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1994 Regional Mobility Element, Volume 1


     TITLE:    1994 Regional Mobility Element, Volume 1

     AUTHOR:   Southern California Association of Governments

     SUBJECT:  Transportation Goals, Objectives, Policies and

               Actions, 1994-2015

     DATE:     June, 1994


          Southern California Association of Governments


          Southern California Association of Governments

               818 West 7th Street, 12th Floor

               Los Angeles, CA  90017

               (213) 236-1800


          The Regional Mobility Element of the Regional

          Comprehensive Plan is SCAG's major policy and planning

          statement on the region's transportation issues and

          goals. It is comprised of a set of long-range policies,

          plans, and programs that outline a vision of a regional

          transportation system compatible with federal and state

          mobility objectives. The goal of the RME itself is to

          provide effective coordination and orderly programming

          of transportation improvements within the SCAG region.

          The RME was developed through the 3-C Planning Process

          prescribed by the U.S. Department of Transportation and

          requirements outlined in the Intermodal Surface

          Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991.


          SCAG is mandated to prepare and periodically update the

          Regional Mobility Element by Section 65080 of the

          Government Code. This section also specifies that

          actions by transportation agencies must be consistent

          with the RME in order to obtain Federal and State



ONE                        EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The Regional Mobility Element (RME) establishes regional

transportation policy for the six-county region of the Southern

California Association of Governments. It covers all forms of

transportation, including automobile, transit, non-motorized modes of

travel, rail/high-speed-rail, trucking, shipping, and aviation

facilities. The RME identifies the facilities and programs that will

be needed to meet the increased transportation demands in accordance

with air quality requirements through the year 2015.  Additionally,

the RME focuses on transportation strategies that create jobs and

could help revitalize the recession-plagued economy of Southern


Transportation demands continue to increase rapidly in Southern

California as a result of both population growth and changes in travel

patterns. Given the financial restrictions and environmental concerns,

it appears unlikely that this demand can be accommodated without

dramatic changes in travel behavior.

To this end, the RME proposes changing transportation habits of the

past with new travel behavior that can help Southern California reach

its mobility and air quality goals. For instance, it is projected that

by 2015, travel alternatives proposed in the RME could result in

almost 13.03% of all employees commuting to and from work in some form

of transit which is 2.5 times the current number of 5.6%.

The RME is Southern California's transportation plan required by

federal and state law and the basis for more than $71 billion in

federal, state and local investments in transportation that will be

made over the next 20 years. By law, major projects must be included

in the RME (or in subsequent RME updates) to be eligible for funding.

The RME covers a 20-year planning period with analysis built on

current demographics, statistics, and computer modeled projections

that take into consideration a mix of strategies: facility

development, demand management, urban form, advanced transportation

technology, and market incentives.

Ultimately, the RME reflects the transportation future envisioned for

the year 2015.

By then, there will be 6 million more people in Southern California.

But instead of a bleak, congested transportation system foreseen by

some skeptics, residents of the region could actually be driving alone


Air quality will also be better than it is today but not without

implementation of RME strategies designed to bring the region into

compliance with federal and state mobility and air quality


A key strategy of the RME is Advanced Transportation Technology --

including the use of Zero-Emission Vehicles, Alternative Fuels,

Telecommunications, Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems, Smart Shuttle

Transit, and Smart Cities.

This Advanced Transportation Technology strategy will be a boon to the

region's currently sagging economy. It is estimated that by 2015, no

fewer than 350,000 to 400,000 new jobs will have been created by the

development of industries making and supporting new transportation


To pay for this technology as well as to help change the public's

transportation habits, the RME considers a series of Market

Incentives.  For example, people might pay extra fees based on the

amount of driving they do or on the amount of emissions their cars

produce.  The burden, of course, would fall on the big polluters.

Pursuant to the financial plan, the SCAG Regional Council will appoint

a special committee to actually develop specific market incentive

proposals, implementation strategies, consensus building steps, and a

legislative implementation agenda.

In providing long-range planning and policy-making framework, the RME

responds to the requirements of the Intermodal Surface Transportation

Efficiency Act (ISTEA), the state and federal Clean Air Acts, and the

Lewis-Presley Air Quality Management Act.

The RME has been prepared by the staff at SCAG with substantial

assistance and input from subregional organizations, County

Transportation Commissions, state and federal agencies, and other

regional organizations as well as numerous other public and private

parties. As part of SCAG's "bottom-up" outreach efforts, special

emphasis was placed on securing information and input on issues of

concern to subregions, cities, and counties.

The Southern California Association of Governments is designated as

the agency responsible for regional transportation planning by both

the state and federal governments. As such, it is SCAG's

responsibility to look into the future and propose plans which best

satisfy the diverse needs and concerns of the Southern California


The RME has evolved from the July 1993 Preliminary Draft Discussion

Document, as well as the December 1993 Draft Document, and has had the

benefit of on-going public review -- including workshops, policy and

technical committees meetings, written comments, and documents

presented by state agencies, transportation providers, subregional

associations, utilities, the private sector and the public at large.

Additionally, the RME has been developed under SCAG's remodeled

decision-making structure, which now involves more elected

representatives from a more diverse geographic base. The former 20-

plus member Executive Committee has been replaced by a 70-member

Regional Council. In addition, 13 subregional groups are formally

participating in the development of the regional plan and its

subregional parts. (See Figure 1-1, Map of the SCAG Subregions and

Table 1-1, Subregions)  The 1994 RME replaces its predecessor, the

1989 Regional Mobility Plan as the guide for mobility planning for

Southern California.

                               TABLE 1-1


Imperial Valley Association of Governments (IVAG)

   Imperial County, Brawley, Calexico, Calipatria, El Centro,

   Holtville, Imperial, Westmoreland.

Coachella Valley Association of Governments (CVAG)

   County of Riverside, Blythe, Cathedral City, Coachella, Desert Hot

   Springs, Indio, Indian Wells, La Quinta, Palm Desert, Palm Springs,

   Rancho Mirage

Western Riverside Council of Governments (WRCOG)

   Riverside County, Banning, Beaumont, Calimesa, Canyon Lake, Corona,

   Hemet, Lake Elsinore, Moreno Valley, Murrieta, Norco, Perris,

   Riverside, San Jacinto, Temecula

San Bernardino Association of Governments (SANBAG)

   San Bernardino County, Adelanto, Apple Valley, Barstow, Big Bear

   Lake, Chino, Chino Hills, Colton, Fontana, Grand Terrace, Hesperia,

   Highland, Loma Linda, Montclair, Needles, Ontario, Rancho

   Cucamonga, Redlands, Rialto, San Bernardino, Twenty Nine Palms,

   Upland, Victorville, Yucca Valley, Yucaipa

Orange County

   Orange County, Anaheim, Brea, Buena Park, Costa Mesa, Cypress, Dana

   Point, Fountain Valley, Fullerton, Garden Grove, Huntington Beach,

   Irvine, Laguna Beach, Laguna Hills, Laguna Niguel, La Habra, Lake

   Forest, La Palma, Los Alamitos, Mission Viejo, Newport Beach,

   Orange, Placentia, San Clemente, San Juan Capistrano, Santa Ana,

   Seal Beach, Stanton, Tustin, Villa Park, Westminster, Yorba Linda

Southeast Los Angeles County (SELAC)

   Los Angeles County, Artesia, Bell, Bellflower, Bell Gardens,

   Cerritos, Commerce, Compton, Cudahy, Downey, Hawaiian Gardens,

   Huntington Park, Lakewood, La Habra Heights, La Mirada, Long Beach,

   Lynwood, Maywood, Montebello, Norwalk, Paramount, Pico Rivera,

   Santa Fe Springs, Signal Hill, South Gate, Vernon, Whittier

San Gabriel Valley Association of Cities

   Los Angeles County, Alhambra, Arcadia, Azusa, Baldwin Park,

   Bradbury, Claremont, Covina, Diamond Bar, Duarte, El Monte,

   Glendora, Industry, Irwindale, La Puente, Laverne, Monrovia,

   Monterey Park, Pasadena, Pomona, Rosemead, San Dimas, San Gabriel,

   San Marino, Sierra Madre, South El Monte, Temple City, Walnut, West


South Bay Cities Association

   City of Los Angeles, Carson, El Segundo, Gardena, Hawthorne,

   Hermosa Beach, Inglewood, Lawndale, Lomita, Manhattan Beach, Palos

   Verdes Estates, Torrance

Westside Cities

   Los Angeles County, Beverly Hills, Culver City, Santa Monica, West


City of Los Angeles

   Los Angeles County, City of Los Angeles

Ventura County of Governments

   Ventura County, Agoura Hills, Camarillo, Fillmore, Moorpark, Ojai,

   Oxnard, Port Hueneme, San Buena Ventura, Santa Clarita, Santa

   Paula, Simi Valley, Thousand Oaks, Westlake Village

Arroyo Verdugo

   Burbank, Glendale, La Canada Flintridge, Pasadena, South Pasadena

North Los Angeles County

   County of Los Angeles, Lancaster, Palmdale, Santa Clarita


TWO                           AND FINANCE


As it approaches the 21st Century, Southern California confronts a

historic transportation crisis that has become a planning war against

increasing mobility gridlock and air pollution complicated by a

lagging economic recovery and a growing population.

The Regional Mobility Element is the principal transportation policy,

strategy, and objective statement of the Southern California

Association of Governments (SCAG), proposing a comprehensive strategy

for achieving mobility and air quality mandates.

It describes the region's strategy for adjusting its transportation

behavior and investments as it balances the constraints of government-

mandated financial and environmental objectives and mobility demands.

The RME is a plan that not only comes within fiscal limits but also

meets the mandated mobility and air quality requirements through 2015.

Federal and state legislation has vested SCAG with the responsibility

of preparing the regional transportation plan and program, which have

been developed as part of the Regional Comprehensive Plan -- the

blueprint for managing growth and resources in the region prepared by

SCAG in conjunction with subregions, cities and counties, the public,

state and federal governmental agencies, and private organizations.

(See Table 2-1, RME Goals and Subgoals.)

The RME links the goal of sustaining mobility with the goals of

fostering economic development, enhancing the environment, reducing

energy consumption, promoting transportation-friendly development

patterns, and encouraging fair and equitable access to residents

affected by socio-economic, geographic, and commercial limitations. It

proposes doing this with an innovative strategy that builds on and

maximizes huge public investments in highways, rails, buses, airports,

seaports, truck facilities, and communications technologies.

Cast against a backdrop of the California recession, the 1994 RME is

different from past transportation plans in its greater concern for

the economy, particularly jobs for a region that is expected to

undergo a 50 percent population growth by 2015. SCAG projects that the

region's population in 2015 will have grown to 22 million (See Table

2-2, Population, Employment, and Housing Growth).

The Final RME treats transportation as a powerful job creation engine

that is critical to the future of the SCAG region's economy, which

today is the 12th largest in the world -- between that of Spain and

India. Industry clusters spawned by future transportation technology

can serve as the driving forces for the regional economy of the next


The core of the RME is the planned improvements to highways, rail and

bus transit, ports, truck facilities, and aviation facilities that

County Transportation Commissions, the state, and other agencies have

committed to fund over the next 20 years to better move people and


                               TABLE 2-1

                        RME GOALS AND SUBGOALS

Click HERE for graphic.

Click HERE for graphic.

                               TABLE 2-2

                       POPULATION, EMPLOYMENT, &

                       HOUSING GROWTH (Millions)


To this core, an advanced transportation and air quality technologies

strategy has been added to help meet the strict air emissions and

mobility requirements the region must confront over the 20-year

planning period. This development and implementation of Advanced

Transportation Technology strategy includes the use of zero-emission

vehicles, alternative fuels, telecommunications, Intelligent Vehicle

Highway Systems (IVHS), and Advanced Shuttle transit. "Clean Cities,"

a voluntary federal program designed to accelerate and expand the use

of alternative fuel vehicles, along with an overall marketing and

communications program will augment the Advanced Technology strategy.

The RME also suggests the introduction of Market Incentives as a

mechanism to reduce travel demand and pollution and to provide new

transportation choices as well as funding for transportation

alternatives that are highly efficient and performance-based. Through

Market Incentives, gross polluters would pay a premium, and cleaner

cars would pay less. Proceeds would be reinvested into performance-

and equity-based improvements that directly improve personal mobility,

goods movement, and air quality. Additionally, this Plan advocates

additional corridor-pricing options to build new or added facilities

where it is appropriate. It also recommends a new long-term financing

base for transportation as gasoline consumption and taxes decline in

the future.  Ultimately, Market Incentives would be established by

legislative process after an extensive regional review process to

develop proposals and advice to law makers.

Ultimately, the RME Plan proposes to meet mobility and air quality

requirements while providing the region's ethnic and geographically

diverse population with more choices of alternative transportation

modes than those now available.


The SCAG region's population is a commuter society that relies on

Single Occupancy Vehicles (SOV) for a majority of all trips. For home

to work commutes, Average Vehicle Ridership (AVR) is 1.38 persons per


Only 5.62 percent of the population use some form of transit to

commute to work. On the average, each person makes 3.40 daily trips in

their automobile, and each person drives an average of 20.48 miles per

day. Their average speed during the morning peak period is 29.6 miles

per hour.

Currently, in the urbanized counties and in many of the transit

corridors that link urbanized counties to other parts of the region,

commuters must struggle with congested freeway trips that are

primarily Level of Service (LOS) E and F during peak drive periods.

(See Figure 2-1, 1990 E and F Levels of Service.)  Daily congestion

results in 2,152,000 hours of delay added to travel times.


   1Level of Service (LOS) is measured on a scale of A through F. An A

rating is best. Level F is stop and go congestion.

Figure 2-1: (Map: 1990 Levels of Service)

Unfortunately, Southern California must deal with some of the nation's

dirtiest air problems. As detailed in Table 2-3 - SCAG Air Basin

Attainment Status, Ozone, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, and

Particulate Matter exceed federal standards in one or more of the air

districts in the SCAG region.

In recent years, great strides have been made in reducing auto

emissions in Southern California. Nevertheless, though extremely

costly, the region remains committed to even greater reductions in the


                               TABLE 2-3


Click HERE for graphic.


As a broad vision for the region's future, the RME Plan has as its

objective meeting federally mandated transportation and air quality

standards by making aggressive use of existing facilities and

conventional funding as well as of Advanced Transportation

Technologies and new Market Incentives. These approaches are part of

an overall strategy integrating air quality, mobility, and economic

goals outlined in SCAG's Regional Comprehensive Plan.

The underlying philosophy of this vision is one of creating a

supportive environment while maximizing choices for consumers through

encouraging innovation and alternatives. The Plan proposes to reduce

emissions and improve mobility more cost-effectively than traditional

regulatory methods, through Market Incentives and investments in

Advanced Transportation Technologies and other improvements that meet

performance, efficiency, and equity tests.

Federal mobility mandates include: 1) contributing to an increase in

peak-period Average Vehicle Ridership; 2) offsetting the growth of

emissions due to an increase in vehicle trips and Vehicle Miles

Traveled (VMT); and 3) meeting emission budget requirements for mobile

sources as determined by final state and/or federal implementation

plans. (See Table 2-4, Federal Requirements for Mobility and Air

Quality.) Additionally, in meeting a mandated requirement under ISTEA,

the RME calls upon SCAG to work with counties, subregions, Caltrans

and federal highway and transportation agencies to further define

SCAG's role in the Major Investment Analysis process.

The Major Investment Analysis of largescale transportation projects

will narrow the range of alternative investment strategies and assist

the investing agency in utilizing resources for the best mobility


                               TABLE 2-4

                         FEDERAL REQUIREMENTS

                     FOR MOBILITY AND AIR QUALITY

                         Federal Requirements

   -  Contribute to an increase in peak-period Average Vehicle

      Ridership (AVR) by large employers with 100 or more employees. -

      42 U.S.C. 7511a(d)(1)(B)

   -  Offset with Transportation Control Measures (TCMs) the growth of

      emissions due to an increase in vehicle trips and Vehicle Miles

      Traveled (VMT). - U.S.C. 7511a(d)(1)

   -  Meet emission budget requirements for mobile sources as

      determined by final State Implementation Plan/Federal

      Implementation Plan.

      State requirements include: 1) achieving an average vehicle

   occupancy of 1.5 persons per vehicle during commuter peak period

   hours by 1999 in severe and extreme non-attainment areas and 2)

   achieving a substantial decrease in the growth of passenger vehicle

   trips and VMT in serious, severe, and extreme non-attainment areas.

   (See Table 2-5, State Requirements for Mobility and Air Quality.)

                               TABLE 2-5

                          STATE REQUIREMENTS

                     FOR MOBILITY AND AIR QUALITY

                          State Requirements

   -  Achieve an average vehicle occupancy of 1.5 persons per vehicle

      during commuter peak period hours by 1999 in severe and extreme

      non-attainment areas. - Calif. Health and Safety Code


   -  Achieve a substantial decrease in the growth of passenger

      vehicle trips and VMT in serious, severe, and extreme non-

      attainment areas. - Calif. Health and Safety Code 40919(a)(3)

   -  California Air Resources Board recommends that air districts

      " plans that reduce VMT and trips growth rates to the

      maximum degree feasible, and which, at a minimum, decrease

      growth of VMT and trips to the rate of population or household


   -  Allow no net increase in mobile source emissions after 1997 in

      severe and extreme non-attainment areas. - Calif. Health and

      Safety Code 40920(a)(2)

   -  Meet emission budget requirements for mobile sources as

      determined by final State Implementation Plan/Federal

      Implementation Plan.

In addition to objectives defined by state and federal law, as a SCAG

policy, the RME proposes to increase the mode split in transit

ridership between 10 to 14 percent over the current 5.6 percent for

home to work trips by 2015.

Additionally, as a SCAG policy, the RME Plan calls for a Zero Emission

Vehicle (ZEV) sales goal to capture 60 percent of the market for new

vehicle sales by the year 2015, up from 50 percent in 2010.

The Plan promotes choice for the regulated communities  and seeks to

provide alternatives to command and control regulation through the

Market Incentives and Advanced Transportation Technologies. For

example, the application of Advanced Transportation Technologies to

special opportunity areas such as  multi-use activity centers,

transit-oriented centers, intensive business centers and airports as

well as their environs could provide an effective substitute to the

employer rideshare requirements such as Regulation XV.


   2CARB California Air Act Transportation Guidance, Transportation

Standards, May 1991, Page 3.


As an economic by-product, the RME Plan foresees its strategy being a

catalyst for the Southern California job market.

Assuming moderate levels of market penetration made feasible by

educational and infrastructure deployment programs, the job creation

potential is 73,000 jobs from zero-emission or electric vehicles and

277,000 in additional Advanced Transportation Technologies by the year

2010. Total jobs created by Advanced Transportation Technology could

rise to over 350,000 by 2010. Another 1.38 million jobs by 2010 would

occur through the development and operation of additions to the

highway and transit systems by 2010.  This number is expected to

increase to 2.4 million by 2015. (See Table 2-6, Estimated Annual Net

Economic Impact from RME Highway & Transit Projects). The cumulative

total of all jobs created by the RME Plan is approximately 1.73

million by 2010.

                               TABLE 2-6


                      HIGHWAY & TRANSIT PROJECTS

                    ***NO TABLE ON ORIGINAL DISK***

The 94 RME proposes a Southern California Economic Partnership (SCEP),

which is a public-private sector collaborative effort that will bring

government and industry together to determine how best to successfully

deploy new technologies into the Southern California market place.

The mission of the SCEP is to: establish industry and government

clusters for each transportation technology; identify market barriers

and incentives to increase the demand for these technologies; and

monitor the technology deployment effectiveness and recommend

alternative strategies. Product development is anticipated to occur in

the following industry clusters: zero emission vehicles; alternative

fuel vehicles; Advanced Transit Shuttles; Intelligent Vehicle Highway

Systems (IVHS); telecommute-teleservices marketing and communications;

and the Clean Cities. These industry clusters offer the maximum

potential for cost-cutting and job creation. (See Table 2-7, SCEP


                               TABLE 2-7

                           SCEP ORGANIZATION

Click HERE for graphic.

Additionally, improved mobility can have a direct impact on jobs

related to goods movement, which in the SCAG region critically links

the local economy to state, national and world trade and can

significantly affect the environment, quality of life, and land use as

well as transportation. The U.S. Department of Commcerce calculates

that for every additional $1 billion of U.S. exports, 19,000 jobs are

created through the increased demand for manufactured goods, their

delivery and related business.



   The RME strategy is built on the 20-year local plans for each

   county. These plans include existing levels of bus service plus

   identified rail projects, as well as transit, aviation, truck, and

   ports capital projects for which funding can be expected through


   The Plan is critically connected to the region's road and highway

   system, whose arteries represent the lifeblood of transportation in

   Southern California. The projected costs for highway and transit

   programs and projects in the RME total about $56.2 billion, which

   does not include Advanced Technology costs.

   By 2015, improvements are projected to include an additional 1,446

   freeway miles and 1,264 miles of additional High Occupancy Vehicle

   (HOV) lanes. The RME builds on this existing system with strategies

   ranging from three-tiered transit services to the use of HOV lanes

   and Mixed Flow Congestion-Relief system improvements. (See Figure

   2-2, Existing and Proposed HOV Lanes, and Figure 2-3, Proposed

   Mixed Flow Projects.)

   The Plan proposes a three tier approach to transit. Tier 1, of this

   three-tier transit approach involves the longer distance line haul

   service such as Metrolink, longer distance rail services, and some

   express bus service. Tier 2 is the support bus and paratransit

   service that provides service connecting to Tier 1 service as well

   as medium distance subregional-oriented service in and around

   communities. Tier 3 is localized, short trip service such as taxis

   and shuttles that is more community oriented.

   Regional public transportation improvements are currently directed

   toward the implementation of the rail programs designed to create

   the infrastructure which supports service on high-and-medium-

   capacity corridors. The proposed improvements include nine urban

   rail lines, nine commuter rail lines, and two inter-city corridor

   lines. (See Figure 2-4, Existing and Proposed Urban and Inner City

   Rail Lines and Figure 2-5, Existing and Proposed Commuter Rail


   Key to improving the movement of goods in the region, especially in

   the wake of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), is

   completion of the new Port of Entry in Imperial County, the Alameda

   Corridor, extension of highway access to Port Hueneme, and overall

   improvements to intermodal freight movement projects.

Figure 2-2 (Map: Existing and Proposed HOV Lanes)

Figure 2-3 (Map: Proposed Mixed Flow Project)

Figure 2-4 (Map: Existing and Proposed Urban and Inner City Rail


Figure 2-5 (Map: Existing and Proposed Commuter Rail Lines)

   Transportation Demand Management

   The RME Plan utilizes Transportation Demand Management (TDM)

   strategies, which attempt to modify people's travel behavior,

   especially for the future when the impact of population growth on

   transportation facilities will be significant.

