROGRAM





                             TABLE 14-8(A)


                     SHORT RANGE AVIATION PROGRAM








Click HERE for graphic.














                             TABLE 14-8(B)


                      LONG RANGE AVIATION PROGRAM








Click HERE for graphic.








CHAPTER NINE


RECOMMENDED LONG RANGE CORRIDORS





                             TABLE 14-9(A)


                             SHORT RANGE:








Click HERE for graphic.








                             TABLE 14-9(B)


                              LONG RANGE:








Click HERE for graphic.











APPENDIX A  PLAN AMENDMENT PROCESS     








The RME is a long-range, 20-year planning document. It is clearly


recognized that the RME is prepared in a dynamic environment involving


population, housing, employment, land-use forecasts, and technological


change.  Revenue streams may become available or may be discontinued. 


Cost assumptions may need to be adjusted.  Therefore, it is necessary


to understand that even though decision-makers fully anticipate and


are committed to the implementation of the RME, amendments to an RME


may be necessary from time to time.





The RME is prepared in accordance with state and federal requirements. 


Both the federal and state requirements recognize that the plan must


be reviewed for efficacy every two or three years and require that a


"new" plan be prepared or that the existing plan be revised. 


Historically, SCAG has prepared a "new" RME approximately every four


years (with an environmental impact statement) and annual or biannual


recertifications which include minor ammendemnts with a"negative


declaration" to meet environmental requirements.





The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and the ISTEA of 1991 have added


a new requirement to the metropolitan transportation planning process. 


The RME must be prepared in conformity with the State Implementation


Plan (SIP) for air quality with regard to the appropriate air basins. 


A new conformity statement must also be prepared whenever the RME or


the TIP is amended.21





Recognizing the need for amendments, SCAG will commit to at least one


major amendment, if needed, every two years between plan adoption


dates.  This includes preparation for the conformity statement.  Plan


amendments that do not require preparation of a conformity statement


may be prepared more frequently.


______________________________





   21  If amendments to the Plan or Program do not affect air quality,


a new conformity statement may not be required.  However, this is not


clearly stated in federal statutes, and it may be necessary to prepare


a conformity report no matter how minor the amendment to the Plan or


Program may be.








APPENDIX B   ISTEA PLANNING FACTORS AND CONFORMITY REPORT





                                 TABLE


                    REQUIRED ISTEA PLANNING FACTORS








Click HERE for graphic.








Click HERE for graphic.














APPENDIX C               STATUS OF TSM ACTIONS


                      RECOMMENDED IN THE 1989 RMP








Click HERE for graphic.








Click HERE for graphic.














APPENDIX D:             SUMMARY OF PERFORMANCE


      INDICATORS FOR RME MODELING ALTERNATIVES FOR 1990 AND 2015








Click HERE for graphic.








______________________________





   22Total person trips include trips to be eliminated through


telecommuting, working at home, and non-motorized transportation.





   23  Adjusted person trips exclude trips for telecommuting, working


at home, and non-motorized transportation.





   24  Home-based-work trips included home-based-work trips eliminated


through telecommuting, working at home, and non-motorized


transportation.





   25  Home-based-work trips exclude trips for telecommuting, working


at home, and non-motorized transportation.





   26  Home-base-work (HBW) Average Vehicle Occupancy (AVO) is the


ratio of HBW person trips taken by passenger vehicles to HBW vehicle


trips. Person trips included are those trips that are taken by


passenger vehicles (solo and carpool). Therefore, trips that are


reduced through transit, non-motorized (walking and bicycle)


transportation, working at home, and telecommuting do not impact AVO.


The AVO calculation is consistent with federal, state and SCAQMD


methodologies.





   27  Home-based-work Average Vehicle Ridership (AVR) is the ratio of


HBW total person trips taken by all modes or eliminated through


working at home and telecommuting to HBW vehicle trips. Trip


reductions through transit, non-motorized transportation, and trip


elimination through telecommuting and working at home contribute to an


increase in the AVR. AVR calculation is consistent with California Air


Resources Board and South Coast Air Quality Management District


(SCAQMD) methodologies (see AVR/AVO calculation chart).





   28  AVR for all trips is calculated the same way the HBW.AVR is


calculated except in this case all trips purposes are included.











Click HERE for graphic.








______________________________





   29  Trip tables for the model runs were adjusted to reflect 2.5% of


total person trips reduction through non-motorized transportation


(walking, bicycle).





   30  Total commute trips exclude trips for telecommuting, working at


home, and non-motorized transportation.





   31  Adjusted total commute trips include trips to be eliminated for


telecommuting, working at home, and non-motorized transportation.





   11  The percentage is based on total HBW trips without trips


reduced for telecommuting, working at home, and non-motorized


transportation.





   12  The percentage is based on total HBW trips with trips


eliminated through telecommuting, working at home, and non-motorized


transportation.














Click HERE for graphic.








______________________________





   13  Based on modeled areas population which include Los Angeles


County, Orange County, non-desert portion of San Bernardino County and


Riverside County, Ventura County, Coachella Valley, and Victor Valley.





   14  Based on modeled areas population which include Los Angeles


County, Orange County, non-desert portion of San Bernardino and


Riverside County, Ventura County, Coachella Valley, and Victory


Valley.











AVERAGE VEHICLE OCCUPANCY (AVO)


AND AVERAGE VEHICLE RIDERSHIP (AVR) CALCULATIONS








Click HERE for graphic.