   In 2015, congestion on the streets and highways will be greater,

   traffic movement will be slower, the duration of traffic delay will

   more than triple. People will be making fewer automobile trips, but

   the total number of automobile trips being made by the increased

   number of motorists will be 43 percent more than the trips made in


   Historically, major TDM emphasis has been on reducing the SOV home-

   to-work commute. In the short term, the region's TDM efforts will

   continue to focus on the promotion and support of ridesharing,

   ridematching, telecommuting, teleconferencing, the use of bus and

   rail transit, job site flex time, alternative work weeks, non-

   motorized travel, carpool subsidies, indirect Market Incentives,

   and land-use strategies.

   Over the long term, however, a more market-oriented, user-based

   approach to demand management is proposed. Market Incentives have

   the potential to not only reduce demand but also reduce air quality

   emissions, while helping provide transportation alternatives and

   long-term transportation financing.

   These TDM strategies complement the region's facilities investment

   in HOV, transit and Advanced Technologies.

   Transportation System Management

   The RME covers Transportation System Management projects that

   include traffic signal synchronization and operation components

   improvements such as closed circuit television, ramp meter

   installations, traffic operations centers, and the Smart Streets

   operation in certain cities and counties in the region.

   In addition, the Plan encourages expanding Transportation System

   management by local jurisdictions as well as coordinating TSM

   activities in the region and incorporating advanced system

   technologies where appropriate.

   Urban Form

   The RME has integrated urban form as a mobility strategy, taking

   into consideration the relationship between land use and travel


   The Plan, based on subregional recommendations, promotes land-use

   development patterns, including job-housing balance, to enhance the

   efficiency of the region's transportation system. A few subregions

   already have explicit policies that encourage job-housing balance,

   balanced communities, and transit-oriented development.

   On March 3, 1994, as a result of deliberations of the Community,

   Economic and Human Development Committee and the Standing Committee

   on Planning, SCAG staff was directed to re-examine the issue of

   jobs-housing balance and balanced growth in general. A study is

   presently underway and will be incorporated by amendment, as


   Advanced Transportation Technology

   Advanced Transportation Technologies are intended to provide

   consumers with products and services that preserve the same quality

   of life and convenience of mobility they experience today. These

   measures are expected to achieve the greatest emission reductions

   through an aggressive program implemented to achieve moderate to

   high levels of market penetration.

   Overall, Advanced Transportation Technologies are expected to

   contribute significantly to reduced emissions in the region.

   Without support from Advanced Technologies and other highly

   efficient efforts, the current local plans involving traditional

   transportation improvements cannot meet air quality and mobility


   The Advanced Transportation Technologies employed in the Plan

   includes the use of zero-emission vehicles, alternative fuels,

   telecommunications, IVHS, and Advanced Shuttle Transit. (The order

   in which technologies are listed implies no particular

   implementation priority.)

      Zero Emission Vehicles

      The technology for zero-emission vehicles is intended to reduce

      emissions by accelerating the introduction of these vehicles

      beyond requirements of government mandates. This would be

      facilitated through a cooperative public-private partnership

      project acting as a support program.

      By 2010, the annual new vehicle market penetration for zero-

      emission vehicles is expected to reach  60 percent, involving in

      excess of 500,000 vehicles. At the same time, an estimate of the

      job creation from the start of a new zero-emission vehicles

      industry is estimated to be about 73,000 jobs over the same


      Accelerating the introduction of zero-emission vehicles will

      reduce the permissible fleet average emissions for light heavy

      duty vehicles beyond currently required reductions.

      Implementation of this aspect of the plan would be accomplished

      through creation of the Zero-Emission Vehicle Industry Cluster

      whose role would include developing a market plan for zero

      emission vehicles. As part of the SCEP Project, this public-

      private cluster would promote fleet conversion and acquisition

      of refueling infrastructure. In addition, regional and local

      regulatory actions would be aimed at facilitation of

      introduction of zero emission vehicles.

      Alternative Fuels

      Alternative fuel technology aims to increase the rate of

      emission reductions by accelerating the introduction of low

      emission, alternatively fueled vehicles through cooperative

      public-private partnerships and the use of Market Incentives.

      An Alternative Fuels Industry Cluster would take the leadership

      in helping refine and develop a "local" regulatory framework to

      establish a market environment for alternative fuels as well as

      supporting market incentives that would enhance the

      competitiveness of alternative fuel vehicles.

      In addition, regional and local regulatory actions would be

      aimed at facilitating the introduction of low emission

      alternatively fueled vehicles.

      By 2015, annual new vehicle market penetration for alternative

      fuel vehicles is expected to include 250,000 vehicles for an

      estimated market share of 14 to 34 percent. Meanwhile, the

      economic impact of alternative fuels would also include the

      creation of about 9,000 new jobs by the same period.

      Implementation of the alternative fuels strategy would be

      accomplished through the Alternative Fuels Industry Cluster,

      whose responsibilities would include accelerating market

      penetration. This cluster would also be responsible for adopting

      appropriate monitoring mechanisms.


      The telecommunications technologies involve a number of

      technologies, including: teleconferencing, teleservices, tele-

      education, telemedicine, teleshopping, telebanking,

      telecommuting, and other applications.

      Telecommuting as a substitute for home-to-work vehicle trips

      would be accelerated through cooperative public-private industry

      clusters. Telecommuting is using electronics to move information

      and/or pictures that allow work to be done from home or from a

      neighborhood work center.

      In 1990, telecommuting impact amounted to a reduction of 4.1

      percent in home to work trips. This reduction is expected to

      increase to 6.3 percent by the year 2015. Total penetration of

      the market is anticipated to be between 5 to 14 percent of all

      work trips.

      Currently, basic telecommunications technologies or devices are

      commercially available. The barriers to use are embracing the

      concept of telecommuting and other teleservices and the cost of

      the equipment at home for the telecommuter.

      In terms of jobs, an estimate of the potential job creation from

      the sale of all telecommunications technologies is about 42,000

      jobs in 2000 and 65,000 jobs in 2010 for the State of


      To implement the telecommunications aspect of the strategy, the

      RME proposes establishing a Telecommunications Deployment

      Industry Cluster as part of the SCEP Project that will be

      responsible for identifying and acting on market barriers and

      applications. The SCEP Project will assemble the interested

      industry and government parties to identify and eliminate use

      and regulation barriers, establish a seed fund for

      telecommunications equipment purchases, and develop an education

      program for employers.

      Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS)

      The Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) technologies

      represent a variety of technologies that basically transfer

      information to the vehicle or driver to improve the safer and

      more efficient use of the highway system. IVHS technologies or

      products have two major deployment applications: highway-road

      systems and on-vehicle.

      These technologies are intended to reduce mobile source

      emissions from light and heavy duty vehicles through improved

      operational performance of the transportation system. By the

      year 2015, the market penetration of IVHS technology is expected

      to exceed 250,000 vehicle information device units.

      IVHS technologies include: Advanced Traffic Management System

      (ATMS) technologies like computerized signal and control systems

      that synchronize lights to reduce unnecessary stops, thus

      improving the vehicle emissions drive cycle; Advanced Traveler

      Information System (ATIS) technologies that warn drivers in

      advance of severe congestion; Advanced Vehicle Control System

      (AVCS) technologies such as collision-avoidance systems that

      reduce accident related congestion; Commercial Vehicle Operation

      (CVO) systems that control the routing of commercial fleet

      vehicles to avoid excess travel and congestion; and Advanced

      Passenger Transportation (APTS) technologies that can dispatch

      Advanced Shuttles more efficiently or give the time and location

      of the next bus or train to the transit passenger.

      IVHS technologies would be deployed by establishing a

      private/public cluster to develop a market plan for the

      consumer. This industry cluster is part of a larger technology

      deployment project, SCEP, which will act as a support program

      for this cluster. Implementation would also be accomplished

      through development of industry standards for on-vehicle systems

      and enhanced requirements for vehicle control and safety

      systems. Furthermore, implementation would be assisted at the

      consumer level through the use of Market Incentives such as

      reduced insurance rates for the purchase of AVCS items like

      collision avoidance.

      IVHS technologies would provide the following boost to the

      California economy: 61,000 new jobs by 2000 and over 140,000 new

      jobs by 2010.

      Smart Shuttle Transit

      Smart Shuttles build upon existing demand responsive transit

      modes, using advanced transportation technologies  to provide

      service more tailored to the needs of individual riders. The

      goal for Smart Shuttles is to develop, implement, and integrate

      a public-private transportation service that offers an

      attractive alternative to the gasoline-powered automobile.

      By 2015, Smart Shuttles and conventional transit with TDM

      programs are expected to account for 10 to 14 percent of all

      work trips and involve 50,000 Smart Shuttle vehicles in the


      Smart Shuttles would be most effective and efficient in three

      different types of applications: corridor service, center-

      focused service, and community-based service. In corridors,

      Smart Shuttles would provide service similar to jitneys like

      those operating in Atlantic City without fixed stops or a fixed

      route within a defined corridor. Center-focused services such as

      airport shuttles would provide enhanced access to employment

      centers, rail stations, and other large traffic generators.

      Community-based services would include transportation to

      shopping, recreation, and health facilities.

      Emissions would be reduced by deployment of Smart Shuttles

      through the use of Advanced Transportation Technologies such as

      computer-aided dispatching as well as the use of alternative


      Implementation of Smart Shuttles would be accomplished through

      the creation of a public-private partnership with the mandate to

      create a market environment which promotes development and use

      of alternative public transportation services along with

      integration of new technologies and removal of regulatory

      barriers. The Advanced Shuttle Industry Cluster, which is part

      of the SCEP Project, will be such a public-private partnership

      and would foster and guide Advanced Shuttle transit in the


      In terms of jobs, an estimate of the job creation from the start

      of an Advanced Shuttle industry is expected to be up to 65,000

      new jobs by 2010.

   These Advanced Technologies will be supported by the Clean Cities

   program, which as a SCEP component is charged with facilitating the

   procurement of "clean vehicles" and related infrastructure as well

   as other Advanced Technologies, including Smart Shuttles,

   telecommunications, and IVHS products. The Clean Cities program

   will be especially involved in helping adopt EV charging facilities

   building code and permit requirements and other actions designed to

   encourage the use of electric automobiles.

   Transportation Control Measures

   Additionally, the Plan includes the use of Transportation Control

   Measures (TCMs), strategies designed to reduce the amount of motor-

   vehicle based emissions by changing the way people make trips, by

   alleviating traffic congestion, and by facilitating infrastructure

   changes to promote alternatives to single-occupant vehicles.

   Plans and requirements for TCMs used to meet air quality

   requirements differ for each of the region's six non-attainment

   areas reflecting the flexibility of the strategies. However,

   maximum use of reasonably available TCMs in conjunction with all

   other strategies (stationary and area) is mandated by state and

   federal law.

   In addition to the use of TCMs related to vehicular use, the

   region's has also included strategies to reduce emissions from

   planes and trains.

   The Railroad Emissions Control Measure from the 1989/91 South Coast

   Air Plan is being refined for the 1994 Ozone SIP Submittal. This

   measure focuses on railroad operations in the South Coast Air

   Basin, including freight, commuter, and intercity passenger trains.

   The intent is to reduce oxides of nitrogen from diesel-electric


   Additionally, the respective roles and responsibilities of the

   various agencies involved in implementing aviation TCMs are still

   being debated.


The budget for the 20-year life of the RME, including both traditional

and innovative financing, is $71 billion. All of the costs of the Plan

will continue to be evaluated and refined in the future. This

refinement will occur in tandem with the refinement of the Market

Incentives Program.

   Traditional Funding

   The RME estimates that over the 20-year planning period, $56

   billion in cost for traditional highway and transit programs and

   improvement projects can be funded with reasonably available

   revenues of $56 billion.

   While regional expenses and revenues generally balance over the 20-

   year life of the plan, historical spending trends, air qual-

   ity/congestion mitigation, costs of maintaining older

   infrastructure, declining gasoline tax revenues, and mounting

   transit operation expenses all threaten the region's precariously

   balanced budget.

   It should also be noted that the end of the planning period may

   have too little facility investment given the expected population

   growth. Chapter 9, Long-Range Corridors, describes many possible

   candidates that future plan refinements must address and as

   appropriate provide funding.

   Innovative Funding

   Consequently, it is clear that the region's traditional funding

   sources for the foreseeable future are insufficient to pay for

   Advanced Transportation Technologies and other corridor

   improvements which are needed to meet air and mobility mandates.

   Thus, the plan calls for addition funding.  One example of this

   added revenue could be provided through innovative funding through

   a series of user based fees to provide sufficient revenues in order

   for the Plan to be considered fiscally constrained as required by

   the 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA).

   It is expected that approximately $15-29 billion will be needed to

   finance the range of various Advanced Transportation Technology

   improvements and performance-based projects which are crucial to

   the Plan's strategy through 2015.

   The funding mechanism would probably provide that low polluting

   vehicles contribute a lesser amount than grossly polluting


   After a multi-year gradual phase in, a VMT/Emissions Registration

   Fee could be expected to produce up to $2 billion annually. The

   process for determining precise fee, differences in rates, and

   total amounts collected are briefly outlined in the Market

   Incentives section and the Implementation section of this chapter.

   It should be noted that any Market Incentives would be established

   by legislative process or by a ballot initiative after a regional

   process to develop proposals and advice to lawmakers.


   3$15 billion is used in calculating the total 20 year costs.


   Reasons to Introduce Market Incentives

   The use of market incentives seeks to balance supply and demand by

   equitably charging travelers for the full and true costs of driving

   an automobile, allowing consumers to make more informed travel

   decisions. Figure 2-6, Life-Cycle Gasoline Vehicle Costs (1990),

   illustrates the often overlooked expenses of owning and driving a


                              FIGURE 2-6


                   ***NO FIGURE IN ORIGINAL FILE***

         SOURCE: SCAG Market Incentives Task Force Report, February,


   The RME proposes using Market Incentives to encourage travelers to

   seek alternatives while providing a revenue stream to fund those

   transportation alternatives that are highly efficient, performance-

   based, and maximize regional efforts to meet mobility and air

   quality goals.

   Ultimately, establishing user-based financing of transportation

   improvements as well as providing a stable base of transportation

   funding, rather than general fund financing, are key strategic

   goals of Market Incentives.


   4  Modified for this analysis from Kevin Nesbitt, Daniel Sperling,

and Mark DeLuchi, "Initial Assessment of Roadway-Powered Electric

Vehicles", Transportation Research Record, No. 1267, 1990.


   Market Incentives in the RME are designed to allow for equity so

   that an undue or disproportionate impact is not placed on low

   income groups, other user groups, commercial users or geographic

   areas. To the extent that such situations are identified, Market

   Incentive programs should mitigate such impacts through appropriate

   subsidy and reinvestment programs. Impacts on business should be

   mitigated to the extent practical and to allow increased

   opportunities for subregional and regional economic


   Implementation and development of Market Incentives include having

   a nexus between Market Incentive fees and expenditures. Travel

   consumers must see direct and timely benefit from payment of market

   investment travel charges.

   Another aspect of implementation involves efficient and

   performance-based requirements. The RME requires that all projects

   and improvements funded with Market Incentive fees must be highly

   efficient and performance based.

   Market Incentive Methods

   At a meeting April 14, 1994, SCAG's Transportation and

   Communications Committee agreed that "new user-based fees shall be

   considered by the committee (including the transportation

   community) charged with developing an implementation strategy that

   could be used to substitute for gasoline taxes in the long term."

   The RME proposes to consider the long-term replacement of

   traditional transportation funding sources (i.e. gasoline tax) with

   a different use fee such as one based on a VMT/emission

   registration charge.  Such a replacement fee would probably be

   revenue neutral. But additional revenues could also be raised from

   higher VMT fees charged to gross polluters.

   In addition, there could be congestion pricing in which specific

   transportation facilities would be priced or tolled based on the

   amount of congestion on that facility or corridor.

   Another Market Incentive would be a Parking Cash-Out feature

   through provisions of state law being reaffirmed. Employers with 50

   or more employees in non-attainment areas who subsidize employee

   parking, lease parking spaces, and can reduce the number of parking

   spaces without penalty are required to allow employees to choose

   between the parking space or a cash allowance.

   In the proposed Air Quality Management Plan, there is an option for

   a possible pay-at-the-pump "backstop" which could be implemented,

   if needed, to help reduce emissions.

   In moving toward implementation of user fees, the next step of the

   Plan calls for a public involvement program, exploring attitudes

   within the region and seeking a consensus on the Market Incentives.

   This would also involve research through surveys and community

   outreach efforts designed to develop methods that would ameliorate

   impacts of Market Incentive measures, especially on groups

   handicapped by economic, geographic and commercial limitations.

   Additionally, such a strategy of public involvement may take

   advantage of multi-media outreach -- newsletters, videos, public

   service announcements -- aimed at identifying issues as well as

   developing public participation and facilitating the implementation

   of the RME.

   At the legislative level, the next steps would include a

   legislative process including review and comment of legislation

   dealing with the issue as well as possible new legislation to

   provide for the implementation of Market Incentives.

   Ultimately, the perceptions of elected officials and the public

   will determine if the Market Incentives program is viable.  If the

   Market Incentives are to be successfully implemented, public

   understanding and political acceptability are essential.


The RME anticipates that its strategies will successfully maintain the

regional transportation system, moving goods and people efficiently

and ensuring the economic vitality of the region while also improving

air quality through reduced emissions. Plan performance is formally

detailed in the SCAG Executive Summary, 1994 RME Conformity Report

which is included in Appendix B. Briefly, the RME Conformity Report

finds: reasonably available funding; compliance by air basins with the

Federal Clean Air Act and Transportation Conformity Regulations;

timely implementation of TCMs, and compliance with ISTEA and other

relevant regulations.

Over the next 20 years, the $56 billion in traditional capital

investments recommended in the RME and the resulting congestion relief

benefits will create between 58,000 and 132,000 additional jobs per

year from 1995 through 2015 with wage and salary incomes estimated

between $1.2 billion and $2.6 billion each year. The $15-29 billion

investments in Advanced Technology and performance based projects

would create an additional 350,000 jobs over the same period.

The number of single occupancy vehicles for home-based-work trips will

significantly decrease, from 72.5 percent in 1990 to 56.9 percent in

2015.  At the same time, other changes in the shift from single

occupancy vehicles will include: an increase from 5.4 percent to 13.3

percent in transit, an increase from 18 percent to 18.5 percent in

rideshare, an increase from 2 percent to 6.3 percent in telecommuting,

and an increase from 2.5 percent to 3.5 percent in non-motorized

transportation. (See Figure 2-7 and 2-8.)

But even with facility and technology improvements, SCAG modelling

shows that the average daily speed for all trips will decrease from

32.5 miles per hour in 1990 to 27.2 miles per hour in 2015. (See

Figure 2-9.) Meanwhile, the delay for drivers on the road will worsen

by 106% in morning peak trips and by 196% in daily trips.

                              FIGURE 2-7

                          TRANSIT MODE SPLIT

                      HOME BASED WORK (HBW) TRIPS

                              FIGURE 2-8

                         MODE SPLIT HBW TRIPS

                              FIGURE 2-9

                    AVERAGE DAILY SPEED (all trips)

   (For modeling purposes, 1990 trip reductions for nonmotorized and   

 telecommuting were removed from the total 1990 trip count. 

Therefore, this  modeling chart reflects 0% for the two modes.  Actual

1990 trip reductions  are 2.5% for non-motorized and 2.0% for


   During this period, as population grows at just less than 2 percent

per year, daily vehicle trips will increase at less than 1.6 percent.

At the same time, vehicle miles traveled will grow just over 2 percent

each year. (See Figure 2-10 and 2-10A.)

                              FIGURE 2-10

                          ANNUAL GROWTH RATES

                        (Between 1990 and 2015)

Click HERE for graphic.

SCAG modelling results also indicate that the RME strategies will

dramatically improve Air Quality Performance Indicators.

Regionwide, pollutants decrease during the planning period. Reactive

organic gases, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides decrease

significantly from 1990 to 2015 in each of the air basins. These

emission results are based on 50 percent zero-emission vehicle sales

in 2010 and 60 percent ZEV sales in 2015. (See Figure 2-11.)


Crucial to the implementation of the RME Plan strategies, especially

the Advanced Technology strategies, is development of the Southern

California Economic Partnership (SCEP) which will establish industry

and government clusters for each transportation technology and

facilitate their involvement in the region's transportation system and

economic mainstream.

Market Incentive implementation, including, refinement, pricing

levels, and a legislative agenda, will be undertaken by a committee

charged with these responsibilities and appointed by the SCAG Regional

Council.  The Committee will also be charged with the task of

reviewing and making recommendations on these issues related to

innovative funding.

                             FIGURE 2-10A


                        (Home-Base-Work Trips)

Click HERE for graphic.

The RME calls for specific action steps, but it also should be viewed

as a direction-setting document. The strategy behind the RME Plan is

dynamic in that it will change over time to respond to evolving

conditions in the marketplace, technological advances, political and

legislative action, and mobility needs.

                              FIGURE 2-11

Industry and government institutions will be involved in the further

analysis of Advanced Transportation Technologies and Market

Incentives. Market Incentive development, refinement of new user based

fees, and Advanced Technology implementation strategy, as well as

pricing levels, and a legislative agenda will be studied by a

committee appointed by the Regional Council. When recommending

strategies to be funded, this committee will consider issues of

equity, nexus of benefit to those shouldering the costs, and project

efficiency/performance. As noted previously, this committee's findings

and recommendations would constitute the first step in a regional

process to develop proposals and advice that would be acted on and

approved through the legislative process.

A complete summary, in table form, of additional action

recommendations proposed by the RME can be found in Chapter 14,

Regional Action Program Summary, of Volume 2.


SCAG intends to prepare at least one major amendment, including a

conformity statement, every two years between plan adoption dates, if

such an amended plan is deemed necessary. Plan amendments that do not

require preparation of a conformity statement may be prepared more

frequently. The RME will be certified periodically as required by

state and federal law. See also Appendix A, Plan Amendment Process.




   The traffic congestion created by Southern California's population

   growth has not only increased demands on the region's

   transportation system but also made necessary additional measures

   to meet the region's mobility goals. One of the measures is

   Transportation Demand Management (TDM).

   The Regional Mobility Element places special emphasis on TDM in

   efforts to meet the region's mobility needs as well as the air

   quality requirements of the federal Clean Air Act and the mobility

   mandates of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act


   TDM strategies comprise those efforts that attempt to modify

   people's travel behavior.   Specifically, TDM consists  of actions

   intended to 1) increase vehicle occupancy for both passenger and

   transit vehicles; 2) increase the use of alternatives to vehicular

   transport; 3) reduce the number of commute and non-commute trips by

   eliminating them entirely; and 4) reduce trip lengths through

   various means.

   TDM strategies complement the investment the region is making in

   alternative transportation infrastructure, High-Occupancy Vehicles

   (HOV), and transit by maximizing the efficient use of these

   investments and should be coordinated with them.

   Over the long-term, it is expected that a more market-oriented,

   user-based approach to demand management will emerge. Market

   incentives have the potential to not only reduce demand, but reduce

   air quality emissions, help provide transportation alternatives and

   provide long-term transportation financing.