AVO = [(X1+X2+X3+X4)] / [(X1+X2+X3/2+X4/3.3)]





AVR = [SUM(X1..X10] / [(X1+X2+X3/2+X4/3.3)]











APPENDIX E  SOCIOECONOMIC FORECAST AND MODELING PARAMETERS





This appendix describes, by indicator, the policy and technical


assumptions/directions for the travel demand forecast model runs


reflecting the 94 Regional Mobility Element's (RME) plan alternative


for the years 2000, 2010 and 2015.  The same information for the RME ,


the Regional Transportation Plan, Baseline runs, which were prepared


for Conformity finding purposes, are shown in italics.





1. Purpose





   The 94 RME Plan is to achieve better results than the Draft


   Regional Mobility Element (December 1993) Alternatives, Constrained


   (Plan 2A) or Innovative (Plan 2B), and uses market incentive funds


   to pay for Advanced Transportation Technology, based on principles


   of performance, benefit, and equities.





2. Facilities Networks





   A. Highway Network





      2000 Plan - The RTIP '93-99 Amendment 2000 Build Highway and HOV


                  Networks were utilized.





      2000 Baseline = RTIP '93-99 Amendment 2000 No Build (Includes


      projects under construction and with complete environmental


      impact. Does not include mixed flow projects.)





      2010 Plan - The revised Current Local Plan Network, reflecting


                  recent Caltrans and County Transportation Commission


                  corrections was used for this model run.





   Arterial HOV/bus preemption in Los Angeles City was also included,


   as in the HOV arterial/bus preemption in the Innovative network.





      2010 Baseline = RTIP '93-99 Amendment 2010 No Build (Includes


      projects under construction and with complete environmental


      impact. Does not include mixed flow projects.)





      2015 Plan - The revised Current Local Plan Network,


                  reflecting recent Caltrans and County


                  corrections, was used as the starting


                  point for this model run, with the


                  additional HOV facilities identified for


                  the 2010-2015 time frame by SCAG staff


                  added.





   Arterial HOV/bus preemption in Los Angeles City was also included,


   as in the HOV arterial/bus preemption in the Innovative network.





      2015 Baseline = RTIP '93-99 Amendment 2010 No Build (Includes


      projects under consideration and with complete environmental


      impact. Does not include mixed flow projects.)








   B. Transit Network





      2000 Plan - The RTIP '93-99 Amendment 2000 Transit Build Network


                  was used.





      2000 Base Line = RTIP '93-99 Amendment 2000 Transit No Build


      (Includes projects under consideration and with complete


      environmental impact. Does not include mixed flow projects.)





      2010 Plan - The Transit network included the currently planned


                  rail and bus systems, with enhanced bus service. 


                  This change was expected to result in a home-to-work


                  regional transit mode split approaching 15%, more


                  than the 10-14% transit mode split in the December


                  RME runs, to reflect the predicted effectiveness of


                  the Smart Shuttles; see also Number 4 below, "3rd


                  Tier Transit (Smart Shuttle)".  In the model


                  network, this improved level of transit service was


                  reflected by combining components of three previous


                  transit networks: (1) the Current Local Plans Rail


                  Transit network [corrections as of 2/7/94], with (2)


                  the Package 5 Sensitivity Run Bus Transit Network,


                  which included additional express bus lines and 10


                  minute headways for the region, without being


                  specific to corridors, and (3) the Innovative Plan


                  (Plan 2B) level of jitney service to transit


                  stations and other activity centers.  This


                  methodology for the Smart Shuttles allowed that


                  service to be applied to both work and non-work


                  trips.  The other route-specific changes that were


                  made to this hybrid transit network were the


                  following:





            1. Add to Metrolink the following stations for 2010:


               Camarillo and Santa Clarita, Palmdale-Lancaster (post-


               earthquake improvements).





      2010 Base Line = RTIP '93-99 Amendment Transit 2010 No Build


      (Includes projects under consideration and with complete


      environmental impact. Does not include mixed flow projects.)





      2015 Plan - The 2015 Transit network also included the currently


                  planned rail and bus systems, with enhanced bus


                  service to reflect the Smart Shuttle service, in the


                  same manner as for 2010 by combining components of


                  three previous transit networks: (1) the Current


                  Local Plans Rail Transit network [corrections as of


                  2/7/94], with (2) the Package 5 Sensitivity Run Bus


                  Transit Network, which included additional express


                  bus lines and 10 minute headways for the region,


                  without being specific to corridors, and (3) the


                  Innovative Plan (Plan 2B) level of jitney service to


                  transit stations and other activity centers.  The


                  additional other route-specific changes that were


                  made to this hybrid transit network were the


                  following:





            1. Green Line extension from El Segundo to Torrance





            2. Red Line extension from I-405 to Canoga Park (Warner


               Center)





            3. Green Line extension from Westchester to Marina Del Rey





            4. Urban Rail line in the 10/60 Corridor, extending east


               from LAUPT to Rosemead





      2015 Baseline = RTIP '93-99 Amendment Transit 2010 No Build.


      (Includes projects under consideration and with complete


      environmental impact. Does not include mixed flow projects.)





3. Land Use/Socio-economic Data (SED)





   The 4/01/94 SED was utilized for the 2000, 2010 and 2015 Plan and


   Baseline.





   


4. 3rd Tier Transit (Smart Shuttles)





   2000 Plan -    No Third Tier transit





   2010 & 2015 Plan  Third Tier transit was modeled through the


                     special transit links to transit stations and


                     activity centers and the region-wide 10-minute


                     bus headways, as discussed above under transit


                     networks.





      Baseline 2000, 2010 and 2015 = No Third Tier transit in any


year.