   Demand management has been a component of regional transportation

   planning for almost two decades. Owing principally to federal and

   state regulatory and incentive programs, the largest TDM emphasis

   has been on reducing the home-to-work commute (see Table 3-1). 

   Outreach and public education by rideshare agencies and transit

   providers has also significantly increased throughout the region.

                               TABLE 3-1


Click HERE for graphic.

   Transportation Management Associations (TMAs) that coordinate TDM

   functions for employers, developers, and residents have also

   developed a niche in Southern California. There are 24 TMAs in the

   SCAG region and one of their primary functions is ridematching (see

   Table 3-1A and Figure 3-1B).

                             TABLE 3-1(A)


                          ASSOCIATIONS (TMAs)

Click HERE for graphic.

MAP goes here.


   Traditional TDM techniques represent one approach to improving

   regional mobility. These methods include facility standards,

   transit, rideshare programs, non-motorized access, telecommuting,

   alternative work weeks, flex-time, and employer trip reduction

   programs.         The proposed TDM program for the region also

   incorporates strategies from two other approaches to ensure that

   the full range of behavioral influences on travel are addressed:

   market-based incentives, targeting the economic rationale behind

   people's transportation choices; and land-use strategies, targeting

   the spatial influences affecting trip-generation and destination


         Linking Land-Use and TDM Through Activity Areas

   Activity areas (clusters of economic and/or social activity) exist

   throughout the SCAG region. On a community-neighborhood scale these

   areas attract local and nearby residents to shop, work, and

   socialize.  Examples of such areas are "Main Streets," shopping

   centers and business parks. On a larger scale, areas as large

   downtown Central Business Districts (CBDs) and universities attract

   people from around the region.

   These areas represent opportunities for trip reduction through the

   implementation of demand management techniques in concert with the

   provision of transit, HOV lanes, or neighborhood shuttle services.

   Such areas also offer opportunities for ride matching incentives

   and other strategies. In addition, activity areas often serve, or

   can be designed to serve, different needs such as on-site child

   care, personal services (eg. banking, dry cleaners, restaurants,

   etc.), or shopping, thus reducing non-work vehicle trips and

   Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT).

   Two elements that help determine activity areas are where people

   live and work. The 1990 Census data was used to identify

   Transportation Analysis Zones (TAZ), in which significant clusters

   of housing and employment existed (see Figure 3-2). Based on a

   consensus-derived baseline for the year 2015, Figure 3-3A and 3-3B

   note both the existing and new activity areas that are expected to

   grow in employment and housing densities.




         Linking Demand Management and Technology

   Recent and future technological advances have the potential to

   significantly mitigate the demand for travel within the region. As

   the state, national, and international telecommunication

   infrastructure has expanded, the way in which the region's

   residents work, conduct meetings, bank, shop, and pay for goods and

   services has begun to change.  During the past decade, the

   percentage of people telecommuting within the region at least one

   day a week has increased to 3.9 percent. As remote offices become

   more accessible, either through work-at-home arrangements or tele-

   work centers, this trend can be expected to continue.

   Office teleconferencing facilities are beginning to become a

   standard part of the office environment. As technology to support

   this type of remote interaction continues to develop, the

   implications for reducing work-related meeting trips are


   Finally, technology has the potential to more effectively manage

   travel demand by facilitating greater system efficiencies. "Smart

   cards" that debit accounts could be used to pay for mobility

   services such as transit use, parking fees, roadway tolls, or

   demand response shuttles, thereby improving perceived accessibility

   to these transportation alternatives.

         TDM Strategies

   SCAG modeling indicates that effective employer trip reduction will

   show significant impacts on transit mode splits, and shared-ride

   mode splits when implemented in concert with the transit, HOV, and

   other mobility enhancements included in the Plan. Modeling also

   indicates that advanced shuttle and other improved feeder transit

   systems in conjunction with TDM result in increased transit mode

   and shared ride mode splits. These results support the emphasis on

   demand management in conjunction with facility improvement in the

   RME. This could improve use of the proposed investment in

   alternative modes and reduce congestion that would have had to be

   accommodated on the roadway system in the absence of an agressive

   TDM strategy.


   The recommended TDM program focuses on enhancing existing effective

   TDM programs with increased funding. The critical short- and long-

   term focus of the demand management component of the RME is on

   strengthening the integration of TDM strategies in concert with the

   provision of non-SOV capacity-enhancing infrastructure. Particular

   emphasis is placed on accomplishing these goals through the

   Congestion Management program (CMP) and RTIP, thus promoting closer

   coordination of these strategies in project corridors, area, and

   program planning. Thus, the program in Table 14-3  concentrates on

   developing and refining processes that enable this to occur.

   Demand management strategies should also significantly contribute

   to the attainment of federal, state, and regional transportation

   performance standards, including transit, ridesharing and non-

   motorized mode splits, and VMT reduction.

         The TDM program intends to address four distinct emphasis


   1. For non-commute trips to promote access to and within activity

   areas, to coordinate the implementation of land-use strategies when

   appropriate and accepted, and to facilitate education and promotion

   of non SOV alternatives (see Table 14-3).

   2. For commute based strategies to facilitate the use of non-SOV

   alternatives through ridematching, rideshare support facilities,

   efforts to increase transit accessibility, implementation of

   employer trip reduction programs, support of TDM demonstration

   programs, and support of the coordination of TDM strategies for

   Park-And-Ride facilities (see Table 14-3).

   3. To implement direct and indirect market incentives that are

   consistent with the principles identified by the Market Incentive

   Task Force (see Table 3-3).

   4. Use technology advances in information exchange, system

   effectiveness and other applications to change the use of the

   regional transportation system.


   The following  policies are to be used to guide implementation of

   the regional TDM program:

         -  To promote TDM programs along with transit and ridesharing

            facilities as a viable and desirable part of the overall

            mobility program while recognizing the particular needs of

            individual subregions.

   -  To support the development of public seed funding for new and

      innovative demonstration programs.

         -  To support the extension of TDM program implementation to

            non-commute trips for public and private sector


         -  To support the coordination of land-use and transportation

            decisions with land-use and transportation capacity,

            taking into account the potential for demand management

            strategies to mitigate travel demand if provided for as a

            part of the entire package.

         -  To support the use of market incentives as a mechanism to

            affect and modify behavior toward the use of alternative

            modes for both commute and non-commute travel.

         -  To support efforts to educate the public on the efficacy

            of demand management strategies and increase the use of

            alternative transportation.

   Implementation of TDMs

   Many of the demand management actions are implemented at the local

   level in conjunction with CMP. The statute requires the five

   counties containing urbanized areas in the SCAG region to develop a

   trip reduction and TDM component. Table 3-2 provides a summary of

   the TDM strategies contained in the region's CMPs. The CMP provides

   an important framework for implementing demand management

   strategies throughout the region, empowering local jurisdictions

   with control over the implementation of TDM programs.


   Historically, the costs of demand management strategies have been

   shared by both the public and private sectors. Moreover, because

   demand management strategies have been highly tailored to

   individual sites, significant variation in costs exists, depending

   on the breadth and number of TDM actions implemented at specific

   sites. Both of these actions contribute to substantial difficulties

   in conducting a thorough survey as well as an assessment of actual

   costs of implementing those TDMs.

   Funded TDM Programs

   The funding cycle is intended to assist local jurisdictions comply

   with the SCAQMD 1991 Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP), which

   requires cities to commit to the implementation of TCMs, including

   TDM measures, by December 1993. Los Angeles County MTA has 101

   projects funded to date. San Bernardino Association of Governments

   has 35 non-motorized projects funded. Ventura County Transportation

   Commission has 71 projects funded through STP and CMAQ funds.


   Market-based approaches to addressing congestion and air quality

   problems provide mechanisms by which system users pay the "real"

   cost of the transportation benefits they receive.  These approaches

   are divided into direct and indirect market incentives:

   1. Direct market incentives focus on changing the relative costs of

      transportation options. Pricing as a TDM action can reinforce

      consumer choices of travel alternatives and also can be fiscal

      measures aimed at financing and implementation of alternative

      travel options or subsidies.

   2. Indirect market incentives use economic rewards (lower

      development costs, higher density, lower tax or fee rates) to

      influence urban design and siting policies that support reduced

      automobile use.

   The use of market incentives seeks to balance supply and demand by

   better charging travelers for the full and true costs of driving an

   automobile so that consumers can make more informed travel

   decisions. Market incentive strategies have significant potential

   to minimize the need for command and control approaches to mobility

   regulation to achieve air quality goals.

   The RME proposes to meet mobility and air quality requirements

   while providing individuals with choices of alternative travel

   modes beyond those now available. Market incentives can help

   realize this goal by encouraging travelers to seek alternatives as

   well as provide a revenue stream to fund transportation

   alternatives that are highly efficient, performance based, and

   maximize regional efforts to meet mobility and air quality goals.

   User-based financing of transportation improvements and providing a

   stable base of transportation funding, rather than fund financing,

   are also key strategic goals of market incentives.

                               TABLE 3-2


Click HERE for graphic.

*  Regulation XV (South Coast Air Basin), Rule 210 (Ventura County)

   and Rule 1701 (Desert portions of San Bernardino County) each have

   complementary effects on the implementation of CMPs.

** San Bernardino County jurisdictions within the South Coast Air

   Basin must adopt TDM Ordinances by December 31, 1993; jurisdictions

   within the desert portions of the county must adopt TDM Ordinances

   by November 1, 1993.

***    Team Rideshare is implemented by Caltrans, SCAQMD, and CTS.

   Market Incentives Task Force

   SCAG has formed a Market Incentives Task Force composed of local

   government elected officials. The charge of this task force is to

   examine the impact of developing user-based pricing as well as

   subsidy and reinvestment actions. The Task Force has developed a

   number of principles on how market incentives should be developed

   and what actions are to be considered (see Table 3-3).

   Over time, it is expected that market incentives might replace trip

   reduction regulations (See Chapter 10 - Financial Program, which

   more fully discusses market incentives).

                               TABLE 3-3


   -  Through fees, subsidies, and reinvestment, including clean

      vehicles and improved mobility systems:

      1. attempt, to achieve both mobility and air quality goals.

      2. encourage the development of new technologies which can

         reduce congestion, reduce mobile source emissions, and foster

         regional economic advantage, and

      3. reduce the use of single occupant vehicles especially during

         congested periods.

   -  Minimize the need for command-and-control approaches to mobility

      regulation to achieve air quality.

   -  Mitigate the impacts on business to the extent practical, and

      increase opportunities for regional economic competitiveness.

   -  Avoid undue or disproportionate impacts on low income groups or

      other user groups, or mitigate such impacts through appropriate

      actions, including subsidy and reinvestment programs.

   -  Avoid undue or disproportionate geographic impacts, or mitigate

      those impacts through appropriate actions, including subsidy and

      reinvestment programs.

   -  Consult with sub-regions to provide input and consider different

      sub-regional conditions in the design and mitigation of such

      market-based programs.

   -  Advocate user-based financing of transportation improvements and

      reductions in emissions, and provide a stable base of

      transportation funding, rather than general fund financing, as

      the region transitions from traditional fuel based funding.

      There must be a nexus between market incentive fees and

      expenditures. Travel consumers must see direct and timely

      benefit from payment of market investment travel charges.

      All projects and improvements funded with market incentive fees

      must be highly efficient and performance based.

      Examples of Possible Market Incentive Strategies include:

      1. VMT/Emission Based Registration Fee - The RME proposes to

         consider the long-term replacement of traditional

         transportation funding sources (i.e. gasoline tax) with a

         different use fee such as one based on a VMT/emission

         registration charge. Such a replacement fee would probably be

         revenue neutral. But additional revenues could also be raised

         from higher VMT fees charged to gross polluters.

      2. At the Pump Fuel Charge - fees would be levied on the price

         per gallon equivalent of fuel based on the level of emission

         products of the fuel. Revenues generated through these fees

         could help fund the MITIF, substitute for gasoline taxes on

         which current transportation funding is largely based, or

         some combination of the two.

      3. Congestion Pricing - specific transportation facilities would

         be priced or tolled based on the amount of congestion on that

         facility or corridor. Revenues generated could be used to

         improve mobility alternatives along that corridor/facility.

      4. Parking Cash-Out - Support for the Parking Cash-Out

         provisions of State law would be reaffirmed. (Employers with

         50 or more employees in non-attainment areas which subsidize

         employee parking, lease parking spaces and can reduce the

         number of parking spaces without penalty are required to

         allow employees to choose between the parking space or a cash



      Local jurisdictions, through subregional groups, have provided

      input on the selection, implementation, and phasing of

      appropriate TDM strategies for the region (see Table 3-4).

      Addressing implementation of demand management strategies at the

      subregional level will allow greater flexibility in reaching

      regional trip reduction goals by improving coordination between

      local jurisdictions and regional agencies while ensuring

      consistency among implementation plans. It also provides a forum

      to initiate an assessment of how much the region can rely on TDM

      strategies to meet mobility and air quality goals.

                               TABLE 3-4


Click HERE for graphic.




   The goal of the Regional Mobility Element is to sustain mobility,

   and a principal means of accommodating this goal is by increasing

   bus and rail ridership. Public transportation will play an

   increasingly important role in achieving regional mobility and air

   quality attainment goals.

   The Regional Transit Program of the RME is intended to create the

   basis for a centers-based transit network and to identify policies,

   actions, and activities necessary to develop and implement an

   efficient, safe, attractive, and cost-effective public transit

   system that supports and complements other transportation systems

   in the region.

   The 1994 RME significantly expands shared taxis, Smart Shuttles,

   and jitneys to serve all major activity centers, thus expanding the

   "third tier" of the region's transportation system. Tier One is the

   longer distance line haul service such as Metrolink, longer

   distance rail services and some express bus service. Tier Two is

   the support bus and paratransit services that provide service

   connecting to Tier One service, medium distance service, and into

   communities. Tier Three is localized, short trip service such as

   taxis and Smart Shuttles that is more community oriented.


   Currently, public transportation in the Southern California region

   is operated directly or under contract by about 17 separate public

   agencies. Public providers collectively own one of the largest bus

   transit bus fleets in the world, with the LACMTA operating the

   third largest bus fleet in the United States.

   Public transportation providers operated approximately 516.5

   million unlinked trips in fiscal year 1990 in the SCAG region.

   Transit providers operated more than 125 million revenue miles and

   slightly less than 10 million revenue hours with a morning peak-

   hour bus fleet of about 2,800 vehicles. A breakdown of transit

   revenue hours and revenue miles by county is shown in Figures 4-1

   and 4-2.

                                Figure 4-1

Click HERE for graphic.

                                Figure 4-2

Click HERE for graphic.

   The "intersecting grid" design is presently the dominant route

   network used in Orange County, the City of Los Angeles, and areas

   of L.A. County with routes currently or formerly serviced by SCRTD. 

   The grid network comprises about 235 individual routes operated on

   north-south and east-west streets and providing extensive area

   coverage. Ninety-eight percent of existing regional transit bus

   service is provided by nine major public providers (Figures 4-3,4-4

   and 4-5): The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation

   Authority; the Orange County Transportation Authority (includes the

   former OCTD) in Orange County; and the Riverside Transit Agency

   (RTA), OmniTrans, and South Coast Area Transit (SCAT) -- the major

   regional operators in Riverside, San Bernardino, and Ventura

   counties, respectively.

   The municipal operators in Long Beach, Santa Monica, and Foothill

   Transit and the Los Angeles Department of Transportation (LA DOT)

   provide bus services in Los Angeles County. The Metrorail (urban

   rail) and Metrolink (commuter rail) are operated by the LACMTA and

   the Southern California Regional Rail Authority (SCRRA),

   respectively. Municipal transit systems in L.A. County, and the

   regional operators in Riverside, San Bernardino, and Ventura

   counties operate bus services oriented toward a "Hub and Spoke" or

   "radial arm" configuration with a focus on major transit hubs,

   incorporating approximately 130 individual routes.


      Metrolink System (Commuter Rail)

   Commuter rail service (Figure 4-6) between Los Angeles and San Juan

   Capistrano began in the Summer of 1990.  In October of 1992, the

   first three lines of the Metrolink regional commuter rail system

   began service between Los Angeles and Moorpark, Santa Clarita and

   Pomona. The Pomona Line was extended to Claremont, the Montclair

   Transit Center, and to Riverside and San Bernardino in 1993.

   Additionally, a number of reverse commute and off-peak train

   services were initiated in the Spring of 1993 and expanded in

   October of 1993.

   The January 17, 1994 earthquake caused the initiation of

   "emergency" service expansion on the Santa Clarita and Moorpark

   Lines. Metrolink implemented accelerated service to

   Palmdale\Lancaster with new station stops located in Lancaster,

   Palmdale, and Acton. Additionally, a second station was opened in

   Santa Clarita (Via Princessa) and construction of the San

   Fernando\Sylmar Station was accelerated. On the Moorpark Line,

   Metrolink further implemented service to the City of Camarillo in

   Ventura County. New station sites were constructed in Camarillo and

   Northridge. In March of 1994 Metrolink initiated service to Orange

   County between Oceanside and Los Angeles.


      Metrorail System (Urban Rail)

   The Metro Blue Line began service between the Pico Station and

   Downtown Long Beach in the summer of 1990, returning rail transit

   to the SCAG region after a 30-year hiatus.  In the Spring of 1991,

   the Flower Street subway extension opened, permitting the Blue Line

   to reach the Los Angeles Financial District.  The first segment of

   the Metro Red Line began operations between Union Station and

   Alvarado Street in early 1993. Red Line service to Wilshire\Western

   is scheduled to commence in 1996, service to Hollywood in 1998 and

   services to North Hollywood, East Los Angeles and Mid-City areas by

   the year 2001.    

   The Metro Green Line is currently under construction as part of the

   Glen Anderson (I-105) Freeway project and is expected to open in

   1994. Construction continues on the Red Line between the Alvarado

   Street and Western Avenue stations along the Wilshire Boulevard

   corridor.  Red Line Segments 2 and 3 have received full funding

   commitments from the Federal Transit Administration. The Pasadena

   segment of the Blue Line has received partial funding from LACMTA

   and is expected to become operational in the late 1990s (Figure 4-


      Existing Intercity Rail Service (AMTRAK)

   Intercity passenger trains (Figure 4-7) serve primarily business

   and recreational trip markets, providing service between major

   urban centers, with most trips more than 50 miles in length. The

   SCAG region is currently served by five transcontinental trains

   operating daily or weekly service. Two intra-state Amtrak corridor

   services operate between San Diego, Los Angeles and Santa Barbara.

   The corridor service operates nine trains daily between Los Angeles

   and San Diego with two service extensions to Santa Barbara.


   The 1989 RMP identified 24 specific Transit Program Actions to be

   addressed and undertaken as part of the plan's implementation

   process covering three major categories: development of new revenue

   sources, capital construction and equipment acquisition, and the

   planning process. These actions were also included as TCMs in the

   1989 and 1991 South Coast Air Quality Management Plan in the South

   Coast Air Basin (SCAB).  Since the adoption of the 1989 RMP, there

   has been significant progress toward implementation of the transit


   The most significant of these include: voter approved and

   Legislative actions that provided state (Props. 108, 111, 116)

   federal (ISTEA) and county-wide (measures A,C,I,M) new source

   capital funding for bus/rail projects; implementation of new  rail

   service on the Blue Line from Long Beach to Los Angeles,  Red Line

   segment MOS-1, Metrolink commuter rail lines, purchase of transit

   vehicles; and full-funding commitments from Federal Transportation

   Authority (FTA) for Red Line Segments MOS 2 and 3.

                              FIGURE 4-3


                              FIGURE 4-4

                     (REGIONAL TRANSIT PROVIDERS)

   In 1993, SCAG in partnership with the county transportation

   commissions and the major regional transit providers, completed The

   Inter-County Bus Study mandated as part of SB1402. The study

   addressed the issues and dynamics of approximately 25 express bus

   and local fixed route service which cross county lines (Figure 4-

   7). The study created a formal process  which addresses formula

   funding (allocation of costs) and means to address proposed changes

   in service levels which impact more than one county.

   Other actions have been undertaken throughout the region which

   implement new and expanded transit services. A good example of

   these implementation actions have occurred  in Ventura County.

   VCTC, in cooperation with county transit providers and local

   jurisdictions, is conducting and has completed a number of transit

   studies.  These studies identified a number of potential bus and

   rail improvements that, when fully implemented, will significantly

   enhance public transportation in the county. These potential

   enhancements include new intra-county demonstration express bus

   services operating on Highway 101, 126, the Eastern Area and the

   Central Area corridors. The new service is designed to connect

   those communities along and adjacent to these corridors and to

   facilitate access to the existing and emerging rail improvements.

   These new  demonstration services will be funded under the CMAQ

   program with scheduled start-up in 1994.

   In addition to the currently existing Metrolink service to

   Moorpark, Ventura has identified a number of potential rail

   programs to be implemented by the year 2010. These include

   expansion of Metrolink to Ventura, the Santa Paula line extension,

   and new service between Ventura and Santa Barbara. Additionally

   included is expansion of inter-city rail services on both the Coast

   Line, LOSSAN North and future rail service using new technologies

   for high and medium speed rail in the Coastal corridor. These rail

   enhancements will be funded jointly through anticipated state bond

   measure and countywide supplemental sales tax funds.


   The objective of the centers-based transit network (CBTN) is to

   develop and implement a multi-modal transit system that connects

   regional activity centers with their surrounding communities, sub-

   regional areas, and Southern California as a whole. The functional

   purpose of the CBTN is to facilitate user access, egress and

   distribution among modes, service types and attractor/generators. 

   The centers-based transit network is sub-regional in orientation,

   with a primary service focus toward activity centers and their

   component attractor/generators.

   The flexibility of the centers-based network is in its ability to

   accommodate transit service development that reflects the needs,

   goals and objectives of the region as a whole, and for activity

   centers individually. It is this ability to develop services

   tailored to meet specific needs that precludes a "one-size fits

   all" application. Service design will directly reflect the specific

   service characteristics and use needs required to provide maximum

   utility to the user. It is the purpose of this section to identify

   and discuss the construct of a centers-based network and its

   development and implementation.

   Successful implementation of an efficient, center-based transit

   network will require the use of three primary service components

   functioning at the regional/inter-regional, sub-regional, and local

   levels. These service components include: inter/intra-regional rail

   and express bus, sub-regional urban rail and express/limited bus,

   and local transit inclusive of area circulators, shuttles and

   demand response services where practical.

      Intra-regional and Inter-regional transit services (Tier One)

   The intra-regional service comprises those major transportation

   facilities that are regional in orientation and that connect two or

   more subregions, major regional activity centers, and other inter-

   modal facilities such as seaports, airports, and inter-city rail

   stations. Intra-regional transit will include the Metrolink system

   which provides "end-point-to-end-point" service with limited stops.

   It is anticipated that by the year 2000 the Metrolink system will

   be fully operational and provide approximately 99 daily train

   movements throughout the region. The intra-regional service will be

   supported by the existing inter-county express bus system providing

   "facility to destination" that uses the regional transitways and

   freeway/arterial HOV lanes (Chapter 5) and is designed to

   complement, support, and backfill the rail program.

   Inter-regional service includes intercity passenger rail, and the

   anticipated development of high speed rail service on the Coastal

   and California High Speed Rail Corridors. Existing inter-regional

   transit includes LOSSAN corridor service between San Diego, Orange

   County, Los Angeles, and Santa Barbara. The SCAG region is also

   served by four transcontinental rail routes. In response to DOT's

   designation of the California High Speed Rail Corridor, the

   California Transportation Commission has adopted a goal making

   development of high speed rail a priority for California. This

   position has been supported by a number of actions as well as the

   funding of a number of studies looking into ways of reaching the

   state's goal.

   The enactment of SCR 1 which specified the final alignment for the

   California High Speed Rail Corridor, established the California

   High Speed Rail Commission, and created funding in addition to

   Propositions 108 and 116 for actions related to the creation of

   high speed rail in California. In addition, pending and proposed

   legislation will also fund development of medium speed rail

   applications on the Coastal and Alameda Corridors to provide

   capital and operational support for regional and inter-city rail

   improvements in Southern California. SCAG, in conjunction with

   LACMTA, SCRRA, AMTRAK, CALTRANS, FHWA/FTA and the Federal Railroad

   Administration has assumed lead-agency responsibility for a study

   which evaluates the long-range capacity and access for the Los

   Angeles Union Passenger Terminal.

   Sub-regional transit services (Tier Two)

   The sub-regional service facilitates trips within or between

   activity centers and the adjacent sub-regional area. Sub-regional

   service is comprised of a service mix which includes: 1) point-to-

   point and inter-county express and limited-stop transit operating

   on dedicated rights-of-way (transitways or arterial HOVs), 2) Local

   and inter-county linehaul transit networks, 3) Urban rail systems

   such as MetroRail, and 4) special purpose shuttle systems (Super

   Shuttle type). Access to sub-regional rail and bus stations and

   transfer areas would be supported through a network of local

   center-focused transit services which would include: area

   circulators & feeder services, private for-hire services such as

   smart shuttles, jitneys and other demand response systems. Private

   automobiles driven to park-and-ride lots at stations and terminals

   will also be a major component of the feeder system at the home end

   of trips.

   Local\Center-Focused Transit services (Tier Three)

   Regional activity centers are the focus areas for those actions

   that will develop, measure, and evaluate the strategies for both

   mobility and air quality goal achievement. The centers-based

   transit system is by its nature designed to facilitate inter-modal

   access, movement, and distribution of passengers among its

   component services. It is within the activity centers, local

   jurisdictions and the subregions where the development and

   implementation of public transit services will occur. Local transit

   services would focus toward transit hubs, designated transit

   activity areas, and identified attractor/generators within centers.

   Implementation of center-focused services would allow local

   jurisdictions, sub-regional areas or special purpose/function

   centers the flexibility to design services that are goal specific

   and which are not subject to limitations of more traditional 

   transit. The development and implementation of such innovative

   transit services could: 1) be designed to meet specific goals and

   objectives, 2) directly support employer TDM programs, 3) allow

   enhanced opportunity for private operations, 4) support community

   development/redevelopment actions through incorporation into the

   zoning and permitting process, 5) directly support and complement

   other related TCMs actions, and 6) enhance local/regional job

   creation activities.

   As previously described, the purpose of the local service component

   is to facilitate trip distribution within activity centers through

   a flexible mix of traditional and non-traditional transit services.

   This program mix, could include service to major intermodal

   terminals, rail stations, connectors between hubs, circulation

   within centers, and shuttles from peripheral parking lots into

   centers. An example of an innovative, non-traditional center-

   focused service could include a smart shuttle program.

   A smart shuttle program could integrate the use of alternative

   propulsion and existing/emerging smart vehicle technologies into a

   mix of center-focused demand response transit services. These

   services would be designed to support and enhance existing regional

   transportation services. Examples of technological applications

   could include: use of an alternative fuel/propulsion, automated

   vehicle location/ computer assisted dispatch; use of debit cards,

   smart cards and other prepayment mediums (with applications other

   than transit); and computer assisted advanced reservations for

   regular users. Examples of smart shuttle applications could

   include: corridor specific jitney service similar to Atlantic City,

   transit feeders and local circulators which mix traditional and

   non-traditional services and multiple-origin to single destination

   Super-Shuttle-type services (Super-Shuttle type).


   The centers-focused service component differs from existing

   services in that it places emphasis on shorter trips with higher

   frequency of service provided through a mixture of traditional and

   non-traditional applications.  Figure 4-8 provides an illustration

   of "catchment areas" around activity centers. This illustration,

   uses an example of a three mile radius around  activity centers

   (which could vary by center). The catchment areas create the focus

   points of centers within sub-regions and to a large extent respond

   to employment of residential density of specific areas. The overlap

   of these catchment areas which provide the core and flexibility 

   for the development of implementation strategies, and the resultant

   service mix, which meet locally determined goals, objectives and

   needs. The development of transit services at the local level which

   responds to local defined needs is a radical departure from the

   existing transportation planning process and substantially becomes

   the basis for sub-regional decision making.

   It will become the responsibility of the local jurisdictions and

   subregions to determine the types and levels of transit service(s)

   and their application(s) which best meet their individual goals,

   needs, and objectives. The diversity among centers, local

   jurisdictions and subregions preclude the application of a one size

   fits all application.  However, there are a number of criteria

   applicable to centers that consider: 1)  existing, emerging and

   desired land uses, 2) levels of required (functional) inter-modal

   coordination, 3) required transit capital investment, 4) identified

   and targeted market groups, 5) potential for joint development, 6)

   institutional cooperation, and 7) defined quantitative and

   qualitative sub-regional and local transit objectives developed and

   coordinated with the overall mobility strategy.


   The development process using the criteria noted above could

   directly affect and impact the mobility strategy through

   influencing the overall mix of transit programs. It will further

   impact regional funding decision-making through transit project

   prioritization at the subregion and corridor level mandated by the

   ISTEA. The development of specific transit projects that meet the

   needs of local jurisdictions and subregions will become the basis

   for RME Transit Program Actions being quantified as TCMs for air

   quality attainment, and comprise a significant portion of the final

   RME Transit Program.

      Relationship to Facilities

   The multi-modal rail stations and transit hubs that support the

   existing and emerging rail system will be the first facilities to

   become operational. These facilities and hubs will be designed to

   meet specific level of service requirements and the needs of the

   communities in which they are located. These designs and

   configurations may vary  considerably from simple layover or

   designated transfer areas, "walk-on" platform rail stops with

   minimal passenger amenities, to developed multi-modal regional/sub-

   regional station sites with substantial passenger amenities and

   adjacent or direct access to park-and-ride lots and/or freeway-

   arterial HOV facilities.

   These high and medium capacity transit facilities will support and

   complement the implementation and operation of the HOV/transitway

   systems as collection-distribution points. "Facility to

   destination" and "limited access-destination" express bus services

   will provide an integrated link to regional park-and-ride lots

   located within sub-regional areas without direct access to the rail

   network. "Limited stop" transit service would provide higher

   capacity circulation-distribution  within major employment centers

   through arterial HOV/transitway application linking urban rail

   stations and local transit hubs serving other attractor-generators.

   It is the functional interaction between facilities, transportation

   systems and urban form which will influence and determine the form

   and implementation of the centers-based transit network.  There are

   a number of significant areas to be considered regarding the form-

   function and interaction of centers based system and its

   facilities. This interaction will be the basis of future transit

   program actions as part of the regional transit strategy as well as

   the over mobility strategy for the SCAG region.

   As the centers-based transit network is implemented, activity

   centers will be connected to and by an extensive network of transit

   "focal points." Clearly, full implementation of such an extensive

   system is, as it was in 1989, beyond the capacity of current

   available funding. However, initial implementation actions should

   be focused toward specific existing transit hubs which support the

   development of locally developed transit goals and objectives for

   specific centers by affected local jurisdiction  and subregions.

   There are a number of existing and emerging transit hubs that

   facilitate intra-and inter-modal functions. A number of examples

   include the following:

   1.  Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal (Union Station in the Los

       Angeles CBD): Metrorail (urban rail), inter-city rail,

       Metrolink commuter rail, local and express bus; L.A. City Dash.

   2.  Long Beach Transit Mall (downtown Long Beach): Metrorail; local

       and express bus.

   3.  Pasadena CBD, no existing facility: local and express bus.

   4.  El Monte Transit Station: local, limited and express bus.

   5.  Montclair Transit Center: Metrolink commuter rail; local and

       express bus.

   6.  Fullerton Transportation Center (Amtrak station): inter-city

       and commuter rail; local bus.

   7.  Santa Ana Regional Transportation Center (Amtrak station): 

       inter-city and commuter rail, local bus.

   8.  Santa Ana Transit Terminal (Santa Ana CBD): local andexpress


   9.  Anaheim Amtrak Station (Anaheim Stadium): inter-city and

       commuter rail, local bus; express bus.

  10.  RTA Downtown Terminal (Riverside CBD): express and local bus

       and inter-city bus.

  11.  Fourth Street Transit Mall (San Bernardino CBD): local bus and

       express bus.

  12.  Huntington Center (Golden West College):  local bus and inter-

       city bus.

  13.  Martin Luther King, Jr. Transportation Center (Compton): Metro-

       Rail and local bus.

  14.  Irvine Transportation Center (Irvine): local bus, express bus,

       commuter rail, inter-city rail and urban rail (future).

      Service Development and Integration Within Centers:

   As previously discussed, centers-oriented services are designed to

   reflect locally developed needs and objectives. An example of

   center-oriented transportation improvements which have integrated

   into overall community development, can be found in the City of

   Pasadena. The civic center transit station incorporated low and

   high income housing, retail and office activities and pedestrian

   amenities into a single site development. The city has additionally

   amended its General Plan to encourage similar mixed use development

   adjacent to other stations. A new circulator system is being

   currently implemented with plans for existing local transit service

   redeployment to link the city's major attractor/generators with

   rail stations. Currently, the city has used transit development to

   leverage $70 million in committed private sector development.

   Additionally, the Arroyo-Verdugo and the San Gabriel Valley sub-

   regional organizations have adopted support positions for

   development of an east-west rail corridor (Burbank to Pasadena),

   the Glendale/Burbank MetroRail line and the Asuza Blue Line

   extension projects.

Figure 4-5 (Intercounty bus)

Figure 4-6 (Commuter rail)

Figure 4-7 (Urban & intercity rail)


   The clearest measure of success for any transit strategy is in its

   effectiveness to attract and retain new users.  The mix of

   programs, their systemic application, design, and the management of

   support programs and actions will determine the performance and

   quality of the regional transit strategy. In consequence, the

   services provided must be the following:

   -  available at times convenient for the user

   -  accessible for use without physical or institutional barriers

   -  designed from the user's point of view.


   This demands a series of actions creating a transit-friendly

   environment that provides safe, secure, and attractive service;

   simple and easily understood transit information systems;

   coordination and integration with land uses, CMP and demand

   management actions, and other transportation facilities; and the

   support of a developed marketing strategy.


   Regional public transportation improvements are currently directed

   toward the implementation of the rail programs designed to create

   the infrastructure which supports service on high-and-medium-

   capacity corridors.  This program mix was identified by county

   transportation commissions and transit providers, and comprises the

   FY 1993-99 Regional Transportation Implementation Plan (RTIP) and

   the long-range funded programs.


   The identified improvements include eight urban rail lines, nine

   commuter rail lines, and two inter-city corridor lines and in the

   not-too-distance future, high-speed rail. Although expansion of bus

   programs is limited under the current  identified local plans, it

   is estimated that 3,600 replacement buses (based on the current 12

   year life cycle) will have to be purchased (by 2015) to maintain

   the existing levels of bus service. This estimate is exclusive of

   alternative fuel mandates. Unforeseen demands for support facility

   improvements and other capital and operational funding requirements

   may seriously impact on the region's ability to maintain existing

   transit service.

   Transit Program actions must include those that create additional

   stable revenue sources which fund expanded transit operations and

   enhance capital investment for the region's transit systems.

   Several long- and short-term financial actions that must be

   addressed. The short-term include optimizing the use of existing

   resources to better serve transit; prioritization of expenditures

   to minimize operating costs; and  effective management and

   maintenance of existing capital investments.  Long-range actions

   must address the need to finance and fund new operations to serve

   the region's growing population in support of mobility and air

   quality goals. Future revenue must be developed from a variety of

   sources that are not solely dependant on retail sales. A number of

   fee-based new revenue sources are currently under discussion within

   the region.

   Achievement of a multi-modal centers-based transit network requires

   the integration and coordination of bus and fixed guideway projects

   with the other component parts of the Metropolitan Transportation

   System (MTS). ISTEA mandates require that the regional development

   of transit programs must be evaluated, prioritized and implemented

   on the basis of cost effectiveness, operational efficiency, and the

   attainment of mobility and air quality objectives.  Practical

   implementation of the tasks necessary to address operational and

   systemic issues should 1) be incorporated into the planning process

   at an early stage, 2) be given equal consideration as other

   mobility/air quality program options, 3) be  supported and

   complemented by demand programs and performance-based congestion

   management program objectives, and 4) be incorporated into

   corridor/sub-area analyses or as part of the California

   Environmental Quality Act/National Environmental Policy Act

   (CEQA/NEPA) process. Additionally, these changes in process assist

   in the implementation of improved transit TCM programs (described

   in Chapter 11) and actions as required and identified by the

   Federal and California Clean Air Acts. They should be given

   priority in regional decision-making process with regard to project

   selection for funding.



   The transit program mix identified in existing current local plans

   (CLPs) is composed of existing levels of bus service plus

   identified rail projects (included RTIP), as well as transit

   capital projects for which funding can be expected through 2015. In

   addition to the identified transit projects, the final regional

   transit strategy portion of 94 RME include a number of center-

   focused service strategies which incorporated the use of advanced

   technologies systems which are projected to meet mobility and air

   quality goals.

   Projections from SCAG's regional model indicate that public

   transportation services will require substantial enhancements to

   meet mobility goals and air quality mandates. In an effort to

   address these issues, SCAG created the Advanced Technology (ATTF)

   and Market Incentive Task Force (MITF). The efforts of these

   taskforces has been to identify  funding mechanisms through market

   based incentives and implement advanced technologies, including

   increasing transit services through innovative delivery systems.

   Model results indicate that these innovations significantly

   increase the effectiveness of regional investment in the proposed

   transit and HOV systems included as part of the 94 RME.

   These enhancements included existing and identified bus and rail

   service from the CLPs and expansion of center-focused innovative

   service (feeders, circulators, Smart Shuttles) within activity

   centers. It is anticipated that transit program enhancements can be

   funded through a number of new market-based mechanisms which are

   less subject to changes in national, regional, and local economic


   Clearly, given the existing program mix, the need to meet mobility

   and air quality goals and to achieve an integrated multi-modal

   centers-based system will require the evaluation and coordination

   of critical operational, programmatic, and infrastructure issues.

   Operationally, these include: 1) the development of service

   criteria and objectives that support redeployment and reallocation

   of existing transit assets which increases service efficiency,

   complements and exploits demand management programs, and CMP

   objectives, and maximizes user access to the system; 2) the use of

   express, limited stop, and local linehaul bus programs that support

   inter-county access and complement rail programs and, 3) the

   accessibility to regional airports, seaports and inter-city rail


   Programmatic issues address local, circulator, shuttle and demand

   response (possibly jitney) service applications developed by and

   for individual activity  centers, their host communities, and the

   adjacent sub-regional areas. The emphasis is to implement

   innovative service applications which 1) create additional

   transportation choice options, 2) support existing bus and rail

   service, 3) support existing land-uses and planned or desired

   development and, 4) exploit and create employment opportunities

   within the region.

   The emphasis on center-focused services introduce a number of

   institutional and infrastructure issues which were previously not

   addressed. Implementation strategies for center-focused service

   planning need to be  incorporated into the overall planning

   structure and process. There is also the need at a regional and

   county level for a method to identify and prioritize program 

   development and implementation within available financial

   constraints from market-based mechanisms. This becomes especially

   critical in centers and sub-regions which cross county lines.

   During the last decade, CTCs and regional transit providers have

   established an informal working relationship to fund, implement and

   administer a number inter-county routes (Figure 4-5). These

   informal relationships were formalized as part of the SB1402 Inter-

   county Bus Study. These inter-county routes (express and local)

   comprise a significant part of the tier II component. Maintenance

   and expansion of inter-county transit service should become a

   regional priority.

                              FIGURE 4-8

                      (REGIONAL ACTIVITY CENTERS)

   Emphasis on center-focused service may substantially change the

   function and requirements of existing transportation providers.

   Regional transit service is comprised of 17 independent bus

   systems. This often results in services that are duplicated,

   competitive, modally uncoordinated, and difficult to use by the

   rider. Beyond the operational concerns, the feasibility,

   practicality and desirability of retaining an individual provider-

   oriented infrastructure needs to addressed and evaluated.

   Ultimately, the type of transit system infrastructure will greatly

   determine and impact regional transit systems' performance and

   associated investment decision-making. The development of succinct

   and defined infrastructure goals and objectives should be a

   priority transit program action.


   As previously discussed, the program mix and support programs

   included as a part of the Regional Transit Strategy influence those

   specific actions which comprise Transit Program Actions. In

   addition to the specific capital program actions identified in

   Chapter 14, there are a number of other actions which support the

   continued development and implementation of a centers-based transit

   network. These actions are identified below:

      General Actions:

   -  Undertake activities at the federal, state, and local levels

      that create and establish new revenue sources which provide

      additional funding for expanded transit capital and operational


   -  Undertake activities which complete and implement the identified

      Inter-City, Commuter and Metro Rail programs to meet Mobility

      Plan goals and Air Quality Plan attainment.

   -  Identify and prioritize the long and short-range transit

      implementation phasing along corridors and at the activity

      center level.

   -  Meet "Project Milestones" for full accessibility as identified

      in approved implementation plans mandated and required in the AD

      Act, 1991.

      Transit Program Actions:

   -  Identify and prioritized service requirements to Regional

      Activity Centers, sub-centers and major attractor-generators at

      the sub-regional level with specific focus on local distribution

      and connectivity to intra-regional network.

   -  Identify local and sub-regional transit service requirements to

      support and maximize access, egress and distribution with the

      emerging rail systems.

   -  Implement new transit projects and maintain existing services

      shown in Figures 4-5 thru 4-7. Specifically focus on integration

      with other intra-regional networks and facilities.

   -  Identify relationship between level-of-service and route

      structures to attraction of existing and potential transit

      markets (user groups, present and future land use, facilities).

   -  Define needs assessment and delivery of services for centers-

      based transit and shuttle support systems.

   -  Maintain bus fleet service.


   The RME Transit Sub-group developed a number of recommended

   policies which are designed to support the development and

   implementation of a multi-modal centers-based transit system. As

   part of the development process, the recommended polices were

   presented to the other RME sub-groups, SCAG's Transit Advisory

   Committee, SCAG's Transportation and Communication Committee and

   Regional Council.

   Public transportation programs should be considered an essential

   public service because of their social, economic, and environmental


   Implementation of new transit service or improvements in existing

   and expanded transit should be supportive of the Centers-Based

   Transit Network concept.

   Specific service types, levels and configuration should be

   determined by the local transit providers, transit users, local

   jurisdictions, and applicable county transportation commissions.

   -  Public transit services shall be designed to provide the maximum

      availability at times convenient for use.

   -  Public transit services shall be designed to be available for

      use without impediments.

   -  Public transit services should be designed to provide maximum

      user utility.

   -  New and expansion transit programs which are designed to meet

      the objectives of Transportation Control Measures contained in

      the AQMP shall receive priority for funding.

   -  Local funding resources for transit should be used to leverage

      all available federal funding sources as applicable.

   -  All existing and new public transit services, facilities and/or

      systems shall be fully accessible to persons with disabilities

      as defined, mandated, and required under the applicable Titles

      and Sections of the Americans With Disabilities Act, 1990 and

      the Rehabilitation Act, 1974.

   -  All existing and new public transit services shall be provided

      in a manner which does not preclude use on the basis of race,

      color and/or national origin as defined, mandated and required

      under Title 6 of the Civil Rights Act, 1964.

   -  All existing and new public transit services, facilities and/or

      systems shall evaluate the potential for private sector

      participation through the use of competitive procurement based

      on Fully Allocated Costing methodologies.


FIVE                       HIGHWAYS PROGRAM


   New HOV facilities, freeway, gap closures, toll roads and Advanced

   Technologies offer tremendous opportunities for helping Southern

   California attain the transportation goals of the Regional Mobility


   This chapter discusses those developments as well as policies for

   the SCAG region roadway program. Additionally, this chapter

   contains a status report on the changes to the freeways and

   highways since 1989 followed by a description of 1990 travel

   conditions.  Figure 5-1 shows the current SCAG state highway


   Mobility strategies contained in this RME chapter have potential

   for being integrated into the applicable air quality management

   plans for the air basins in the region. Further discussion of the

   TCMs can be found in Volume 2, Chapter 11, Regional Transportation

   Control Measure (TCM) Programs.



   The implementation status of the Regional Streets and Highways

   program is a partial reflection of the degree of funding available

   to local and state governments. Since 1989, jurisdictions within

   the region have obtained new funding sources that apply to regional

   streets and highways.  Changes in funding sources include local

   sales tax propositions, the Intermodal Surface Transportation

   Efficiency Act (ISTEA), and State Highway Programs.

   Status of Recommended State Highway and Freeway System Improvements

   Mixed-Flow Highway/Freeway: (1) A connection between Interstate 15

   between Route 60 and Route 91 was completed in June 1989. (2) The

   Interstate 105 Freeway opened in October 1993. (3) The

   Environmental Impact Statement of the Route 710 gap closure project

   is in the approval process and Route 30 is on target to begin

   construction in 1996 with a completion date of 2003. (4)

   Improvements on Route 86 in Imperial County have progressed. (5) In

   Ventura County, the 23/18 interchange was opened October 1993. (6)

   Route 118 widening in Saticoy is under construction.


   5  A recent court decision has indicated that approval of all local

jurisdictions is required before a freeway can be constructed.  If

this decision is affirmed by higher courts, the opposition to the

recommended route by South Pasadena could effectively block completion

of the Route 710 gap.

   SCAG included an extensive network of High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV)

   lanes in the 1989 Regional Mobility Plan. Approximately 1,100

   centerline miles of HOV network were identified covering an

   extensive part of the freeway network. It was recognized that HOV

   lanes provide significant time savings incentives to form carpools

   and vanpools that assist in achieving improved air quality, thus

   relieving congestion and improving mobility. In addition, a number

   of HOV facilities were identified as part of an improved transit

   system, providing exclusive right-of-way for express bus service

   with, in some cases, on-line stations, transportation centers, and

   Park-And-Ride facilities.