5  Transportation Demand Management (TDM)





   2000, 2010 & 2015 Plan and Baseline (same assumptions)





   The model runs reflect the impact of the Katz Parking Cash Out


   program and the Federal Energy Bill Transit subsidy was utilized. 


   This was modeled as a $30/person/month transit fare and carpool


   subsidy.





6. Reg XV (South Coast Air Basin)/Rule 210 (Ventura County)





   The approach utilized to Model Reg XV and Rule 210 was to simulate


   the impact of employer transportation demand management programs


   through pricing in the SCAG mode split model.  This was done by


   varying the parking cost variable in each Traffic Analysis Zone


   (TAZ) to obtain an auto operating cost that would produce a


   resultant Average Vehicle Ridership (AVR) reflective of the


   anticipated effectiveness of Reg XV and Rule 210 as follows:





   2000 Plan - 60% effectiveness





      2000 Baseline = same (60%)





   2010 Plan - 80% effectiveness





      2010 Baseline = same (80%)





   2015 Plan - 80% effectiveness





      2015 Baseline = same (80%)








7. Non-Motorized Transportation





   2000, 2010 & 2015 Plan and Baseline (same assumptions)





   1% of all trips were eliminated from the total person trip table to


   reflect that 3.5% of these trips will be made by non-motorized


   transportation (walk or bicycle).  The existing model assumes 2.5%


   non-motorized transportation for 1990.





8. Work at Home





   2000, 2010, & 2015 Plan and Baseline (same assumptions)





   4.1% of all trips were eliminated from the home-to-work person trip


   table to reflect that these people will work at home on a daily


   basis.  This is the same assumption included in all the previous


   RME model runs for 2010 for all alternatives.





9. Telecommute





   2000 Plan - 2.7% of all trips were eliminated from the home-to-work


               person trip table to reflect that more people will


               occasionally work at home by telecommuting in the


               future.  This is the same assumption as previously used


               in RTIP model runs.





      2000 Baseline = 2.7%





   2010 & 2015 Plan





   6.3% of all trips were eliminated from the home-to-work person trip


   table to reflect that more people will occasionally work at home by


   telecommuting in the future.





      2010 and 2015 Baseline = 2.7% for 2010 and 2015





10.   Pricing - Market Incentives





   2000 Plan - No market incentives were assumed to be in place by


               2000.





      2000 Baseline = No market incentives.





   2010 & 2015 Plan





         Vehicle operating costs were adjusted in the mode split model


         to reflect the VMT emissions fee included in the Plan.





      2010 & 2015 Baseline = No market incentives in 2010 and 2015.








11.   Funding





   The funding levels reflected in the RME Proposed Plan reflect


   Reasonably Available Funds plus Innovative Funds, in particular,


   the Market Incentive Transportation Investment Fund.








Advanced Transportation Technology








12.   ATT - Mobility





   2000 Plan and Baseline -





      The impacts of ATT/IVHS on the operations of the highway network


      were modeled in the same way they were in the RTIP '93-99


      Amendment 2000 model run:





      -  2.5% increase in freeway per-lane capacity





   2010 Plan and Baseline -





      The impacts of ATT/IVHS on the operations of the highway network


      were modeled as:





      -  5% increase in freeway per-lane capacity





   2015 Plan -





      The impacts of ATT/IVHS on the operations of the highway network


      were modeled as:





      -  10% increase in freeway per-lane capacity


      -  5% increase in arterial per-lane capacity





      2015 Baseline = 5% increase in freeway capacity only





13.   ATT - Air Quality





   2000 Plan - A set of EMFAC curves reflecting the following mix of


               vehicles was used to calculate emissions:





         -  10% ZEV in 2000


         -  0% Alternate Fuels because EMFAC 7F1.1 can only represent


            ZEV and not alternative fuels.  The SCAQMD is representing


            alternative fuels in the air shed model.








      2000 Baseline = 2% ZEV





   2010 Plan - A set of EMFAC 7F1.1 curves reflecting the following


               mix of vehicles was used to calculate emissions:





         -  50% ZEV in 2010


         -  0% Alternate Fuels because EMFAC 7F1.1 can only represent


            ZEV and not alternative fuels.  The SCAQMD is representing


            alternative fuels in the air shed model.





      2010 Baseline = 10% ZEV





   2015 Plan - A set of EMFAC 7F1.1 curves reflecting the following


               mix of vehicles was used to calculate emissions:





         -  60% ZEV in 2015


         -  0% Alternate Fuels because EMFAC 7F1.1 can only represent


            ZEV and not alternative fuels.  The SCAQMD is representing


            alternative fuels in the air shed model.





      2015 Baseline = 10% ZEV








14.   Peak Period





   2000, 2010 & 2015 Plan and Baseline (same assumptions)





   The peak period was the same as utilized in all of the previous RME


   model runs: 3 hour AM peak and 4 hour PM peak.











APPENDIX F  FINANCIAL ASSUMPTIONS








Long-range regional transportation financial planning can be useful in


providing decision-makers and the public with estimates of


expectations.  Unfortunately, while the projections can be fairly


accurate over the short term, as the life time of the forecasts are


extended, the projections are subject to more and more assumptions.





In developing the Financial Program for the 1994 Regional Mobility


Element, the following assumptions were made (those associated with


traditional costs and revenues were discussed with the TCC Task Force


on RME Finance):








   -  Revenue projections were developed by existing Federal, State,


      and Local Programs (e.g. ISTEA-Surface Transportation Program,


      ISTEA-FTA Section 9, Local-Transportation Development Act, etc.)