   High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Program: (1) New HOV facilities have

   opened on segments of Interstates 5 and 405, and Route 57, (Orange

   County); Interstates 105, 210 and 405 (Los Angeles County), and a

   segment of Route 91. (2) The Interstate 10 El Monte Busway was

   extended into the Los Angeles Central Business District. (3)

   Several miles of HOV lanes are currently under construction on

   portions of the Interstate 110 Busway, Route 91, and Interstate 405

   (through the interchange with Interstate 105). Additional HOV lanes

   will be constructed on almost all metropolitan freeways by 2015.

   Status of Arterial HOV Program

   HOV lanes are planned for construction on most of the congested

   segments of the regional freeway network by 2015. While these

   facilities will assist in reducing congestion on the freeway

   system, congestion on many of the streets and roads classified as

   arterials (both principal and minor) will become more severe. 

   Although the 1989 RMP did not contain an arterial HOV program, many

   of the same measures that have been used to improve traffic flow on

   the freeway system have application to the region's arterial

   system.  For example, HOV lanesÄboth for automobiles and public

   transit vehiclesÄon the congested non-freeway arterials can provide

   some relief.

   Arterial HOV lanes are designed to give preference and time savings

   to transit or carpools on arterial streets.  The availability of an

   exclusive lane for transit buses reduces conflicts with mixed-flow

   traffic resulting in faster running times, reduced operating costs,

   lower bus emissions, and improved passenger attraction.  The use of

   arterial HOV lanes is consistent with policies that encourage

   maximizing people-carrying capacity.

   Arterial HOV lanes may be placed on one-way streets and/or two-way

   streets with simple re-striping, in separate rights-of-way.  They

   may be contra-flow (against the flow of traffic), concurrent flow

   (with the flow of traffic), or transit mall (reserved exclusively

   for the use of transit vehicles).  When developing arterial HOV

   lanes, consideration should be given to the volume of transit

   patronage and carpool users, the number of vehicles to be operated,

   the degree of conflict with mixed-flow traffic, and the general

   suitability of adjacent land uses and access needs.  Arterial HOV

   lanes may also be considered in potential high-density transit

   corridors where rail improvements may not be viable due to high

   cost or lack of right-of-way.

   Two selection criteria -- congestion duration and potential for

   improved transit operations -- make the HOV lanes effective in

   terms of performance measures, and they are visibly productive in

   the social and political sense.  The low cost of arterial HOV lanes

   and the potential for tangible operating costs savings and emission

   reductions from buses make implementation and measurement of

   immediate results possible.

   Existing Arterial HOV Facilities.  In downtown Los Angeles, a

   contra-flow bus lane expedites northbound public transit vehicle

   traffic on Spring Street.  The Spring Street lane is only available

   to public transportation vehicles.

   Status of Recommended Local Streets and

   Roads System Improvements

   Capital improvements to the local streets and roads system were 

   accomplished primarily through the Capital Improvement Programs of

   the region's CMPs, through the local sales tax measures and via

   city  and county budgets.

   Status of Recommended Transportation

   System Management Improvements

   Jurisdictions within the SCAG region have implemented several of

   the TSM projects recommended in the 1989 RMP.  Completed projects

   include signal synchronization, computerized signal systems,

   installation of ramp meters, and intersection improvements.  The

   status of the TSM program can be found in Appendix C.

   Status of Toll Roads

   California highways, with some notable exceptions such as scenic

   drives on the Monterey Peninsula, have historically been toll-free. 

   California statute does permit establishment of bridge districts

   and these districts have been able to construct facilities on the

   state highway system that charge tolls.  In the SCAG region, the

   Vincent Thomas Bridge (between San Pedro and Terminal Island, on

   State Route 47), charges a toll for crossing.

   Recognizing an era of limited resources yet desirous of mitigating

   congestion through enhanced capacity, the state has enacted

   legislation that would permit public funds to be used to build

   conventional highways that would charge tolls for use.  In the SCAG

   region, there are currently five toll projects: two toll lanes in

   each direction within the median of Route 91 between Riverside and

   Orange Counties, an AB 680 Project; and four facilities within

   Orange County: an extension of Route 57 between Route 22 and

   Interstate 405; an extension of Route 73 through the San Joaquin

   Hills; Route 231/261, known as the Eastern Corridors; and Route

   241, known as the Foothill Corridor.  The status of the projects is

   shown in Table 5-1.  Three miles of the Foothill Tollway opened in

   October 1993.

                               TABLE 5-1


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                              FIGURE 5-1

                       (REGIONAL HIGHWAY SYSTEM)

                           FIGURE 5-1 CONT.

                           (REGIONAL SYSTEM)

Figure 5-1A



   Table 5-2 summarizes major performance indicators for the 1990

   regional transportation system.  The system supported a tremendous

   amount of trips on a daily basis and the dominant mode was solo-

   driving (75.6 percent).  In 1990, the daily person trips and

   vehicle trips were 48.9 million and 35.4 million, respectively,

   yielding an average daily VMT of 294.2 million.  As a consequence,

   the average speed on the regional transportation system was only

   about 32.5 miles per hour, although about half of these trips took

   place on the region's extensive freeway system.  The total daily

   hours of delay amounted to 2.2 million hours (see Figure 5-1A, 1990

   E & F Levels of Service).

                               TABLE 5-2


                       FOR 1990 REGIONAL SYSTEM

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   Source:  1990 Validation of the Regional Transportation Model,

March 1993

   * Mode split percentage when all modes (walk, cycle, telecommute)

are included.

   The poor operating status of the regional transportation system in

   1990 is also demonstrated by traditional measures of roadway system

   performance [e.g. level of service (LOS)]. A substantial portion of

   the region's freeway system experienced major congestion,

   especially around major activity centers (See Figure 2-1, 1990

   Level of Service on the Regional System Map, in Chapter 2, Volume




   The Regional Streets and Highways program was developed to support

   regional goal attainment. The program supports alternatives to

   single occupant vehicle travel. It considers freight transportation

   and its links to the economy and system operation.  Moreover, the

   program recognizes the critical issues related to the region's

   almost complete dependence on fossil fuels for mobility.   These

   issues are addressed through provision of Park-and-Ride lots and

   HOV facilities that directly link activity centers and areas.  The

   centers concept embraces the provision of transit and access via

   other modes such as walking and bicycling. System continuity,

   improved system operation, and enhanced fuel efficiencies are

   addressed by gap closures and technology.

   Regional Streets and Highways Program Development

   -  Broaden the role of local arterial roadways in achieving

      mobility objectives.

   -  Employ greater use of Smart Corridors, Smart Streets and


   -  Expand the use of transportation system management.

   -  Support transit through provision of freeway HOV facilities and

      Park-And-Ride lots.

   -  Develop arterial HOV facilities to support transit.

   -  Use market pricing where appropriate as a strategy to achieve

      regional goals and objectives.

   Specific policies were formulated in the following areas:  freeway,

   HOV and toll facility development, arterial HOV facilities, Smart

   Corridors, Smart Streets and TSM.


   Freeway and HOV Facilities

   -  Potential down-stream congestion impacts from capacity enhancing

      projects will be studied.

   -  HOV facilities shall be constructed and operated to encourage

      use of public and private transit, smart shuttle transit,

      jitneys, carpools, vanpools and other HOVs.

   -  In addition to increasing occupancy thresholds on HOV

      facilities, consideration should be given to additional or

      expanded HOV capacity in the corridor.

   -  Alternative modes and projects shall be developed and

      implemented where implementation of HOV element projects is

      demonstrated to be unfeasible due to widespread local


   -  HOV lanes shall be provided for a new facility construction, gap

      closures, and for capacity enhancements of existing facilities

      in accordance with the HOV program.

   -  Certain freeway facilities within the SCAG region lack adequate

      median shoulder or existing Right of Way to add HOV lanes. When

      the formation of two plus occupancy carpools on these facilities

      yield consistent directional HOV volumes averaging 1500 vehicles

      per hour during the daily peak periods of congestion, SCAG shall

      request Caltrans to initiate a study as to how the HOV

      improvement can be implemented before programming the project.

      The study shall examine alternatives for the HOV, operational

      considerations (including IVHS), public support for HOV

      (including conversion) within the corridor, and pricing, as well

      as the legal and environmental ramifications of each specific


   Toll Facilities

   -  Toll facilities shall be designed, operated and priced to

      encourage use of public and private transit, carpools, vanpools,

      and other HOV.  Average vehicle occupancy (AVO) of the toll

      facilities shall be comparable to similar HOV facilities.

   -  Pricing policies may be applied to maintain appropriate levels

      of service on facilities.

   Arterial HOV Facilities

   -  Necessary steps to develop and implement arterial HOV facilities

      in support of transit and rideshare activities shall be


   Smart Corridors and Smart Streets

   -  Necessary steps to develop and implement Smart Corridors and

      Smart Streets to achieve regional mobility objectives shall be


   Transportation System Management

   -  Expanded transportation system management by local jurisdictions

      will be encouraged.

   -  The development and application of management systems by local

      jurisdictions as a means of optimizing the expenditure of scarce

      maintenance, operating and capital funds should be supported.

   -  New transportation infrastructure will incorporate advanced

      system technologies, where appropriate.

   -  TSM activities throughout the region shall be coordinated among


   -  Methods to improve safety and reduce incidents on the regional

      transportation system will be considered.


   ******  Assumes that once the conversion takes place, HOV traffic

volumes will increase 20%.


   Subregional input, as a part of the bottom-up planning process, is

   comprised of significant issues of concern as they relate to

   regional streets and highways. Tables 5-3 and 5-4 depict

   subregional input as related to the regional program.

                               TABLE 5-3


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   ********  The County of Riverside has programs on a different

magnitude from WRCOG and CVAG.  Riverside County has diverse needs

between the subregions and the County government is an active member

in all the Riverside County subregions.

                               TABLE 5-4

                       SCAG REGION SUBAREA INPUT

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   The program recommends capacity expansions, enhanced system

   management, and feasibility studies to be implemented by the CTCs,

   the Transportation Corridor Agencies (TCAs), Caltrans and local

   jurisdictions.  The seven-year Capital Improvement Programs of the

   1992 Congestion Management Programs were found to be consistent

   with the 1989 RMP and compatible with adjacent county(ies) CMPs. 

   As such, the CMPs were incorporated into the Action Element of the

   RME as authorized by CMP legislation.

   Capacity Expansions

   Figure 5-2 shows the proposed mixed-flow capacity expansion

   projects to be implemented as a part of the 1994 Plan. Figure 5-3

   shows proposed HOV capacity expansion projects included in the

   Plan.  For reference purposes, existing mixed-flow and HOV lanes

   are also shown on the respective figures.

   In total, 2,710 additional lane miles of mixed-flow and HOV

   capacity are proposed.  Table 5-5 shows the breakdown of total

   mixed-flow and HOV lane mileage to be added by location within the

   region.  Of the 2,710 additional lane miles, mixed-flow freeway

   capacity expansions comprise 53 percent (1,446 lane miles) while

   expansions for HOV comprise 47 percent (1,264 lane miles).

   Projected Changes in Lane Mileage.  Table 5-5a shows the projected

   changes in existing lane mileage between December 31, 1990 and year

   2015.  Under the 1994 Plan, the region's mixed-flow lane mileage

   will be expanded from a 1990 total of 8,674 to 10,120 (a 17 percent

   increase); the region's HOV mileage will be expanded from a 1990

   total of 105 to 1369 (a 1,203 percent increase).

   The largest expansion in mixed-flow lane mileage will occur in

   Orange County while the greatest expansion in HOV lane mileage will

   occur in Los Angeles County.

                               TABLE 5-5

                      TOTAL MIXED-FLOW & HOV LANE

                MILES TO BE ADDED BY COUNTY 1990 - 2015

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   Source:  1994 Plan, *Caltrans District 11

   Note:  Includes new facilities, widening of existing facilities and

toll roads.

                              TABLE 5-5a


                              1990 - 2015

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Source:  1994 Plan, *Caltrans District 11

   SCAG Forecasting, Analysis, and Monitoring, (4-1-94)

Expansions due to new facility construction and widening of existing

facilities.  Table 5-6 shows the breakdown of capacity expansions by

improvement type.  The construction of new facilities will add 958

lane miles of capacity.  Of the new facility mileage, approximately 81

percent will serve mixed-flow traffic, and 19 percent will be HOV

only.   Existing facilities will be expanded by 1752 lane miles.  Of

this total,   38 percent will serve mixed-flow while 62 percent will

be HOV only.

                               TABLE 5-6


                           IMPROVEMENT TYPE


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   Source: 1994 Plan, *Caltrans District 11




   Freeway HOV.  Discussions with Caltrans, county transportation

   commissions and transit operators indicate a continued support for

   HOV lanes as a mobility strategy for the region. Additional HOV

   lanes have been identified and commitments to building routes

   identified in the 1989 RMP are filling new identified demands. 

   Connections between segments of the HOV system also need to be

   developed, including the creation of direct HOV ramp connectors

   where costs and conditions warrant.  The reasonably funded

   infrastructure actions in the RME maintain the commitment to

   completion of the freeway HOV system.


   The Congestion Management Program (CMP) is a state-mandated program

   intended as the analytical basis for transportation decisions made

   through the State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP) process

   and Regional Transportation Improvement Program.  Urbanized

   counties within the SCAG Region are required to adopt CMPs:

   Ventura, Orange, Riverside, Los Angeles and San Bernardino

   counties.  Under state law, Imperial County is not required to

   prepare a congestion management program.

   CMP Elements. Elements of the CMP include:

      -  a system of highways and roadways with minimum level of

         service performance standards designated for highway segments

         and key roadway intersections on the system;

      -  transit standards for frequency and routing of transit

         service and coordination between transit operators;

      -  a trip reduction and travel demand element promoting

         alternative transportation methods during peak travel


      -  a program to analyze the impacts of local land use decisions

         on the regional transportation system, including an estimate

         of the costs of mitigating those impacts;

      -  a seven-year capital improvement program that benefits the

         CMP system.  The CIP is designed to maintain or improve

         traffic level of service and transit performance standards,

         to mitigate land use impacts, and to conform to vehicle

         emissions mitigation strategies.  Dependent upon the county,

         the roadway component of the CIP pertains to freeways and

         highways or arterials, or all three; and

      -  deficiency plan requirements that implement strategies that

         either fully mitigate congestion or alternatively provide

         measurable improvement to congestion and air quality.

   Relationship of the Congestion Management Programs to the Overall

   Regional Mobility Element

   The Congestion Management Programs are an integral part of the

   metropolitan transportation planning process, serving as a

   foundation for plan development and implementation.   The mandated

   elements of the CMPs are closely linked to the various strategies

   and major programs that comprise or are considered for

   incorporation into the regional plan.

   In accordance with CMP statute, SCAG evaluates the consistency

   between the CMPs and SCAG's RME and compatibility of adjacent

   County CMPs.   When SCAG's adopted criteria for consistency and

   compatibility are met, the CMP CIPs are incorporated into the

   Regional Action Program of the RME and into the SCAG Regional

   Transportation Improvement Program.  In this manner, the CIPs make

   up a portion of the financially constrained program of projects of

   the RME and the RTIP. The CMPs also are links to the Transportation

   Control Measures of the applicable air quality management districts

   within the SCAG region.

   An important aspect of the CMPs is the desired integration of the

   capital improvement strategies with both transit and transportation

   demand management actions and deficiency plans.  Deficiency plans

   are not, however, required to be tied to mitigate specific land-use


   While the CMP is best viewed as a whole rather than in its

   constituent parts, the Regional Streets and Highways analysis deals

   only with the roadway portion of the programs.

   1992 Consistency Finding. Under Government Code Section 65089.2,

   SCAG is required to determine CMP consistency with the RME,

   compatibility with other CMPs in the region and consistency with

   SCAG's regional model and database.  SCAG's Transportation and

   Communications Committee approved an interim finding of consistency

   and compatibility for the CMPs within the SCAG region.

   The Capital Improvement Programs of the Congestion Management

   Programs (CMPs) are hereby incorporated by reference into the RME.

   Relationship of the Congestion Management Programs to the Regional

   Streets and Highways Program

   Local Streets and Roads Improvements.  The projects that

   specifically pertain to the local streets and roadways in the CMP

   CIPs are recommended as the local streets and roads improvement

   program.    Table 5-7 summarizes the seven-year CIP projects of the

   1992 CMPs by the type of improvement.  A total of $1.93 billion

   will be spent (44.7 percent) on CMP local streets improvements.

   Arterial Programs.SCAG Subregions have also developed arterial

   street programs that serve local and in some cases, regional

   travel.  Through its Regional Arterial Program, Coachella Valley

   acknowledges that regional transportation issues have been and will

   continue to be a primary concern in efforts to relieve congestion

   and provide subregional mobility.  The Coachella Valley Area

   Transportation Study (CVATS) identifies street and highway needs

   through the year 2010.  Mechanisms to fund these programs include

   Coachella Valley portions of Riverside County's Measure A sales tax

   and a Transportation Uniform Mitigation Fee (TUMF).  Forty percent

   of Coachella Valley's share of Measure A is estimated to  generate

   approximately $126 million during its 20-year life.  The

   Expenditure Plan links the implementation of a TUMF to the Regional

   Arterial portion of the sales tax measure.

   Of the $800 million system identified by the CVATS, approximately

   $590 million worth are approved as "Regional Arterials".  The

   projects include seven new or improved freeway interchanges, six

   new or improved railroad crossings south of Interstate 10, twelve

   new or improved bridges across the Whitewater River, twenty new or

   improved major arterials including the proposed Mid-Valley Parkway,

   and eleven new or improved bridges over other channels.

   Arterial HOV Lane Opportunities. Exclusive arterial lanes to

   support transit operations or as facility components of projects

   (e.g. the Santa Monica Boulevard Corridor) offer improvements in

   mobility through improvements in transit reliability, speed,

   safety, and operating efficiency.  Further, evidence suggests

   reduced congestion conflicts can improve the emissions from transit

   buses and improve air quality.  The RME recommends the development

   of arterial HOV lanes where opportunities with appropriate

   conditions can result in improved transit operations or can

   encourage shared rides through time savings to users.  Nine

   potential arterial HOV candidate corridors have been identified for

   the purposes of modeling and to determine their potential in

   achieving mobility objectives.

   1. Olive Street: from Olympic Boulevard to Fourth Street.

   2. Hill Street: from Olympic Boulevard to Temple Street.

   3. Broadway: from Olympic Boulevard to Temple Street.

   4. Vermont Avenue: from Exposition Boulevard to Santa Monica


   5. Santa Monica Boulevard: from Sepulveda to Century City.

   6. Century Boulevard: from Interstate 405 to LAX.

   7. La Tijera/Sepulveda Boulevards:  from Interstate 405 to LAX.

   8. Colorado Boulevard: through Eagle Rock (Tri-Cities Corridor).

   9. In corridors that access Metrorail stations where high volumes

      of buses occur (Alvarado Street, Ventura Boulevard, etc).

   The potential for additional lanes, both for the exclusive use of

   public transportation and for the mixed use of public

   transportation and carpools should be examined.  Both transit-only

   and transit/carpool HOV lanes on other principal arterials should

   be studied.  Similar facilities may have application in other areas

   of the region.

   Transportation System Management

   Recommended TSM improvements under Caltran's Urban Freeway Advanced

   Traffic Management System include freeway ramp metering and

   construction of Park-And-Ride lots (see Figures 5-4 and 5-5),

   changeable message signs and closed-circuit televisions (CCTV). 

   One of the major objectives of ramp metering is to balance demand

   and capacity.  Ramp metering may sometimes be a disincentive to

   using the freeway for short trips during the peak periods.  Ramp

   meters control the pace at which vehicles enter a highway.   Timed

   entry allows vehicles to merge safely without impeding existing

   traffic.  This diminishes the bottlenecking often associated with

   on-ramps because the controlled access rate matches the highway's

   ability to absorb the additional traffic.  Although motorists incur

   a delay on the ramp, the mainline capacity is enhanced, travel

   time, speeds, and emissions are improved.  Metered on-ramps may

   also include HOV bypass lanes so that carpools, buses and

   motorcycles can bypass the queue.

   Changeable message signs aid navigation around freeway events that

   cause congestion and delay while CCTV allows for surveillance of

   the network to detect congestion, incidents, accidents and to

   facilitate actions to reduce the duration of delay.

   Park-And-Ride facilities are constructed along major transit

   corridors to serve as staging areas for single-occupant motorists

   to join carpools/vanpools and board public transit or commuter rail

   for the trip to work, etc. The lots also provide convenient meeting

   spots for shopping and recreational trips.

                               TABLE 5-7

                      SUMMARY OF CMP CIP PROJECTS

Click HERE for graphic.


      1. San Bernardino Associated Governments, Congestion Management

         Program for San Bernardino County,November 1992.

      2. Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority,

         Congestion Management Program for Los Angeles County,

         December 1992.

      3. Riverside County Transportation Commission, Congestion

         Management Program for Riverside County, December 1992.

      4. Orange County Transportation Authority, Congestion Management

         Program for Orange County, December 1992.

      5. Ventura County Transportation Commission, Congestion

         Management Program for Ventura County, December 1992.

                              FIGURE 5-4

                             (RAMP METERS)

                              FIGURE 5-5


   Safety and Accident/Incident Management

   Caltrans, the county transportation commissions and the California

   Highway Patrol (CHP) currently employ various incident management

   programs.  Mechanisms that allow for recovering the costs of

   incident/accident clean-up through incentive fees should also be

   examined.  Efforts should be made to quantify and evaluate the

   impacts of accidents and incidents on the region's roadways. 

   Mechanisms that address the accident/incident cost recovery should

   be investigated for possible implementation.


   SCAG Region Congestion Management System (CMS)

   Section 1034 of the ISTEA requires development, establishment, and

   implementation of a traffic congestion management system by the

   State in cooperation with SCAG, and with affected agencies

   receiving assistance under the Federal Transit Act.  The roles and

   responsibilities of the affected agencies are to be mutually

   determined.  In December 1993, FHWA/Federal Transit Administration

   (FTA) released the Interim Final Rules for the Congestion

   Management System; the interim rules became effective on January 3,


   A CMS is a process that provides information on transportation

   system performance and alternative strategies to alleviate

   congestion and enhance the mobility of persons and freight.  A CMS

   includes methods to monitor and evaluate performance, identify

   alternative actions, assess and implement cost-effective actions,

   and evaluate the effectiveness of implemented actions.

   By October 1, 1994 Caltrans must prepare a work plan that shows how

   full CMS implementation will be achieved; critical areas requiring

   analysis must be identified, and data collection activities must be

   initiated.  By October 1, 1995, the CMS must be fully operational

   and must provide projects and programs for consideration in

   developing metropolitan and statewide transportation plans and

   improvement programs. Until the CMS is fully operational, there are

   restrictions on the programming of federal funds for highway or

   transit projects that significantly increase capacity for Single

   Occupant Vehicles (SOV) (23 CFR 450.336(b).

   In TMAs that are nonattainment for carbon monoxide and/or ozone, a

   project that significantly increases the capacity for SOVs cannot

   be programmed for Federal funding unless the project results from

   an approved CMS.

   SCAG's Congestion Management System Task Force, expanded from the

   Intercounty Congestion Management Agency Working Group, has

   recommended that the SCAG Regional Council approve the following

   principles for CMS Development in the region:


   8  Work plan means a written description of major activities

necessary to develop, establish, and implement a management or

monitoring system, including identification of responsibilities,

resources, and target dates for completion of the major activities.

   -  That the Southern California CMS focus on meeting basic federal

      requirements necessary to comply with ISTEA requirements for

      first year implementation.  The CMS can be enhanced in future

      years as experience is gained in CMS implementation, and as

      demonstrated needs arise.

   -  That the Congestion Management System requirement should use the

      existing state-mandated Congestion Management Program to the

      fullest extent possible in order to meet federal ISTEA statute,

      in order to:

      -  avoid creating a new layer of bureaucracy to an already

         complicated Southern California planning process.

      -  avoid creating costly new responsibilities for local


      -  effectively integrate into the regional planning process, the

         three year effort on the part of local jurisdictions, and

         many other agencies and interests in developing and

         implementing the state CMP requirement.

   -  That Southern California agencies actively support federal

      approval to use the CMP to meet the CMS to the fullest extent


            -  That the Inter-County CMA Group continue to explore

               with SCAG staff ways of improving technical

               coordination between the CMP and the RME.

   CMS Development in Imperial County. In following government

   requirements, SCAG will cooperate with Caltrans in the development

   of a congestion management system for the affected SCAG non-

   urbanized subregion.  SCAG's existing subregional planning

   framework will be used to assist in the development process.

   Relationship of the CMS to SCAG Metropolitan Transportation

   Planning Process. The CMS technical and policy development process

   is closely coordinated with existing well-established processes for

   congestion management to ensure that the CMS will be fully

   integrated into the metropolitan transportation planning process,

   in accordance with the Interim Final Regulation.

   The System of Regional Significance

   The regional transportation plan must describe the transportation

   system (including, but not necessarily limited to major roadways,

   transit, and multi-modal and intermodal facilities) that should

   function as an integrated Metropolitan Transportation System (MTS),

   giving emphasis to those facilities that serve important national

   and regional transportation functions.  The definition of the MTS

   will be examined and an improved definition developed, based on

   issues raised by county transportation commissions, Caltrans and

   others, subsequent to adoption of the 1994 RME.


   9  23 U.S.C. 134(g)(2)(A)

   The existing SCAG System of Regional Significance (SRS) was

   approved in the 1989 Regional Mobility Plan and consists of

   approximately 3,380 miles of federal and state highways in addition

   to 3,450 miles of major arterials.  Arterials are defined as roads

   that transport 10,000 or more average daily traffic (ADT) and carry

   significant volumes of traffic on routes seven miles or more in

   length. (See Figure 5-6 System of Regional Significance.)

   In connection with ongoing efforts to better integrate the region's

   systems of highways, transit, airports, harbors etc., the SRS will

   be further refined to include the following criteria:

   -  Arterials parallel to a freeway that can be used as alternate


   -  Routes that provide access to major activity centers such as

      amusement parks, regional shopping centers, and military bases.

   -  Routes that are included in each county's CMP.

   -  Goods movement routes including both truck routes and rail lines

      (including rural agricultural routes that provide goods to the


   -  Fixed transit routes such as light rail and commuter rail, and

      express bus routes.

   -  Intermodal transfer facilities.

   -  TDM facilities such as telecommunication centers, park-and-ride

      lots, bicycle transportation facilities, pedestrian walkways,

      and others; and

   -  TSM facilities such as ramp metering, Smart Corridors,

      Changeable Message Signs (CMS), Closed Circuit TV (CCTV), and


   -  Review  10,000 as the threshold figure for Average Daily Traffic

      (ADT) in defining arterials.

   National Highway System

   The National Highway System (NHS) is one component of the MTS.  The

   NHS will consist of the interstates, a number of strategic highways

   needed for national defense purposes, strategic highway connectors,

   and selected principal arterials.  Recommendations for the NHS were

   cooperatively developed by the state of California and the

   Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) and are shown in Figure

   5-7.  Congress is expected to approve the NHS by September, 1995. 

   Until that time, the NHS consists of the interstates and streets

   and roads currently classified as principal arterials.  While the

   NHS in the SCAG region comprises only 15 percent of the mileage of

   the MTS, slightly more than 50 percent of the region's VMT takes

   place on the system.


   10  The definition for regionally significant was adopted as part

of the Regional Transportation Improvement Program Guidelines.  Some

county transportation commissions have suggested that the arterial

definition should vary by county, and that issues will be considered

and resolved during the public review of the RME. This and related

issues will be considered and resolved after the Spring 1994 adoption

of the RME.

   Efforts continue to refine the system based upon expanded criteria

   that are intended to integrate and focus planning efforts on the

   roadway system as a comprehensive whole and as a part of the

   overall MTS.

Figure 5-6

System of Regional Significance

Insert new figure/map here: System of Regional Significance Figure 5-6


Figure 5-7 - National Highway System


   Advanced technology can be used to enhance the LOS provided by the

   existing roadway network without having to increase capacity.

   Advanced technologies include Smart Streets/Corridors, Intelligent

   Vehicle Highway System (IVHS), and applying electronics,

   communications or information processing to improve the efficiency

   and safety of the surface transportation system.  Table 5-8

   indicates the several IVHS technologies available. One of these

   technologies, Advanced Traffic Management System, is currently

   being developed in the County of Los Angeles by Caltrans [See

   Figure 5-8].

                               TABLE 5-8


                        SYSTEM (IVHS) PROGRAMS

Click HERE for graphic.

Source:  IVHS America, May 1992

Figure 5-8 (IVHS Map)

   Smart Corridors

   A Smart Corridor is one in which an agency's control and response

   decisions are made in agreement with the actions of other agencies

   involved in handling traffic congestion.  The agencies involved

   include Caltrans, CHP, local emergency services providers, and

   local transportation departments.  In addition, Smart Corridors

   will require direct involvement of the county transportation


   A Smart Corridor is also one in which all facilities, including

   freeways and surface streets, are used at their maximum efficiency

   during both normal periods of congestion and when an incident has

   occurred.  This would involve freeway surveillance and control,

   ramp metering, improved traffic signal control, incident detection

   and response, motorist service patrols and other traffic management


   Smart Corridors provide the driver with the information needed to

   make intelligent decisions on the best route to travel, given

   existing conditions.  In some cases, the motorist may delay trips,

   cancel trips, or use alternatives to their normal route.  Motorist

   information opportunities include commercial radio and television,

   changeable message signs, highway advisory radio, telephone call-in

   and computer bulletin boards.  They also include more sophisticated

   elements such as in-vehicle navigation systems, special television

   messages and dedicated in-vehicle radio signalling.

   Smart Corridors Under Development. The Santa Monica Freeway Smart

   Corridor covers an approximately 14.5 mile stretch of the Santa

   Monica Freeway.  Project implementation began in mid-1993. Project

   planning began in early 1993 with the purpose of assessing the

   effectiveness of project elements and the applicability of Smart

   concepts to other corridors.  The total project cost is

   approximately $48 million, which has been provided through federal,

   state and local sources.

   The Glendale/Pasadena/Burbank Smart Corridor Project is currently

   under development.  The Smart Corridor Project, (210, 134, I-5

   Freeways), including the cities of Pasadena, Los Angeles, Glendale,

   and Burbank, is funded by the ISTEA/Proposition C fund.

   Potential Corridors. In accordance with Assembly Bill 1239, the

   Smart Corridor Statewide Study identified combined freeway and

   surface corridors where significant congestion exists and where the

   Smart Corridor concepts will prove cost effective in reducing

   congestion. In the SCAG region, the Study included the urbanized

   portions of Los Angeles, Ventura, San Bernardino, Riverside, and

   Orange counties.  Also, all freeways in Caltrans Districts 7, 8,

   11, 12 were reviewed to evaluate the level of congestion and

   opportunities for implementing Smart Corridor techniques. Examples

   of potential Smart Corridors in the region are identified in Tables

   5-9 and 5-10.

                               TABLE 5-9

                          LOS ANGELES COUNTY

                       POTENTIAL SMART CORRIDORS

Click HERE for graphic.

   Source:  Statewide Smart Corridor Study

                              TABLE 5-10

                             ORANGE COUNTY

                       POTENTIAL SMART CORRIDORS

Click HERE for graphic.

   Source:  Statewide Smart Corridor Study


   Several issues remain to be considered relative to regional goal

   attainment including the following:

   -  The role that local streets and roads can and will play in

      achieving mobility.

   -  How the region will address immediate congestion problems while

      attempting to reduce the region's reliance on SOV.

   -  Roadway planning for clean fueled single occupancy vehicles.

   -  Effectively reducing the impact of freight transportation in the


   -  Improving the efficiency of freight transportation on the

      region's roadways.

   -  Coping with energy demands for transportation purposes if the

      reliance on the SOV continues.




   Non-motorized transportation, generally defined as walking and

   bicycling, is an important aspect of Southern California's overall

   strategy for meeting the region's mobility, air quality and energy

   goals. The increase of pedestrian and bicycle reliance has the

   long-range potential of ultimately reducing vehicle trips and

   vehicle miles in the region.  The region, however, must improve its

   existing non-motorized system. While non-motorized transportation

   is considered an element of the vehicle substitution strategy of

   Transportation Demand Management (TDM), bicycling and walking are

   distinct modes that not only share facilities with other modes, but

   also require unique facilities.


   To enhance bicycle and pedestrian travel, the State of California

   requires consideration of pedestrian programs and links to transit,

   where appropriate. The Regional Mobility Element (RME) itself is

   required to develop an action program that includes a program for

   developing intracity and intercity bicycle programs.




   A major drawback to non-motorized transportation in Southern

   California is that the current bikeway system does not provide a

   safe, continuous network throughout the region.

   There are three classifications of bikeways. Class I are off-road,

   paved paths. Class II are on-road, signed and striped bicycle

   lanes. Class III are on-road, signed bicycle routes.

   Figure 6-1 illustrates that Class I bicycle facilities are not very

   extensive. It also serves to represent an image of the system as a

   whole. (The presentation of only Class I facilities in Figure 6-1

   does not represent any preference, funding or otherwise). Class II

   facilities are much more extensive, in terms of providing access on

   the arterial and highway network (where bikes are permitted). But

   even in combination with the Class I facilities, large gaps in the

   system remain. Class III bikeways may provide alternative routes to

   some high-volume, high-speed arterial, and thus seem to provide a

   much more connected system when connected with Class I and II. Each

   class, however, serves a different function: and therefore,

   connected facilities of different classes do not necessarily

   constitute a continuous system.



   In addition to paved bicycle facilities, most of the counties have

   developed a trails program for hiking, mountain biking, and

   equestrian travel. Although these facilities are primarily

   recreational, they can provide travel to scenic and recreational

   areas.  Convenient non-motorized access to these sites can reduce

   the need for motorized trips to the destinations served by these


   With the existing infrastructure described above, the region is

   currently experiencing a home-to-work trip mode-split of almost 1

   percent for bicycling, and 2 percent for walking. The daily mode-

   split for all bicycling trip purposes is about 1 percent, and about

   8 percent for walking trips.

   A number of barriers currently impede a larger participation in

   non-motorized transportation by pedestrians and bicyclists. These

   barriers include the following:

   -  Negative perceptions about non-motorized commuting

   -  Unsafe, insufficient, and inconvenient infrastructure

   -  Crime, including both personal safety and security of property

   -  Lack of access to transit

   -  Land-use patterns and site designs that are unfriendly to

      pedestrians and bicyclists

   In addition, an institutional barrier which impedes the development

   of non-motorized facilities is concern about public and private




   The non-motorized transportation program has two goals aimed at

   improving the existing non-motorized system and helping the region

   meet its mobility, air quality, and energy goals.  The first goal

   is to make the overall transportation system accessible, safe, and

   convenient for bicycle and pedestrian travel (i.e., "user-friendly"

   to bicyclists and pedestrians). Accessibility for bicyclists is

   defined by the availability of bikeways (routes, lanes, paths);

   bicycle facilities (bicycle racks, lockers, and showers); and

   connections to transit (carpool/vanpool as well as bus/rail).

   Accessibility for pedestrians is defined as the availability of

   sidewalks and pathways and site designs that provide safe,

   convenient pedestrian access in residential, commercial, and

   employment sites and centers. The objective, therefore, is to

   increase the current level of non-motorized facility development.

   The second goal is to increase the pedestrian and bicycle mode-

   split, thus reducing vehicle trips and vehicle miles. The system

   will have to not only better accommodate existing  users but also

   encourage new potential

   users. The objective is to increase the level of daily bicycle and

   pedestrian trips to 10 percent of all daily trips, and increase the

   level of home-to-work bicycle and pedestrian trips to 5 percent

   (based on NPTS survey data).


   11  1990 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS) - Data

covers the SCAG region


   A set of strategies is recommended for overcoming the barriers

   identified and meeting the program's objectives. These strategies

   can be categorized under the following four headings:

   -  Infrastructure improvements

   -  Education and promotion

   -  Enforcement

   -  Urban form, land-use and site designs

   Efforts in each of these areas are recommended to meet RME goals

   and non-motorized element objectives.

   The following policies are recommended to implement the four

   strategies identified above and are intended to comprehensively

   incorporate the planning, development, and operation of the non-

   motorized system into the existing transportation development and

   operations structure.

   -  The development of the regional transportation system should

      include a non-motorized transportation system that provides an

      effective alternative to auto travel for appropriate trips. The

      planning and development of transportation projects and systems

      should incorporate the following, as appropriate:

      -  Provision of safe, convenient, and continuous bicycle and

         pedestrian infrastructure to and throughout areas with

         existing and potential demand such as activity areas,

         schools, recreational areas (including those areas served by

         trails), which will ultimately offer the same or better

         accessibility provided to the motorized vehicle.

      -  Accessibility to and on transit (bus terminals, rail

         stations, Park-And-Ride lots), where there is demand and

         where transit boarding time will not be significantly


      -  Maintenance of safe, convenient, and continuous non-motorized

         travel during and after the construction of transportation

         and general development projects. Existing bikeways and

         pedestrian walkways should not be removed without mitigation

         that is as effective as the original facility.

   -  Entities and programs that currently support the auto should be

      encouraged to provide the same types of services for non-

      motorized transportation, including education, promotion, and



   -  Urban form, land-use and site-design policies should include

      requirements for safe and convenient non-motorized

      transportation, including the development of bicycle and

      pedestrian-friendly environments near transit.


   Chapter 14 identifies the actions to implement the policy program.

   The actions, which fall under the four major strategies, are

   intended to be implemented according to the needs identified by the

   subregions. However, to provide an effective non-motorized system,

   increase non-motorized trips, and thus reduce dependence on the

   single-occupant vehicle, it is expected that each strategy is

   necessary and will need to be implemented in each subregion.

   Subregional Input

   Without a coordinated regional non-motorized planning process, the

   identification of effective strategies and actions for each

   particular subregion has not been possible. SCAG and the

   subregions, therefore, will be coordinating in a regional planning

   effort which will assess the regional needs and opportunities for

   non-motorized transportation based on a subregional assessment of

   existing and planned actions. This effort will provide strategies

   and actions specific to each subregion. These actions are

   identified in Chapter 14. Currently, subregions which are CVAG,

   City of Los Angeles Subregion, IVAG, Orange County, North County,

   SANBAG, SELAC, San Gabriel Association of Cities, South Bay Cities,

   West Side Summit, WRCOG, and VCOG.

                               TABLE 6-1


Click HERE for graphic.


SEVEN                PROGRAM


   Goods movement in the SCAG region is a transportation activity with

   critical linkages to such areas as the economy, mobility, the

   environment, quality of life, and land use.  Formally defined,

   goods movement refers to the facilities, activities and people

   involved in  transporting commodities, data, raw materials and

   products for the purpose of consumption, manufacture, or disposal. 

   Public sector and private enterprises participate in goods movement

   activities as diverse as the movement of oil and water via

   pipeline; the transport of mail and packages via truck and plane by

   the United States Postal Service; the import and export of motor

   vehicles via seaports; the transfer of information via fiber-optic

   cable; and the shipment of agricultural produce from the Imperial

   Valley subregion to other SCAG subregions and the nation.

   The program discusses the movement of goods via rail, water, air

   and land, and conducted primarily by private enterprises.  It also

   acknowledges the role played by both public and private

   infrastructure in the conduct of these activities and the

   relationship of this infrastructure to other geographic areas and

   similar endeavors in the state, nation and the world.



   Much activity in implementing 1989 Plan recommendations has

   occurred in the system development, regulatory and management

   arenas.  The Plan recommended that the San Pedro Bay port

   authorities and local governments form a Joint Powers Authority to

   develop the Alameda Consolidated Railroad Corridor.  The JPA was

   created in 1989.  The Preferred Alternative for the project was

   certified in January 1993.

   The City of Los Angeles pursued the development of a truck

   management plan that would have restricted truck travel on city

   arterials during peak periods.  The City Council decided not to

   pursue a truck management plan at this time because of probable

   adverse economic impacts on local businesses.

   Caltrans, the county transportation commissions and the California

   Highway Patrol (CHP) currently employ various incident management

   programs.  These programs evolved from the Los Angeles Area Freeway

   Surveillance and Control ProjectÄa demonstration project undertaken

   on a 42 mile loop formed by the Santa Monica (I-10) Freeway, Harbor

   (Interstate 110) Freeway, and the San Diego (Interstate 405)

   Freeway. Another program called Clearing Lanes Efficiently and

   Rapidly (CLEAR) involves the assignment of specially trained teams

   of CHP officers and supervisors to selected urban freeway corridors

   in Los Angeles during peak periods to provide rapid response,

   verification and removal of incidents.


   1  Although freight, goods and cargo are used synonymously, freight

also refers to the charge for transporting goods.



   The Goods Movement Program was developed in cooperation

   with representatives of the subregional governments whose members

   serve, along with the private sector, on various advisory and

   policy-making boards and committees.   At various stages of the

   development process, other Regional Mobility Element (RME) programs

   provided comments on goods transportation issues.

   In efforts to resolve identified problems and issues related to

   goods movement, SCAG will complete the Intermodal Goods Movement

   and the Railroad Consolidation Studies.  The Intermodal Study will

   provide information on intermodal operations in the SCAG region and

   their relationship to the economy, congestion, and air quality. 

   The Consolidation Study will investigate the feasibility of

   consolidating rail freight activities along an east-west corridor

   in the SCAG region, for the purpose of reducing rail related

   emissions.  These studies will be completed in fiscal years 1995

   and 1994, respectively.

   Intermodal Transportation Management System

   Section 3037 of the ISTEA requires development, establishment, and

   implementation of an Intermodal Transportation Management System

   (ITMS) by the State.  An ITMS is a systematic process of

   identifying key linkages between one or more modes of

   transportation, where the performance or use of one mode will

   affect another, defining strategies for improving the effectiveness

   of these modal interactions, and evaluation and implementation of

   these strategies to enhance the overall performance of the

   transportation system.

   The ITMS must provide for the efficient, safe and convenient

   movement of people and goods through integration of transportation

   facilities and systems; the ITMS must also improve the coordination

   of planning and implementation of air, water, and the various land-

   based transportation facilities. Because of their

   interrelationship, the development, establishment, and

   implementation of the ITMS must be coordinated with the

   development, establishment, and implementation of two other ISTEA

   management systems:  the Congestion Management System and the

   Public Transportation Management Systems.

   SCAG is cooperating with Caltrans in efforts to implement the ITMS

   and to develop interim products by the compliance dates. SCAG is

   also discussing the implications and requirements of the ITMS for

   the SCAG region. When the ITMS becomes operational, SCAG's Goods

   Movement Program should benefit from access to the system.



   A major portion of the goods movement system in Southern California

   consists of fixed-location, publicly-owned infrastructure that

   accommodates privately-owned and operated freight carriers. 

   Components of the system (Figures 7-1 and 7-2) include all major

   modes of transport: airports, seaports, highways, freeways, and

   arterials (public), and railroads (private).   The system also

   includes intermodal transfer facilities, freight yards and truck

   terminals.  Figures 7-3, 7-4 and 7-5 depict truck and rail access

   to the seaports in the region.

   Intermodal System

   In its simplest form, intermodal goods transportation can be

   defined as the transport of goods via two or more different modes

   between its origin and final destination.  Various combinations of

   intermodal operations occur in the region: truck-train; truck-

   plane; truck-ship, and truck-truck.  The amount and quality of

   information on the intermodal system and intermodal goods movements

   relative to commodities, weight, values, volumes, operations, and

   economic markets vary tremendously. The region has always had some

   degree of intermodal operations.  Innovations in the shipping

   industry (e.g., containerized cargo), however, have greatly

   increased intermodal operations.  While the majority of cargo off-

   loaded at San Pedro Bay Ports is destined for the SCAG region, a

   significant segment of the total export and import cargo is

   intermodal.  The Intermodal Goods Movement Study will provide

   information on intermodal operations in the SCAG region.

   Goods Transportation and Ground Access

   The regional transportation system of interstates, state highways

   and designated truck routes provide ground access to local,

   subregional and/or inter-regional markets.  The ground

   transportation system also supports access to the major air carrier

   airports, seaports, intermodal facilities and military airfields.

   National Highway System (NHS).   Under the ISTEA, the NHS when

   approved by Congress in September 1995, will consist of the

   interstates and other strategic highways, which provide motor

   vehicle access between these facilities and major port, airport,

   public transportation facilities, or other intermodal

   transportation facilities (see Figure 5-6 in Volume 2, Chapter 5).

   The NHS largely replaces the federal-aid funding classification

   system. The federal government will maintain an interest in NHS

   facilities for the purpose of funding, operations, and maintenance.

            Institutional Influences On Goods Movement In

            Southern California

   Table 7-1 provides a partial listing of governmental agencies and

   their influence on goods movement.  Other governmental divisions

   such as the departments of Agriculture and of Fish and Game, though

   not shown,  have requirements with which movers of these goods have

   to comply.

   The five major air carrier airports (Los Angeles International,

   Glendale-Burbank-Pasadena, Ontario International, John Wayne/Orange

   County and Long Beach) and seaports (Los Angeles, Long Beach and

   Port Hueneme) operate as autonomous agencies within their

   respective local governments, and have jurisdiction over the

   various passenger and cargo carriers that operate therein.  Policy-

   making authority is vested in airport and port commissions

   appointed by their respective municipal governments.  The private

   users of the goods movement system function as independent

   operators and through representation in industry organizations such

   as the American Trucking Association, California Trucking

   Association, American Association of Railroads and the Steamship

   Association of California.