   -  Federal programs funded under the Intermodal Surface


      Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 were assumed to be renewed


      at the same level following expiration of ISTEA (September 30,


      1997).  There was no adjustment made for increasing any of the


      federal programs reflecting inflation nor decreasing any of the


      programs due to federal deficit reduction programs.





   -  Revenues provided by the Federal Government were aggregated and


      divided to each SCAG county using the North/South split-County


      Minimum formulas unless there were specific provisions in either


      Federal or State law requiring different allocation formulas.





   -  State Programs were assumed at the levels provided by the 1992


      Fund Estimate.  It is assumed that during the life of the Plan,


      the state programs will be made whole by further action of the


      Legislature.  State revenues were divided to each County per the


      North/South split-County Minimum formulas unless there were


      different statutory provisions.





   -  Discretionary funding programs were assumed to continue.  It was


      further assumed that discretionary funding would be at


      approximately the same levels for the lifetime of the plan as


      during the FY 1991-1994 period.





   -  Growth in local revenues generated by sales tax measures (Local


      Transportation Funds, Local 1/2 cent sales tax measures) was


      assumed to reflect both population and income level changes.





   -  Local 1/2 cent sales tax measures were assumed to be extended


      through 2015 (Imperial, Orange, Riverside, and San Bernardino


      Counties).  Los Angeles County measures do not expire.  Ventura


      County does not have a sales tax measure.





   -  It is anticipated that motor vehicle fuel taxes collected under


      current law will decline over time as both use of alternative


      fuels and greater fuel efficiencies take place.  To account for


      this decline, state revenues were reduced by 25%.








   -  Costs for projects were provided, as available, by County


      Transportation Commissions.  If CTC figures were not available,


      SCAG staff extended known figures forward.





   -  All costs and revenues are expressed in 1995 dollars.





   -  In calculating estimates for advanced technology, only public


      sector (subsidy) costs were considered.





   -  It was assumed that in 2010, ZEVs (Electric Vehicles) would


      command a 30% market share of new vehicles.  Subsidy costs would


      range from $2,500 to $4,000 per vehicle in the early years of


      the program when fewer vehicles were sold with the subsidy


      phased out in 2010, when approximately 360,000 units per year


      would be sold.  For the plan period, the subsidy costs range


      from approximately $1.9 to $4.9 billion.





   -  It was assumed that in 2010, Alternative Fuel Vehicles would


      command a 34% market share in 2010.  Subsidy costs would begin


      between $750 to $1,500 per vehicle in the early years of the


      program when fewer vehicles were sold with the subsidy phased


      out in either 2005 or 2010.  For the plan period, the subsidy


      costs range from approximately $622 million to $2.1 billion.





   -  Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) public costs total


      between $2.5 and $4.5 billion for the Plan period.





   -  There are no public sector subsidy costs for telecommunications.





   -  In developing the Smart Shuttle or Performance-Based Transit


      Costs, it was assumed that ridership would reach approximately


      one million per work day in 2015 with service beginning in 1996. 


      Each trip would be subsidized at between $2.50 to $5.00 per


      trip.  Costs range from approximately $9.0 billion to $17.3


      billion over the life of the plan with the costs increasing over


      time as ridership increases.





   -  Estimated Market Incentive Revenues based on the VMT/Emissions


      Registration fee assumed 12,000 annual miles per vehicle.  5,000


      miles per vehicle was assumed to be free of any assessment. 


      (The 5,000 mile figure was used for mathematical purposes to


      achieve equity.  Other factors such as geography, income, or


      commercial needs can be considered in constructing the specific


      program.)











APPENDIX G                 GLOSSARY OF TERMS





accessibility


   A measure of the ability or ease of all people to travel among


   various origins and destinations.





action


   A specific activity to be undertaken as a step toward achieving a


   particular policy/goal.








airport ground access


   Facilities and services for air passengers and air freight handlers


   to reach airport terminals, e.g., highways, public transit, taxi,


   or other means of ground transportation.





AQMP


   Air Quality Management Plan





ARB


   Air Resources Board





AVO


   average vehicle occupancy





AVR


   average vehicle ridership





bikeway


   Any road, street, path, or right-of-way that is specifically


   designated in some manner as being open to bicycle travel,


   regardless of whether such facilities are designated for the


   exclusive use of bicycles or are to be shared with other vehicles


   or pedestrians.





busway


   A special roadway designed for exclusive use by buses. It may be


   constructed at, above, or below grade and may be located in


   separate rights-of-way or within highway corridors.





bypass lane


   A reserved traffic lane on a metered freeway entry ramp which


   permits buses or high-occupancy-vehicles to have preferential


   treatment when entering the freeway.





CBD


   central business district





CCTV


   Closed Circuit Television





CEQA


   California Environmental Quality Act





CLP


   Current Local Plan





CMS


   Congestion Management System





COG


   council of governments





CPI


   consumer price index





CTC


   California Transportation Commission





CVAG


   Coachella Valley Association of Governments





Caltrans


   California Department of Transportation





capital costs


   Nonrecurring or infrequently recurring costs of long-term assets,


   such as land, guideways, stations, buildings, and vehicles.  These


   costs often include related expenses, for example, depreciation and


   property taxes.  See also operating costs.





carpool


   An arrangement in which two or more people share the use, cost, or


   both of traveling in privately owned automobiles between fixed


   points on a regular basis; see also vanpool.





carpool lane


   A highway or street lane intended primarily for carpools, vanpools,


   and other high-occupancy-vehicles, either all day or during


   specified periods.  It may be used by other traffic under certain


   circumstances, such as while making a right turn.