   Goods Movement Markets

   Several market service areas and mode relationships are discernable

   depending on the geographic market area.  This analysis deals with

   goods movement markets within the SCAG region, and between the SCAG

   region and the rest of the world.  Local and subregional markets

   are those within the SCAG region.  Inter-regional goods movement

   occurs between the SCAG region and the regions of the continental

   United States.  Goods movement between the SCAG region and other

   countries defines the international markets; goods movement between

   the SCAG region and the U.S. regions that are not on the continent

   are also included under international markets.

                              FIGURE 7-1

                         (GOODS MOVEMENT WEST)

                              FIGURE 7-2

                          (GOODS MVMNT EAST)

                              FIGURE 7-3

                             (RAIL ACCESS)

                              FIGURE 7-4

                            (TRUCK ACCESS)

                              FIGURE 7-5

                            (PORT HUENEME)

                               TABLE 7-1



                          IN THE SCAG REGION

Click HERE for graphic.

Mode-Market Relationships

Table 7-2 and Figure 7-6 show the markets served by the various modes. 

Heavy-duty trucks generally serve all markets, including the

contiguous international markets of Mexico and Canada. Planes and

airports serve domestic and international markets.  The three major

railroads operating in the region (Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe;

Southern Pacific; and Union Pacific) primarily serve interstate

transportation needs, but a significant amount of traffic exists

between Mexico, Canada and Southern California.

                               TABLE 7-2


Click HERE for graphic.

    Barring exceptions, freight trains haul goods from the SCAG

   region to regions only outside California.

                                Figure 7-6

Click HERE for graphic.

   Land-bridge and Mini-Land Bridge Traffic

   The SCAG region is strategically located and is a major gateway for

   trade with the Far East countries.  In this capacity, a significant

   amount of cargo traffic to and from these countries is handled at

   San Pedro Bay Ports and transferred to rail or motor carrier for

   shipment to other land-based destinations within the region, the

   continental U.S. or to another port of exit/entry.  While the

   majority of cargo in terms of volume off-loaded at San Pedro Bay

   Ports is destined for the SCAG region, a significant portion of the

   total export and import traffic is intermodal and bridge-traffic in


   Land-bridge traffic involves an operation/transfer between the

   steamship companies that operate out of the San Pedro Bay ports and

   the SCAG regional railroads and motor carriers who contract with

   the steamship companies to provide this service.  (In some cases,

   the steamships companies own their own trucking companies).  Land-

   bridge traffic is generally bound for the east coast for shipment

   to European and other markets and is predominantly shipped by rail.

   A majority of the "bridge" traffic is mini- or micro-land bridge

   traffic from the San Pedro Bay Ports to destinations in the

   continental U.S., not shipped thence to overseas points.  Mini-

   bridge refers to goods to other port cities (East Coast or Gulf of

   Mexico), while micro-bridge pertains to traffic to intermediate,

   inland destinations such as Kansas or Illinois. Though these

   markets are served by both rail and motor carrier, rail is used


   The practice of land-bridge, mini- and micro-bridge traffic evolved

   to serve the demand for capacity to transport certain relatively

   high-value commodity shipments and to take advantage of time

   savings to markets other than in the SCAG region.



   While the region's only mobility goal associated with energy is to

   reduce its consumption,  energy choices and decisions influence all

   aspects of the region, notably: transportation system development,

   mode choice, business growth, competitiveness and location,

   environmental and community quality, and relationship of the SCAG

   region to trade partners and competing areas of the country and

   world (see Figure 7-7).

                                Figure 7-7

Click HERE for graphic.

   Increased government regulation has created the perception that the

   region is not business-friendly and business/regional economic

   competitiveness cannot be achieved/maintained.

      Few resources are allocated to planning and programming for

      goods movement activities.

      Land-use design and infrastructure development do not adequately

      accommodate the needs of goods movement.

      Heavy freight movement activities contribute to the cost and

      maintenance of the regional streets and highway system.

   Growth in the demand for air cargo movements may out-pace air cargo

   capacity and increase the competition for space between air cargo

   and passengers, especially with anticipated increases in trade.


   -  Accidents and incidents on the region's affected roadways.

   -  Mode and system inefficiencies and conflicts.

   -  Environmental damage:  The various air basins in the region are

      designated as non-attainment areas for various air pollutants;

      increased ambient noise levels.

   -  Increased congestion in the airways and on the region's streets

      and highways.


   Transportation System Development, Use, Management and Safety

   -  Growth in the demand for goods movement will be accommodated

      through the provision of adequate multi-modal and intermodal

      infrastructure that is consistent with overall regional goals,

      objectives, and policies.

   -  Pricing strategies will be considered as one of the strategies

      to reduce peak period congestion.

   -  The feasibility of air cargo transport at all major air carrier

      airports in the region will be considered as a means to address

      growth in cargo volumes.

   -  Demand for increased goods movement will be given consideration

      in corridors where system connectivity and gap closure projects

      are being planned.

   -  The development and use of pipelines within suitable utility

      corridors or public rights-of-way will be encouraged.

   -  The siting, routing, and construction of pipelines will be

      conducted so as to avoid disruptions of sensitive environments,

      to improve the safety and reliability of the system and to

      protect ground water quality.

   -  The inter-regional and intra-regional transport of crude oil by

      modes which lower the risk of spills, reduce air pollution

      emissions and lessen consequences of spills will be encouraged.

   Regional Economy, Mode Efficiency and Competitiveness

   -  The ports and major air carrier airports in the SCAG region are

      regionally significant and important trade links with the

      remainder of the world and shall be supported as a major

      foundation of the regional economy.

   -  Arterial truck access routes will be coordinated for the purpose

      of improving system connectivity, eliminating circuitous

      routings and reducing delays.

   -  The potential for adverse impacts to mode shares, diversion of

      business to other ports and loss of cost-competitiveness in

      goods movement to, from and through the SCAG region will be

      considered in the development and implementation of local and

      regional plans.

   Land Use

   -  Planning to accommodate multi-modal and inter-modal goods

      movement shall be an integral part of the land use and

      circulation elements of local government general plans and

      specific plans.

   -  Local governments shall consider requiring off-street dock

      facilities for all new buildings and for existing buildings that

      are approved for extensive renovation; the facilities should be

      sufficient to accommodate the shipping and receiving needs of

      such buildings.

   -  In order to assist in the identification of potential

      bottlenecks that could occur downstream of cargo flows, the

      identification of potential intermodal routes that cross or

      connect to provide future transfer facility nodes (highway,

      rail, harbor or airports) shall be encouraged.


   As a part of the bottom-up planning process, subregional input

   provides information and recommendations regarding significant

   issues of concern on the parts of local jurisdictions.  Table 7-3

   depicts subregional input as related to the Goods Movement program.

                               TABLE 7-3


Click HERE for graphic.

Click HERE for graphic.


   2  Caltrans considers construction of this facility to be vital as

Mexican trucks will be operating in California beginning in December

1995 as a result of the passage of NAFTA.   Caltrans is seeking

funding for this facility.

1994 PLAN

   Goods Transportation Site-Specific Recommendations

   Site-specific and ground access improvements in the vicinity of the

   seaports and major air carrier airports in the region are

   recommended.  Improvements are detailed in Volume 2, Chapter 14 -

   Regional Action Program.  The single largest facility and

   operations improvement identified is construction of the Alameda

   Corridor.  Completion of the Alameda Corridor project is "the most

   important single transportation improvement project in the State;

   it has statewide and national significance; and the consequences of

   inadequate funding to implement the project would have disastrous

   economic consequences."

   Feasibility Studies

   Several feasibility studies which address specific problems

   associated with goods transportation are recommended, including

   evaluating the congestion and air quality impacts of queued traffic

   at railroad crossings in the region; studying the economic

   feasibility of the phased elimination of at-grade railroad

   crossings of high traffic flow arterials; and conducting a study to

   examine the feasibility of pricing to reduce accidents, incidents

   and associated congestion on the freeways.   It is also recommended

   that the feasibility of high-speed freight transportation be

   ascertained and that this issue be addressed in future studies of

   high-speed rail passenger service.

   The efficiency of freight transportation via truck will be enhanced

   through improvements in the operating conditions on the region's

   regional streets and roads.   As a part of the Regional Streets and

   Highways Program (Volume 2, Chapter 5), expansion of mixed-flow and

   HOV4 capacity and improved system management are recommended. 

   Arterial HOV facilities, Smart Corridors and application of advance

   technologies are endorsed for study and possible implementation,

   where appropriate.

   Relationship of Goods Movement Strategies to Congestion Management


   State statutes that authorized the creation of Congestion

   Management Programs (CMP) do not require that CMPs address goods

   movement activities and non-recurrent congestion.  Thus, the

   adopted CMPs do not address issues directly related to goods

   movement.  However, elements of the CMP do have potential for

   benefiting goods transportation insofar as the Capital Improvement

   Programs (CIP), Land Use Elements, TDM and Transit elements may

   lead to improved operation and management of the system for both

   people and goods.  The CIPs are Congestion Management Agency input

   into the Regional Transportation Improvement Program for the SCAG

   region.  The adopted CMPs were found to be consistent with the 1989

   RMP and their respective CIPs were integrated into the Action

   Element of the RME (See Volume 2, Chapter 14, Regional Action



   3  Source: SELAC Subregional input to Regional Comprehensive Plan:

Excerpts of speech by Mr. Daniel Wm. Fessler, President, California

Public Utilities Commission; Member, California Transportation

Commission, speaking at the TRANSCON 2000 International Conference:

Future Transportation Technology, Palm Springs, California, October

25, 1993.

   4  Excludes heavy duty-vehicles.


   One way to increase goods movement system efficiencies is to turn

   to technology.  In goods movement, operators handling the goods

   need answers regarding the location of their goods, when they will

   reach their destination and the condition of their goods

   (temperature, humidity, damage, etc.).

   Electronic information flows promise developments that can answer

   these crucial questions.  Specific examples are "tagging" and "time

   slots".  Tagging makes use of an automatic equipment identification

   by satellites or wayside scanners placed along railroad rights-of-

   ways.  Time slots allow ocean-carriers to plan land-side

   requirements at least forty-eight hours in advance for imports.


   Industrial development.  Adequate funding to develop, operate and

   maintain the region's significant existing and proposed freight

   movement facilities could be key in revitalizing the region's

   economy and achieving long-term stability.   Completion of the

   Alameda Corridor, for example, could form a core objective that

   solidifies the region's actions to help create jobs, to maintain

   trade links and to enhance the competitiveness of the region and

   the state.  Other regionally significant major infrastructure, as

   identified in the RME, would also be key in considering the

   economic stability and policy development for the region.

   Energy. While the region's only mobility goal relative to energy is

   to reduce its consumption, decisions concerning energy help shape

   the region's economic base, transportation, land use development

   patterns, recreation, quality of life and environment.  In the

   absence of major energy crises, the risk that the region faces is

   not apparent.   The type of energy consumed by residents, mobile

   sources and industry, however, will continue to determine the

   fundamental challenges that confront the region.  Subregional

   decision-makers may want to focus on additional aspects of energy

   and how decisions and choices regarding energy can help achieve

   subregional goals and objectives.

   Key issues involving energy and goods movement include:

   -  Fuel types and achieving air quality.

   -  Reducing dependence on fossil fuels for transportation and

      developing alternative fuel sources.

   -  Mitigating the direct adverse impacts of the energy decisions on

      jobs directly related to goods movement.

   -  Mitigating the indirect impacts of goods movement-related energy

      decisions on jobs, industry, business and residents.

   -  Reducing the impacts of current fuel sources for goods movement.

   Public-private sector improvement initiatives.  The public sector

   should provide leadership in improving communication between the

   two and in considering strategies to address outstanding issues

   such as the following [The ISTEA encourages the formation of

   partnerships between the public and private sectors in resolving

   critical issues]:

   -  Developing and funding important infrastructure such as the

      Alameda Corridor.

   -  Integrating goals for the region's energy and goods movement

      future into the framework for planning for the economy,

      transportation, the environment, land use, and quality of life.

   -  Establishing a national and state legislative agenda that

      promotes regional goals in the areas of energy, goods movement,

      transportation, technology and the environment.

   -  Maintaining a competitive regional economy and strengthening

      links to global trade and domestic markets.

   -  Integrating advanced technologies and technology transfers that

      facilitate the intermodal transportation system.

   Safety.  Reduction in delay and congestion associated with

   vehicular accidents can improve mobility.  Studies should be

   undertaken to determine ways to improve safety on the system.


EIGHT             PROGRAM


   The SCAG region includes 56 public-use airports, which makes it the

   largest airport system of any region in the world (see Figure 8-1). 

   The breakdown of these airports includes 44 general aviation (GA)

   airports, 10 commercial service airports, one closed military

   airbase for which civilian reuse has not been determined, and one

   military/civilian joint-use airport.  The five urban airports that

   serve most of the region's aviation demand are Los Angeles

   International (LAX), Ontario International (ONT), John Wayne/Orange

   County (SNA), Burbank-Glendale-Pasadena (BUR), and Long Beach

   (LGB).  Palm Springs (PSP) serves urban areas in the low desert

   east of the Los Angeles basin.  Palmdale (PMD) serves the Antelope

   Valley, and may relieve airports in the Los Angeles basin in the

   future if high-speed access can be provided.

   While the SCAG region is first in aviation activity compared to any

   other region, it faces several present and potential problems. 

   Foremost among them has been an expected shortfall in commercial

   airport capacity for both air passengers and air cargo.  Further

   discussion of air cargo in the broader context of goods movement is

   presented in Volume 2, Chapter 7.  This shortfall may be offset

   with the possible closure of one additional military air base in

   the region, and the possible joint use of two others.

   Commercial airport ground access is another major concern.  As

   airports reach their physical capacity, access infrastructure for

   passengers and cargo will become increasingly congested, so the

   need for inter-modal and multi-modal access strategies will


   The general aviation system is under increasing budgetary pressures

   as local governments experience the effects of recession.  This is

   occurring during a period when the roles of general aviation

   airports are changing from recreational uses to more support for

   business and government use, and for emergency response to natural

   disasters and civil unrest.

   Another major concern is the strategic role of the aviation system

   in contributing to the economic recovery of the region and future

   economic development, particularly in relation to international


   Updated information regarding military airbases, and airport ground

   access will be added to this Chapter in the 1995 Plan Amendment. An

   update to the Aviation Action Program in Chapter 14 will also be


                              FIGURE 8-1

                            (AVIATION MAP)

                           FIGURE 8-1 CONT.




   In 1988, commercial airports of the Los Angeles basin served 57.9

   million annual passengers (MAP), roughly 13 percent of the total

   air traffic in the United States.  By 1993 these same airports

   served 65.9 MAP.  Currently, policy constraints limit the

   commercial airport system to serving fewer passengers than its

   physical capacity would allow.

   Some immediate capacity relief may be provided by existing outlying

   airports.  Palm Springs Regional Airport, for example, is a

   commercial airport that serves 800,000 passengers annually and has

   recently added runway capacity.  Palmdale Plant 42 has authority

   for 400 commercial flights per day under a joint-use agreement with

   the Air Force, and may in the future provide relief for commercial

   airports in the Los Angeles basin.  However, even with relief from

   these outlying airports, several commercial airports in the Los

   Angeles basin are expected to surpass constrained passenger levels

   during the next decade.  LAX, it should be noted, went beyond its

   policy constraint in 1987.


   -  Enhance airport system capacity to accommodate increased air

      passenger demand.


   -  In the 1995 Regional Aviation System Study, identify multiple,

      short-term and long-term aviation-related strategies that are

      needed to solve/mitigate the capacity and congestion issues at

      existing airports.

   -  In the 1995 Regional Aviation System Study, identify non-

      aviation strategies to address capacity and congestion issues at

      existing airports.


   Demand pressure on the region's five metropolitan commercial

   airports is expected to increase dramatically during the next two

   decades.  They are projected to serve 123.4 MAP by the year 2015,

   which represents an 87 percent increase over 1993 levels.

   The adequacy of its commercial airport capacity is of great concern

   to the region, particularly in terms of reaching the Regional

   Mobility Element (RME) strategic goal of enhanced regional mobility

   for inter-regional travel.  While there have been infrastructure

   improvements at LAX and John Wayne Airport during the past 10-15

   years and other improvements are planned for Burbank and Ontario,

   the existing airports will still experience a capacity shortfall.

   Efforts to locate new airport sites have been unsuccessful, as

   documented in the 1980 Aviation System Study and the 1991 Aviation

   System Study Update.  Remote sites are available, but must

   demonstrate that they have sufficient demand, carrier support,

   funding support, and technical feasibility.  This applies to sites

   identified in the Imperial County Regional Airport Feasibility

   Study.  Capacity shortfall for air cargo was documented in SCAG's

   Air Cargo Assessment as were options for increasing cargo capacity. 

   Consequently, current efforts are focused on better utilization of

   existing airports in SCAG's Commercial Airport System Capacity

   Study.  Another effort, the Military Airbase Contingency Study, is

   examining the civilian utility of military air bases that are

   scheduled to be closed by the Department of Defense.  The bases

   should be evaluated as to the feasibility and desirability of

   upgrading them to commercial facilities.  A later study should

   assess the costs and benefits of such an upgrade.  The current

   study includes George Air Force Base (AFB), Norton AFB, and Marine

   Corps Air Station (MCAS) El Toro which have been or will be closed,

   and March AFB, which is scheduled for realignment and downsizing. 

   Another study, to be completed in 1994, will examine the potential

   for joint-use at Naval Air Weapons Station (NAWS) Point Mugu.

   (Project lists for capital improvements being prepared are

   available upon request.)


   -  Support the more efficient use of commercial airport facilities

      to serve growing air passenger demand in the region.  Airport-

      generated noise, air quality and ground access impacts resulting

      from increasing air service should be mitigated.

   -  Each subregion should provide environmentally acceptable

      capacity within its own market area to meet local, short-haul

      air passenger demand due to shorter access time of short-haul

      passengers.  Subregion in this context refers to county-sized

      subregional market areas.

   -  For those military airbases, which are, or will be closed by the

      Department of Defense, support conversion to commercial air

      service if such bases have been determined to have a high

      technical and market potential for use as commercial airports. 

      This policy most strongly applies to those subregions which

      cannot otherwise provide sufficient, environmentally acceptable

      capacity to meet their own local, short-haul air passenger


   -  Examine the feasibility of commercial air passenger service at

      remaining active duty air bases if invited to do so by the


   -  Support outlying airports, such as Palm Springs, George AFB and

      Palmdale to serve their own market area.  Also, examine high-

      speed access systems to attract passengers from the metropolitan

      areas of the Los Angeles basin.

   -  Support continued examination of new technologies and their

      potential impact on the aviation system, and its inter-modal

      connection to the rest of the Metropolitan Transportation System

      (MTS).  This would include locational opportunities for

      tiltrotor service, and possible applications of high-speed rail. 

      It would also include development of a multi-modal

      transportation demand model for various ground modes to assess

      their ability to attract air passengers.

   -  Policy constraints on existing air carrier airports should be

      defined in terms on environmental impacts and should remain in

      place, except where relevant noise, air quality, and ground

      access impacts are mitigated.4   Airport proprietors and/or the

      Regional Airport Authority are encouraged to reassess

      constraints to determine if additional service can be provided,

      but in no case should constraints be lifted until negative

      impacts are mitigated.


   The improved inter-regional mobility benefits of an enhanced

   aviation system have an enormous implication for the economic

   development of the region.  The challenge of the enhanced system is

   to meet environmental requirements.


   4  Significant impacts other than noise, air quality, and ground

access that might occur over and beyond existing policy constraints

should also be mitigated.



   In 1982, SCAG adopted policies that support increased air service,

   but only if the resulting environmental and ground access impacts

   are mitigated.  This was interpreted to mean that impacts

   associated with air service above policy constrained levels in 1982

   would be mitigated.

   The outcome of the mitigation policy was the Airport Impact

   Mitigation and Management Study, Phase I study (AIMMS), which was

   completed in 1985.  That study contains an inventory of noise, air

   quality, and ground access impacts for the base year of 1982 and

   the forecast year of 2000.  Later, consultants to SCAG prepared a

   comprehensive list of mitigations for each impact category, which

   are contained in the 1990 Phase II report.

   The AIMMS studies, and others conducted by local agencies, have

   focused predominantly on highway facilities.  However, state law

   now requires multi-modal ground access studies for all commercial

   airports, and the federal Intermodal Surface Transportation

   Efficiency Act (ISTEA) emphasizes the need to assess airport ground

   access in the context of regional intermodal access of the MTS as a

   whole.  Consequently, detailed intermodal studies and

   transportation modeling will be conducted by SCAG for all five

   commercial airports.  The first of these studies is for LAX and

   began in 1993.  These studies will follow guidelines for the ISTEA

   Inter-modal Management System.


   -  Provide adequate intermodal ground access for air passengers and

      air cargo to the region's commercial airports so that they can

      fulfill their transportation and economic functions.


   -  By 1995 to conduct adequate intermodal and multi-modal analyses

      of ground access to the region's five metropolitan commercial


   -  Provide an environmentally compatible ground access system and

      to meet all air quality standards.


   The consultants to the AIMMS study identified three tiers of

   roadway improvements for each airport area and prepared cost

   estimates for them.  Needed roadway improvements will be updated in

   upcoming modeling and airport access studies.  However, they will

   only be one component of the access studies; other components will

   include transit, Transportation System Management (TSM) and

   Transportation Demand Management (TDM).

   The respective roles and responsibilities of the various agencies

   involved in implementing aviation Transportation Control Measures

   (TCM's) are still being debated.  Currently, SCAG is developing

   ground access plans for all of the air carrier airports, the SCAQMD

   is developing an indirect source rule that will be applied to these

   airports, and EPA is developing an airport control strategy

   pursuant to the Federal Implementation Plan (FIP).  The exact

   division of responsibilities between these agencies in implementing

   aviation TCM's will be determined in the future.


   Even though there are serious limitations to the AIMMS data, a

   number of observations can be made that will be relevant to future

   airport ground access studies.

   -  A wealth of traffic and engineering studies have been produced

      for the highway element of ground access at all five commercial

      airports.  However, much more work is needed for transit, rail,

      TDM, TSM and the intermodal connectivity with the rest of the


   -  Total congested lane miles at the five airports would increase

      from 222.3 in 1982 to 466.0 by year 2000, which is a 109.6

      percent increase.  While these figures do not account for recent

      developments, they suggest a significant increase in congestion

      by 2000 and imply an even greater increase by 2010.  These

      increases in congestion highlight the need to emphasize non-auto

      strategies for improving airport ground access.


   -  In accordance with state law (Assembly Bill 2487), SCAG will

      conduct multi-modal and intermodal ground access studies of the

      region's commercial airports for each update of the Regional

      Transportation Plan (RTP).

   -  Traffic impacts generated by significant new off-airport

      development should be mitigated if they worsen ground access to

      a commercial airport and reduce that airport's operational

      capacity.  This especially applies to those areas where the

      commercial airport is host to nationwide and international air

      service.  This type of mitigation should be a condition of

      project approval.