Centers-Based Transit Network


   A multimodal transit system that connects regional activity centers


   with their surrounding communities, sub-regional areas, and


   Southern California as a whole.





commercial aviation


   Aircraft activity licenses by state or federal authority to


   transport passengers and/or cargo for hire on a scheduled or


   nonscheduled basis.





commuter rail service


   Short-haul rail passenger service operated within  metropolitan and


   suburban areas.





commuter service


   Transportation provided on a regularly scheduled basis during peak


   travel periods for users commuting to work, school, and similar


   destinations.





Commuter Transportation


   Nonprofit corporation which provides information


Service (Commuter Computer)      and marketing services to aid the


formation of ridesharing.














congestion


   Traffic conditions on roads, highways, or freeways which do not


   permit movement on the facility at optimal legal speeds. 


   Characterized by unstable traffic flows.  Recurrent congestion is


   caused by excess volume capacity. Nonrecurrent congestion is caused


   by actions such as special events and/or traffic accidents.





Congestion Management Program(s)


   A state mandated program for counties containing


(CMP)       urbanized areas to provide for statutorily specified     


programs to reduce traffic congestion.





commute


   Regular travel between home and a fixed location (e.g., work,


   school).





corridor


   In planning, a broad geographical band that follows a general


   directional flow or connects major sources of trips.  It may


   contain a number of streets and highways and transit lines and


   routes.





demand


   1. The quantity (of transportation) desired. 2. In an economic


   sense, a schedule of the quantities (of travel) consumed at various


   levels of price or levels of service offered (by the transportation


   system).





discretionary funds


   Any funds whose distribution is not automatic. Decisions on the


   distribution of discretionary funds are usually made by an agency


   or person on the basis of that agency's or person's choice or


   judgment and in accordance with criteria set out in laws or


   regulations.





EIR


   Environmental Impact Report





EPA


   Environmental Protection Agency





employment centers


   Locations having a concentration of jobs or employment. Centers may


   vary in size and density, serving subregional or local markets,


   generally meeting the needs of the immediate population.





equity


   In transportation, a normative measure of fairness among


   transportation users.





express bus service


   Bus service with a limited number of stops, either from a collector


   area directly to a specific destination or in a particular corridor


   with stops en-route at major transfer points or activity centers. 


   Express bus service usually uses freeways or busways where they are


   available.





expressway


   A divided arterial highway for through traffic.  An expressway has


   full or partial control of access and generally has grade


   separations at major intersections.





FTA


   Federal Transportation Authority (formally Urban Mass


   Transportation Administration - UMTA)





facility


   A physical structure allowing a transportation mode to operate


   (including travel, as well as the discharge and loading of


   passengers).  This includes highways, guideways, terminals and


   administrative support locations.





feeder service


   1. Local transportation service that provides passengers with


   connections with a major transportation service. 2. Local transit


   service that provides passengers with connections to main-line


   arterial service; an express transit service station; a rail rapid


   transit, commuter rail, or intercity rail station; or an express


   bus stop or terminal.





fixed cost


   A cost that remains relatively constant irrespective of the level


   of operational activity; expenditures that do not vary with output. 


   Examples include land, guideways, rent.





fixed route transit


   Regularly scheduled service operating repeatedly over the same


   street or highway pattern on a determined schedule.





flexible work hours or        A work schedule in which employees can


schedule the flextime


   required number of work hours as they wish.  It differs from


   staggered work hours in that it is the employee, not the employer,


   who sets the starting and ending times.





general aviation


   All aircraft which are not commercial or military aircraft.





grade crossing


   A crossing or intersection of highways, railroad tracks, other


   guideways, or pedestrian walks, or combinations of these at the


   same level or grade.





guideway


   In transit systems, a track or other riding surface (including


   supporting structure) that supports and physically guides transit


   vehicles especially designed to travel exclusively on it.














high capacity transit


   Transit systems operating, in whole or part, on a fixed guideway,


   dedicated right-of-way or freeway/express facility using a service


   configuration with the capability to provide a unit capacity of


   15,000 or more trips per hour.





High-Occupancy-Vehicle (HOV)


   Motor vehicle occupied by two or more persons. Vehicles include


   automobiles, vans, buses, and taxis.





High-Occupancy-Vehicle Lane


   Lanes on a highway or freeway which are restricted for use by


   vehicles carrying two or more passengers with the exception of


   motorcycles.





high-speed rail


   Passenger rail service with operating speeds in excess of 125 miles


   per hour and limited stops (e.g., Japanese Bullet Trains, French


   TGV and experimental maglev systems).





hub-and-spoke (radial)


   Transit routes that radiate outward from and return to a designated


   area/transit facility on a time singly or multi-pulse.  Service may


   be bi-directional or operate uni-directional using a street couplet


   configuration. Radial routes may be inter-connected to form a


   through configuration and reduce transfers required on high demand


   routes. Inter-route transfers are accommodated at a transit


   facility or designated transfer area. Multi-pulses are often off


   set to assure inter-route transfers or to mitigate physical space


   restraints.





incentives


   Measures designed to encourage certain actions or behavior. These


   include inducements for the use of carpools, buses and other high-


   occupancy vehicles in place of single-occupant automobile travel.


   Examples include HOV lanes, preferential parking and financial


   incentives.





infrastructure


   The basic facilities, equipment, services, and installations needed


   for the growth and functioning of a community.





intermodal


   Between or including more than one means of mode of transportation.





Intermodal Surface   Signed into federal law on December 18, 1991, it


provides Transportation Efficiency        authorizations for highways,


highway safety, and mass Act (ISTEA)


   transportation for the next 6 years and serves as the basis of


   federal surface transportation programs.





intersecting grid


   Transit routes, usually bi-directional, provided on parallel


   streets and arterials in east/west and north south/configurations. 


   Boards/alights only at designated stops with transfers accommodated


   at route intersection points.





intra-regional service


   A multi-modal transit service, regional in orientation, connecting


   major transportation facilities in two or more subregional areas


   through the use of high and medium capacity transit, operating in


   whole or part, on fixed guideways, dedicated right-of-ways or


   freeway/express applications.





LRT


   Light rail transit





Level of Service (LOS)


   A measure of the congested level on a highway facility based


   primarily on the comparison between the facility's capacity and the


   traffic volume it carries.  Increasing levels of congestion are


   designated along a scale from A to F where A is for best operation


   (low volume, high speed), and F is for worst conditions.





line-haul transit


   Transit operations (generally express) along a single corridor or


   variety of corridors.





local service


   Transit service oriented toward the access, egress and distribution


   within a specific regional activity center, its component transit


   attractor/generators, with a service focused on local Transit Hubs,


   Park-N-Ride and/or Multi-modal Station Facilities.  Services


   operated may include fixed route, para-transit and private-for-hire


   in both traditional and non-traditional applications.





low-capacity transit


   Local fixed-route or para-transit using traditional route


   configurations, delayed/real-time dispatch service operating on


   major/minor arterial and local streets. Levels of service may vary


   substantially by time of day/season of the year with a unit


   capacity which does not usually exceed 3000 trips per hour.





MPO


   Metropolitan Planning Organization.





medium-capacity transit


   Transit system operating on a fixed guideway, dedicated right-of-


   way or freeway/express facility using a service configuration with


   the capability to provide a unit capacity of 3000-15000 trips per


   hour.














mixed flow


   Traffic movement having autos, trucks, buses, and motorcycles


   sharing traffic lanes.





mobility


   A transportation system user characteristic referring to the


   ability of the user to take advantage of the available


   transportation service.





mode


   A particular form of travel (e.g., walking, traveling by


   automobile, traveling by bus, or traveling by train).





model


   A mathematical description of a real-life situation that uses data


   on past and present conditions to make a projection about the


   future.





mode split


   The proportion of total person-trips using various specified modes


   of transportation.





multimodal


   Concerning or involving more than one transportation mode.





multi-modal station


   A developed station facility on a designated rail line designed to


   accommodate user access, egress and distribution between


   transportation modes (primarily local bus/rail/auto) and the intra-


   regional/subregional services components.  Substantial passenger


   amenities, user information services and access to other


   transportation facilities may be provided on site, through shuttles


   or by walk links to adjacent areas.





NPTS


   Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey





needs assessment


   In transportation planning, a technique of estimating the services


   and facilities needed to satisfy the potential demand for


   transportation service.





network


   1. In planning, a system of links and nodes that describes a


   transportation system. 2. In highway engineering, the configuration


   of highways that constitutes the total system. 3. In transit


   operations, a system of transit lines or routes, usually designed


   for coordinated operation.





operating costs


   The sum of all recurring costs (e.g., labor, fuel) that can be


   associated with the operation and maintenance of the system during


   the period under consideration.





operator


   Agency responsible for providing a service or operating a facility.


   (e.g., MTA is a transit operator, Caltrans is the operator of the


   State Highway System).





origin-destination study


   A study of the origins and destinations of the trips of vehicles or


   travelers. It may also include trip purposes and frequencies.








para-transit (demand response)


   Public or privately operated, regularly or dispatched on demand


   (delayed or real-time) providing "curb to destination" transit


   service.  Normally used in specialized applications with user


   eligibility limitations (e.g., elderly and/or handicapped) or where


   demand is not sufficient to support fixed route service.





park and ride


   An access mode to transit in which patrons drive private


   automobiles or ride bicycles to a transit station, stop, or


   carpool/vanpool waiting area and park the vehicle in the area


   provided for that purpose (park-and-ride lots, park-and-pool lots,


   commuter parking lots, bicycle rack or locker). They then ride the


   transit system or take a car-or vanpool to their destinations.





peak period


   1. The period during which the maximum amount of travel occurs. It


   may be specified as the morning (a.m.) or afternoon or evening


   (p.m.) peak. 2. The period when demand for transportation service


   is heaviest.





performance indicator


   (Measure of effectiveness) -- A quantitative measure of how well an


   activity, task, or function is being performed. In transportation


   systems, it is usually computed by relating a measure of service


   output or use to a measure of service input or cost.





person trip


   A trip made by a person by any mode or combination of modes for any


   purpose.





pricing


   A strategy for charging users. It may be used to ration demand


   (change behavior), cover costs, or achieve other policy objectives.





private-for-hire


   Privately operated common carrier or contract service (e.g., taxi-


   cabs, jitneys, private shuttles, subscription bus or van services).





privatization


   The contracting of public services or selling of public assets to


   private industry.





public transportation


   Transportation service by bus, rail, para-transit, van, airplane,


   and ship offered by an operator on a regular basis to the general


   public.





ramp metering


   Traffic signal control on an entry ramp to a freeway for regulating


   vehicle access.





region


   The SCAG region comprises Imperial, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside,


   San Bernardino and Ventura Counties.





Regional Transportation


   A 3-7 year multi-modal program of regional





Improvement Program (RTIP)


   transportation improvements for highways, transit and aviation. The


   RTIP consists of projects drawn from the Regional Transportation


   Plan.  The projects are directed at improving the overall


   efficiency and people-moving capabilities of the existing


   transportation system while incrementally being developed into the


   long-range plan.





Regulation XV


   A regulation developed by the South Coast Air Quality Management


   District affecting public and private employers in the South Coast


   Air Basin. It is designed to reduce air pollution by reducing the


   number and type of commuter vehicle trips between home and working


   during the 6:00 a.m. to 10:00 a.m. period.





Rideshare Recognition


   Giving credit and acknowledging ridesharing programs.





ridesharing


   The cooperative effort of two or more people traveling together.





Rule 210


   A trip reduction measure created by the Ventura County Air


   Pollution Control District to reduce air pollution by requiring


   employers to devise and implement methods to reduce single occupant


   vehicle trips by their employees. It targets worksites of 50 or


   more people.





staggered work hours


   A work schedule in which employees' starting and ending times are


   staggered by the employer.





subregional service


   A multi-modal transit service oriented toward access, egress and


   distribution between the regional activity centers within specific


   subregional areas, and providing connectivity to the intra-regional


   services.  Service may be high and/or medium capacity transit


   operated in whole or part on fixed guideway, dedicated right-of-


   ways, major arterial streets and/or freeway/express facility


   applications.





system management


   Increasing flow of travel on existing facilities through such


   improvements as ramp metering, signal synchronization, and removal


   of on-street parking, among others.  Improvements typically have a


   low capital cost, do not call for major construction and can be


   implemented in a relatively short time frame.





telecommunications


   The conveyance of information by electronic means. Examples include


   the telephone, interactive cable facilities, computer networks and


   video conference centers.





telecommuting programs


   Employers with 100 or more employees developing, coordinating and


   monitoring telecommuting programs.





traffic signal synchronization


   A process by which a number of traffic signals are synchronized to


   affect efficient progression.





transit dependent


   Individual(s) dependent on public transit to meet private mobility


   needs ( e.g., unable to drive, not a car owner, not licensed to


   drive, etc.).





transit facility


   


   A physical structure developed for the specific use and support of


   transit.





transit hub facility


   A developed facility or designated area (e.g. transit mall, El


   Monte bus station), on or off street, designed to accommodate


   inter-route transfers and distribution, route and system use


   information, fare medium sales and/or may be adjacent to other


   transportation facilities such as Park-n-Ride.   A transit hub


   facility design can be as basic as an on street "pulse point" with


   minimal passenger amenities or as complex as a regional bus


   facility such as the El Monte Bus Station.





transportation center


   Transportation terminal facilities or other locations where people


   can change their travel from ground transportation to other


   transportation modes (e.g., airports, seaports, spaceports).





vanpool


   An organized ridesharing arrangement in which a number of people


   travel together on a regular basis in a van. The van may be company


   owned, individually owned, leased, or owned by a third party. 


   Expenses are shared, and there is usually a regular volunteer


   driver.  See also carpool.














Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT)


   1. On highways, a measurement of the total miles traveled by all


   vehicles in the area for a specified time period.  It is calculated


   by the number of vehicles times the miles traveled in a given area


   or on a given highway during the time period. 2. In transit, the


   number of vehicle miles operated on a given route or line or


   network during a specified time period.





vehicle trip


   The one-way movement of a vehicle between two points.














APPENDIX H  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS








RME STRATEGIC COMMITTEE MEMBERS





   Mark Brucker, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency


   Susan Cornelison, Riverside County Transportation Commission


   Zahi Faranesh, California Department of Transportation


   Dr. Genevieve Giuliano, USC Planning Institute


   David Gunderman, Western Regional Council of Governments


   Cindy Krebs, Orange County Transportation Authority


   Laurie Hunter, Commuter Transportation Services


   Brad McAllester, Metropolitan Transportation Authority


   Wesley McDaniel, San Bernardino Associated Governments


   Katherine Mazarka, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency


   Shirley Medina, Riverside County Transportation Commission


   Michael Meyer, Meyer - Mohaddes Associates


   Lisa Mills, Orange County Transportation Authority


   Ray Remy, Los Angeles Area Chamber of Commerce


   Ty Schuiling, San Bernardino Associated Governments


   Sarah Siwek, Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Authority


   Richard Spicer, Southern California Association of Governments,


Chair


   Richard Stanger, Southern California Regional Rail Authority


   Chris Stephens, Ventura County Transportation Commission


   Douglas Thompson, California Air Resources Board


   Robert Watson, Natural Resources Defense Council


   Judy Wilson, Metropolitan Transportation Authority








SCAG SUBREGIONS





   IVAG        Mayor Pro Tem Linda Britschgi


   CVAG        Mayor Pro Tem William Arenstein


   WRCOG    Councilmember Denise Lanning


   SANBAG      Supervisor Barbara Cram Riordan


   VCOG     Councilmember Frank Schillo


   City of LA     R. Ann Siracusa


   Westside Cities   Councilmember Abbe Land


   Arroyo-Verdugo Vice Mayor George Battery, Jr.


            Vice Mayor Kathryn Nack


   North County      Councilmember David Myers


            Councilmember Jo Anne Darcy


   Orange County  Supervisor Gaddi Vasquez, Chair, OCTA


   San Gabriel Valley   Mayor Terry Dipple


   SELAC    Councilmember Evelyn Woods


            Councilmember Bob Stone


   South Bay Cities  Councilmember Garland Hardeman








MARKET INCENTIVES TASK FORCE





   Judy Wright, Claremont, Chair


   Jacki Bacharach, Jacki Bacharach & Associates


   Walter K. Bowman, City of Cypress


   Richard Dixon, Lake Forest


   John Flynn, Ventura County


   Zahi Faranesh, California Department of Transportation


   Candace Haggard, San Clemente


   Mike Hernandez, City of Los Angeles


   Judy Mikels, City of Simi Valley


   Ronald Parks, Temecula


   Bev Perry, Brea


   Larry Rhinehart, Montclair


   Thomas H. Sykes, Walnut








ADVANCED TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY TASK FORCE





   John Cox, Newport Beach, Chair


   George Battey, Jr., Burbank


   Cynthia Crothers, Moreno Valley


   Jerry Eaves, San Bernardino


   Candace Haggard, San Clemente


   Zahi Faranesh, California Department of Transportation


   Robert Jamison, Artesia


   Richard Kelly, Palm Desert


   David Myers, Palmdale


   Gwenn Norton-Perry, Chino Hills


   Ronald Parks, Temecula








SCAG/SCAQMD TCM POLICY COMMITTEE


      


   John Cox, SCAG, Co-chair


   Jon Mikels, SCAQMD, Co-chair


   Tony Carstens, OCTA


   Hal Croyts, Lomita


   Terry Dipple, SGVAC


   Lillian Eaton, Yucaipa


   Zahi Faranesh, California Department of Transportation


   Joan Feehan, La Canada-Flintridge


   Hugh Fitzpatrick, Business Sector


   Lillian Kawasaki, Los Angeles


   Veronica Kun, Natural Resources Defense Council


   Denise Lanning, Moreno Valley


   Richard MacGregor, RCTC


   William Mahoney, La Habra


   Bob Nolan, SANBAG (CTC)


   Phyllis Papen, Diamond Bar


   David Sosa, Caltrans, District 7


   Robert Stone, Bellflower


   Laki Tisopulos, SCAQMD


   Paula Warner, Irvine








TCM TECHNICAL ADVISORY GROUP


      


   Gene Calafato, SCAQMD


   Susan Cornelison, RCTC


   Zahi Faranesh, California Department of Transportation


   Hugh Fitzpatrick, Business Representative


   Anne Geraghty, California Air Resources Board


   Laurie Hunter, Commuter Transportation Services


   Veronica Kun, Environmental Representative


   Jim Ortner, OCTA


   Ty Schuiling, SANBAG


   Sarah Siwek, LACMTA


   Erika Vandenbrande, SCAG


   Barry Wallerstein, SCAQMD


   Catherine Wasikowski, SCAQMD


    Subregions


   Dee Allen, City of Los Angeles


   Jim Birckhead, Western Riverside COG


   Chuck Ebner, Southeast LA Cities


   Julie Hemphill, SANBAG


   Bill Hodge, Orange County


   Shoghig Kalaydjian, Arroyo Verdugo


   Lawrence Stevens, San Gabriel Valley Cities











APPENDIX I  PROJECT INCLUSION CRITERIA








SCAG's Transportation and Communications Policy Committee, with the


advice from the RME Strategic Committee, has approved several "working


criteria" to be used in guiding decision-makers on project inclusion. 


Criteria are not designed established priorities.  Projects need not


meet all criteria.











Click HERE for graphic.














APPENDIX J: RME PROJECT LISTS








INTRODUCTION





   Mandates required ISTEA This chapter summarizes, in table form, the


   recommendations contained in the previous chapters of the Regional


   Mobility Element. These recommendations are based on discussions


   with county transportation commissions and local governments,


   dialogue at SCAG working group meetings, and subregional input.





   A more detailed discussion of the recommendations  listed in the


   following tables can be found in the referenced chapters.





   The action program includes actions from the following chapters:


   Chapter Three, Regional TDM Program; Chapter Four, Regional Transit


   Program; Chapter Five, Regional Streets & Highways Program; Chapter


   Six, Regional Non-Motorized Transportation Program; Chapter Seven,


   Regional Goods Movement Program; Chapter Eight, Regional Aviation


   System Program; and Chapter Nine, Long Range Corridors.  It is


   important to note that the CIPs of the SCAG Region Congestion


   Management Programs (CMPs) were found to be consistent with the


   1989 Plan.  As such, the CIPs were incorporated into the Regional


   Action Program, as provided for under CMP statute.














APPENDIX K  LIST OF CHAPTER AUTHORS





                                 TABLE








Click HERE for graphic.








Other Contributors and Staff: Dan Akins, Mike Ainsworth, Shahryar


Amiri, Grieg Asher, Todd Beeler, Terry Bills and GIS Staff, Bill Boyd,


Anne Bresnock, David Butman, Pat Cadena, Erika Canari, Ed Castro,


Nancy Cobb, Paul Hatanaka, Alan Havens, Bob Huddy, Hasan Ikhrata,


Linda Jones, Hong Kim and Modeling Staff, Sriram Krishnamurthy, Eddie


Leroy, Ronsheng Luo, Bill Martinez, Mike Martinez, Michael Meyer,


Dudley Onderdonk, Syliva Patsaouras, David Perez, Cathy Rachal, Edward


Rodriquez, Eric Roth, Victor Ryden, Mahmoud Shams-Ahmadi, David Stein


and RCP Staff, John Strickland, Charlie Wagner, Kurt Walker, Debbie


Whitmore, and Lori Williams.








Address RME comments to:   SCAG, 818 W. Seventh St., Los Angeles, CA


                           90017, (213) 236-1800



















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