   -  Traffic impacts generated by non-aviation developments on-

      airport should be mitigated through prudent planning.  Such

      development is encouraged for revenue purposes, but only if it

      utilizes excess capacity not needed for aviation purposes.

   -  SCAG, in cooperation with appropriate transportation agencies,

      should ensure that airport-related ground access projects are

      placed in the Regional Transportation Improvement Program

      (RTIP).  It is important to include airport planning staff in

      the identification of airport-related projects, especially those

      which link directly to the airport roadway system.

   -  Support development of a multi-modal transportation demand model

      which integrates various ground transportation modes.


   LAX is the region's gateway to the rest of the world, particularly

   the Pacific Rim.  It is also the gateway to the rest of the nation. 

   In those two roles, it provides invaluable mobility for the

   region's citizens and is a significant factor in the regional


   The subregional airports provide mostly intra-state mobility, which

   is invaluable in terms of mobility and the economy.  They also

   serve more local air passengers, and take pressures off LAX and its

   ground access system.



   The shipment of freight by air is a growing phenomenon in the  SCAG

   region.  It parallels the region's increased integration into the

   global economy, the growing importance to that economy of quick and

   reliable freight movement, and the expanded production of high-

   value and time-sensitive products.  Airborne exports have become

   increasingly important to the region's economy, as evidenced by the

   fact that the total value of airborne exports shipped out of the

   Los Angeles Customs District in the late 1980s exceeded the value

   for waterborne exports, although that has since reversed due to


   During the past 12 years (1979-91), cargo volumes at the five air

   carrier airports in the region have increased by about 72 percent,

   from about 922,000 tons to about 1.5 million tons.  It is

   interesting to note, however, that even during this recessionary

   period, international air cargo volumes increased by 19 percent

   during the first nine months of 1992.  Because of ongoing

   structural changes in the economy, total air cargo volumes are

   expected to rise once again when recessionary conditions abate. 

   Projections made by a recent SCAG study, Air Cargo in the SCAG

   region, indicate that volumes are expected to reach 2.7 million

   tons by the year 2000, and 4.8 million tons by 2010.  Commercial

   airport capacity to handle air cargo will only reach 3 million tons

   by year 2000, so there will be a shortfall of capacity after that. 

   Closing military air bases may ease that capacity shortfall.


   -  Enhance air cargo handling capacity to serve demand and reduce



   -  Quantify major trends in the air cargo industry since the advent

      of deregulation in 1979.

   -  In the 1995 Regional Aviation System Plan, recommend measures to

      reduce projected shortfalls in cargo handling capacities by

      enhancing the cargo handling efficiencies of existing cargo


   -  Recommend measures to reduce projected shortfalls in cargo

      handling capacities by adding major capacity increases to the

      existing system in the form of new or converted airports, or

      military airports if they became available.


   The results of the recent air cargo analysis indicated the


   -  Existing and currently planned cargo handling capacity in the

      region are able to accommodate projected year 2000 cargo

      volumes.  However, existing and planned capacity falls short of

      meeting the 2010 projection by about 63 percent.

   -  The greatest need for new cargo handling capacity in the region

      is to serve Orange County, not only to provide additional needed

      capacity, but also to minimize trucking impacts on the regional

      highway network associated with transporting cargo from Orange

      County manufacturing centers via truck to other airports.  Since

      John Wayne Airport has very limited capacity potential to serve

      air cargo, other alternatives should be examined.


   -  Support development of a comprehensive strategy to find

      additional air cargo handling capacity in the region to reduce

      projected shortfalls in that capacity.  A regional strategy

      should locate potential additional capacity as close to where

      cargo is produced as possible, and should evaluate the

      feasibility and relative effectiveness of new airports,

      conversion of military airports to commercial uses, and

      increasing cargo handling efficiencies at existing airports.

   -  Ground freight routes should be planned that minimize impacts

      upon residential neighborhoods and heavy commuter routes.

   -  The conversion of Norton AFB to civilian/commercial use is a

      most promising alternative for adding substantial new cargo

      handling capacity to the regional airport system.

   -  For those military airbases that are, or will be closed by the

      Department of Defense, support conversion to commercial air

      service, including air cargo, if such bases have been determined

      to have a high technical and market potential for use as

      commercial air passenger and air cargo service airports.  This

      policy most strongly applies to those subregions that cannot

      otherwise provide sufficient, environmentally acceptable

      capacity to meet their own local air cargo shipment demand.

   -  Examine feasibility of commercial air cargo service at remaining

      active duty air bases if invited to do so by the military.

   -  Long-term trends in the regional economic profile of Southern

      California, their relationship to the world economy, and their

      implications for air cargo forecasts and handling capacity

      shortfalls, should be explored in an aviation strategic plan for

      the SCAG region.


   The primary mobility benefit that would potentially result from the

   implementation of the study's recommendations would be increased

   number of air passengers that could be served through the more

   effective use of available airport capacity, as well as future

   capacity increases such as the conversion of Norton AFB to a major

   air cargo facility.  Since airports would also be less congested,

   there would also be fewer flight delays and less passenger

   inconvenience.  This is in recognition that all of the air carrier

   airports in the region are ultimately subject to capacity

   constraints, and that there is competition between cargo and

   passenger flights for available airport capacity.

   Another potential mobility benefit would be the reduction of

   impacts of cargo-carrying trucks on the regional highway system,

   resulting from locating additional cargo handling capacity close to

   where the cargo is produced.  In particular, the location of new

   cargo-handling capacity near manufacturing centers in Orange County

   would have significant beneficial impacts on surface transportation



   An airport may at once be a local, regional, national, and

   international asset.  For many years, there has been a policy

   question as to which of these levels should predominate in planning

   for and operation of commercial airports.

   Local communities affected by busy airports have emphasized the

   need for local participation in the mitigation of environmental and

   ground access impacts.  While there has been progress in mitigating

   impacts over the past decade, particularly in the area of aircraft

   noise, environmental concerns remain for a number of affected


   The business community has generally emphasized the regional,

   national, and international aspect of commercial airports in their

   role as generators of economic activity.  This role is of growing

   importance during the prolonged recessionary period experienced in

   the SCAG region.  The importance of the role of commercial airports

   in economic recovery is presented in the Aviation Strategic Element

   of this chapter.  However, to fulfill this economic role,

   commercial airports must accommodate the demand for increased air

   service which generates impacts of concern to local communities.

   A number of mechanisms have been developed to achieve a balance

   between airport growth and environmental mitigation.  In terms of

   noise, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) developed the

   Federal Air Regulation (FAR) Part 150 Noise Study program which

   included the participation of adjacent local jurisdictions.  Part

   150 studies were conducted for LAX, Burbank, Long Beach, and

   Ontario airports.  These studies satisfied some communities, but

   not others.  In addition, some local jurisdictions felt excluded

   from the Part 150 process and seek a mechanism to address their

   concerns.  In other cases, local concerns resulted in environmental

   lawsuits which produced mixed results.  SCAG has occasionally

   functioned as a mediator, but has no statutory authority in the

   area of airport noise.

   In terms of air quality mitigations, SCAG does have a statutory

   role in the development of aviation Transportation Control Measures

   (TCMs) which appeared in the 1989 and 1991 Air Quality Management

   Plan (AQMP).  The TCMs necessarily relate to airport ground access

   which is another area where SCAG has a role.  SCAG is now required

   by state law to conduct multi-modal airport ground access studies

   as noted earlier in this chapter.

   The mechanisms noted above and others have brought satisfaction to

   some communities, but not others.  This is particularly the case in

   terms of airport noise.  A number of local elected officials have

   indicated that an adequate mechanism has yet to be developed to

   address their concerns, and that this issue needs to be




   The primary focus of SCAG's aviation planning has traditionally

   been on the commercial airport system.  However, the system of 44

   general aviation airports in the SCAG region is the largest

   regional system in the world, and is deserving of SCAG's attention. 

   This general aviation system is predominantly represented on SCAG's

   Aviation Technical Advisory Committee (ATAC).  All airports in the

   region are represented on ATAC, which is one of the longest-

   standing and most active of SCAG's committees.  Collectively,

   general aviation and commercial airport managers have made immense

   contributions to SCAG's aviation planning during a very long period

   of time.

   The last SCAG General Aviation System Study was completed in 1987. 

   A data update of the region is urgently needed, to verify trends

   that appear to be underway, and to formulate regional policy to

   guide the system in the future.  A general aviation study began in

   the summer of 1993, and is under the guidance of ATAC.  The

   resulting general aviation plan will identify capital needs,

   funding shortfalls, and new roles which general aviation airports

   could pursue.



   In economic terms, the SCAG region is one of the largest

   metropolitan areas in the world.  In 1991, the gross regional

   product of the SCAG region was $331 billion, making this region the

   10th largest "nation" in the world economically.  A few of the

   economic issues are described below and could be included in the

   Aviation Strategic Element.  Accordingly, it has important

   financial, technical, social, and political relationships with

   other large economic regions in the world.  All these relationships

   have implications for air travel and airport infrastructure, but

   they have never been studied in a systematic way.  There is a need

   to assess and examine these relationships to better understand and

   formulate regional policy to guide the aviation system during the

   next two decades.  That assessment would result in an Aviation

   Strategic Element of the regional Aviation System Plan, which is

   part of the RME.  The following is a short description of some of

   those relationships that need to be examined.

   Airport Capacity and Air Service Implications

   -  The capacity of commercial airports is nearing physical limits

      in this region, but also in other metropolitan regions in this

      country, around the Pacific Rim and in parts of Europe.  What

      are the implication for the air movement of people and goods,

      and what are the implications for the regional economy and

      growth?  Also, what implications does this have for closing

      military air bases?

   -  Considerable additional airport capacity will be made available

      at the new Denver Airport and at the potential new international

      airport on the U.S.-Mexico border south of San Diego.  Other

      capacity remains at existing airports in the San Francisco Bay

      area and Portland.  What are the implications for the production

      and movement of air cargo?  Does this portend the shift of

      production from the SCAG region to other regions?

   -  How does the commercial airport system benefit the regional

      economy and job creation?  How does the benefit compare to the

      cost of investment in airport infrastructure?

   -  Commercial air routes from Pacific Rim countries over the former

      Soviet Union to Europe are currently being negotiated.  Since

      those routes are more direct and are shorter, will Pacific Rim

      air traffic bypass the U.S. and the SCAG region?  What are the

      implications for the regional economy and trade?

   -  International air service for both air passengers and air cargo

      is the fastest growing component of air service and travel

      demand in the SCAG region.  Will LAX be able to handle all of

      the international air service or will the other commercial

      airports need to accept international flights in the future? 

      While it is recognized that not all subregional commercial

      airports can accommodate international service it may be

      important to identify which ones can.  It may also be important

      to identify which of the closing military airbases can handle

      international service.  What are the implications for Customs

      service and additional Customs districts?  Will domestic service

      at LAX have to be constrained to accommodate the international

      traffic?  Will the subregional airports need to host more

      medium- and long-haul service?

   Economic Implications

   -  The SCAG region has many economic ties with other regions in the

      Pacific Rim, Canada, Latin America and Europe.  What are the

      major economic trends in these other regions and what is the

      nature of their ties to the SCAG region?  What is the future for

      international commerce and tourism between the U.S. and its

      international trading partners?  What are their implications for

      commercial airports and air service in the SCAG region?

   -  The North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) may soon be

      ratified.  What are the long-term economic implications for

      Southern California, particularly in terms of economic

      development in Mexico?  How will this affect the potential new

      U.S.-Mexico international airport and commercial airports in the

      SCAG region?  How might it affect air cargo commodity production

      and movement in the SCAG region?  What percentage of the cross-

      border cargo movement stimulated by the agreement will move by

      air versus trucks?

   Technology Implications

   A number of new technologies are now being implemented and others

   are on the horizon.  They all have implications for the aviation

   system, a few of which are noted below.

   -  The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a multiple satellite

      system now being put in place.  Its accuracy will revolutionize

      the air navigation system and precision approaches.  What affect

      will GPS have on airspace and airport capacity?

   -  Some aircraft manufacturers have indicated their desire to

      produce a mega-airliner (800-1,000 seats), although currently

      there is no movement in that direction.  Will economic recovery

      of the airlines and a shortage of airport capacity lead to

      renewed interest in the mega-airliner?  Will such an aircraft

      significantly increase the air-side capacity of the region's

      airports?  Can the airports accommodate such an aircraft?


   As the SCAG region's airport system moves through the next two

   decades, it will experience major problems, but it will also

   provide significant opportunities for the larger community.  In

   that context, the following outstanding issues should be addressed

   in SCAG's aviation planning program.

   -  The provision of adequate commercial airport capacity will

      continue to be the major challenge for the region's airport

      system.  After the year 2000, the system will gradually

      experience a shortfall of capacity for serving both air

      passengers and air cargo.  Further studies need to examine the

      implications for high-speed rail, remote airports, and the reuse

      of closed military air bases.

   -  As the commercial airports near their physical capacity, ground

      access traffic congestion will worsen and may become the

      constraining factor in airport operations.  Further airport

      ground access analysis and modeling are needed to identify

      appropriate multi-modal and inter-modal solutions.

   -  General aviation airports in the region's airports system are

      experiencing the same fiscal pressures as local governments. 

      SCAG's current general aviation study will examine how these

      airports can survive financially and what emerging roles will

      reinforce their value to the community.

   -  During the next two decades, the SCAG region will experience

      dynamics resulting from airport capacity limitations,

      competition from airports in other regions and changing

      international relationships.  There is a need to develop an

      aviation strategic element to assess these larger issues.  One

      of the key issues is how to enhance economic opportunities

      generated by the commercial airport system.




   To meet mobility needs beyond the year 2015 and foster economic

   development, it is likely that future long-range corridors will

   need to be identified and preserved in the SCAG region. Long-range

   corridors are defined as locations beyond the year 2015 where

   potential multi-modal transportation facilities might be built or

   sites that may be enhanced by adding facilities to increase the

   multi-modal nature of the corridor.

   This chapter highlights the importance of identifying future multi-

   modal transportation corridors and setting aside the necessary

   right-of-way, especially in areas where development may block a

   long-range corridor.  Figure 9-1 provides a general description of

   corridors that have been proposed or discussed through a variety of

   study efforts.


   Many long range corridor studies have been completed or are

   ongoing. Imperial County and Los Angeles County have developed a

   20-year and 30-year plans, respectively. Currently Orange County is

   developing a long-range corridor plan. Riverside County and San

   Bernardino County corridors have been identified in the Inland

   Empire Long Range Corridor Study and through other study efforts

   such as the Sierra-Cedar, the North-South, the Southwestern

   Transportation Corridor, and the Ramona Expressway Corridor

   studies. In addition, Caltrans through its system management plans

   has identified future multimodal and intermodal corridors and

   longterm gaps.

   Depending on the degree of urbanization, the application of

   different long-range corridor strategies is foreseeable. In the

   highly urbanized portions of the SCAG region, long-range corridor

   projects that enhance existing corridors requiring the acquisition

   of little right-of-way or using abandoned railroad lines are

   probable approaches. In the less-urbanized areas, more

   possibilities exist to identify and preserve new corridors. Local

   governments have an opportunity to capitalize on preservation

   efforts before urbanization reduces the availability of land for

   new transportation facilities, especially in areas that already

   have insufficient transportation capacity. Early efforts to

   identify and preserve right-of-way will reduce costs and minimize

   the difficulties of developing a corridor.

Map continued

                              FIGURE 9-1

                        (LONG RANGE CORRIDORS)


   Guiding policies toward the development of long-range corridors

   include the following:

   -  Support long-range corridors that will employ multi-modal and

      intermodal strategies designed to maintain mobility for people,

      goods, services, and information in ways that are safe,

      efficient, cost effective, meet environmental mandates, and

      foster economic development.

   -  Support long-range projects and right-of-way preservation

      programs that foster the development of an urban form conducive

      to reducing single-occupant vehicle trips.


   Reports such as Imperial County's (Long Range) Transportation Plan,

   the Los Angeles County Transportation 30-Year Integrated

   Transportation Plan,  the Orange County Transportation Authority's

   Long-Range Transit Systems Plan and Development Strategy, plus the

   Orange County 2020 Vision (presently being drafted) illustrate the

   type of long-range corridor concepts that will need to be included

   in the region's future mobility plans. To develop these types of

   corridors there will need to be more linkages between land-use

   planning and transportation planning efforts. At present there are

   limited provisions at the local level for this type of

   coordination, especially with regard to preserving right-of-way.

   This issue, however, is addressed in the Mobility Element of the

   Western Riverside Council of Government's Subregional Comprehensive

   Plan that encourages local jurisdictions to establish land use

   patterns that support a multi-modal transportation network. These

   policies are generally unpopular and therefore, difficult to

   implement despite a need for land use policies that protect right-

   of-way, reward infill development, and discourage projects at the

   urban fringe that induce sprawl. Regardless of how difficult the

   process to preserve corridors, the region's future economic well-

   being is dependent on how well post-2015 transportation needs are



   Given the number of long-range plans focused at the county level, a

   regionwide post-2015 long-range corridor study is needed to provide

   a broader perspective of future needs. This effort should focus on

   the identification of corridors, the protection of right-of-way,

   and the development of the institutional framework to formalize the

   process. This effort will require developing criteria that guides

   the identification and prioritization of corridors and will involve

   considerable consensus building among competing public and private


   Implementing the recommendations presented above is best served by

   developing a public information program that details the importance

   for local governments and subregions to proactively develop a long-

   range corridor program. This type of effort should also illustrate

   how the long-range corridor process complements short-term and

   long-term economic development strategies. A first step would

   include comprehensively analyzing studies done at the local,

   corridor, or subregional level that identify long-range needs. In

   addition, the long-range corridor effort should also involve the

   identification and setting aside of ROW for utility, communication,

   and freight corridors.


   The identification, prioritization, and implementation of projects

   on post-2015 corridors provides the opportunity to develop

   multimodal and intermodal transportation systems that can provide

   benefits over present-day efforts constrained by managing

   congestion with limited resources.  In the highly urbanized

   portions of the SCAG region, the enhancement of transportation

   corridors that move people and goods more efficiently with less

   reliance on the single-occupant vehicle will produce significant

   mobility benefits in this auto-oriented environment.  In the less

   urbanized areas, the opportunity exists to develop corridors that

   meet a variety of transportation needs but may also influence the

   development of an urban form that will substantially improve all

   aspects of mobility.


      -  What additional corridors should be included?

      -  What are the appropriate actions to preserve identified


      -  What are the priorities of these corridors for the

         implementation of transportation facilities and services?

      -  What are the financial and mobility benefits for the early

         identification and purchase of right of way?




   The RME estimates that over the 20-year planning period, $56.2

   billion in expenditures for traditional highway and transit

   programs and projects can be funded with reasonably available

   revenues of $56.3 billion.

   While regional expenses and revenues generally balance over the 20-

   year life of the Plan, historical spending trends, air quality and

   congestion mitigation, costs of maintaining an older

   infrastructure, declining gasoline tax revenues, and mounting

   transit operation expenses all threaten the region's precariously

   balanced budget. It should also be noted that the end of the

   planning period may have too little facility investment given the

   expected population growth.           Consequently, it is evident

   that the region's traditional funding sources for the foreseeable

   future are insufficient to pay for the Advanced Transportation

   Technologies and other corridor improvements which are needed to

   meet air and mobility mandates.  Thus, the RME considers innovative

   funding through Market Incentives, including a series of user-based


   It is expected that approximately $15-29 billion will be needed to

   finance the range of various Advanced Transportation Technology

   improvements and performance-based projects which are crucial to

   the Plan's strategy through 2015.  As part of the financial plan,

   the costs for the advanced transportation technology and

   performance based transit programs will be continually examined. 

   As costs change, the market incentive program will also be reviewed

   for change.  It is clearly understood that the Advanced

   Transportation Technology strategy requires additional refinement. 

   It is expected that this refinement will be conducted by a SCAG

   appointed committee over the next two years and will be based in

   part by demonstrations and actual experience.

   Public and political acceptability is an essential requirement of

   Innovative funding. The region needs to understand what services

   will be provided and the efficiencies of such services.  In

   developing Innovative funding, a public education component of the

   financial plan will be developed.  Ultimately, the perceptions of

   elected officials and the public will determine which options will

   be implemented.

   The RME includes Innovative funding options such as a Vehicle Miles

   Traveled (VMT)/Emissions Registration Fee, congestion pricing, or

   other market incentives. Pursuant to the financial plan, any Market

   Incentives would be established by legislative process or by a

   ballot initiative.

   Market incentive development, refinement of new user based fees,

   advanced technology implementation strategy, as well as pricing

   levels, and a legislative agenda will also be studied by a

   committee appointed by the Regional Council.  This committee, which

   will include members from the transportation community will

   consider issues of equity, nexus of benefit to those shouldering

   the costs, and project efficiency/performance.


   The 1994 RME contrasts with the financial projections of the 1989

   Regional Mobility Plan (RMP) for the period 1990 through 2010,

   which forecast transportation capital revenues of about $21 billion

   against planned capital expenditures of about $44 billion -- thus

   identifying a $23 billion deficit.

   Enactment of ISTEA changed the playing field.  Under the new

   requirements, the Plan must do the following:

      "Include a financial plan that demonstrates how the long-

      range plan can be implemented, indicates resources from

      public and private sources that are reasonably available to

      carry out the plan, and recommends any innovative financing

      techniques to finance needed projects and programs, including

      such techniques as value capture, tolls, and congestion




   SCAG is using the following criteria to determine whether a funding

   source should be considered "reasonably" available.  These criteria

   are generally consistent with the Final FHWA/FTA Rules on

   Metropolitan Transportation Planning, issued on October 28, 1993:

   -  Has the proposed implementing agency (local, regional, state or

      federal government or private organization) taken a formal

      action by the time of Plan adoption to authorize the funding


   -  Is there a historical trend that resources of this type are

      usually approved by the public or their representatives?

   -  Have private sector organizations (such as the Chamber of

      Commerce, trade organizations, businesses, private task forces,

      etc.) shown support (e.g. policy, action, education) for the

      proposed funding mechanism?

   -  Has the state or federal government taken action required as a

      prerequisite or condition for enabling the resource by the time

      of Plan adoption?

   In order for a funding measure/mechanism to be considered

   "reasonably expected," at least one of the criteria must be

   answered YES or NOT APPLICABLE except that a YES to the criteria of

   private sector organizations support must be joined by an

   additional YES to another criteria.  Funding sources used to

   establish revenues in the RME must meet this standard.


   5  ISTEA (23 USC 134 et seq.)


   Under the working criteria for reasonably available, the following

   sources of funds are considered "Reasonably Available."

   Federal Revenues

   -  Federal Fuel Tax (through Highway Trust Fund) (Portion allocated

      to Transportation) will continue at current rate through the

      Plan period.

   -  General Funds provided for transportation purposes will continue

      at current levels.

      The two foregoing sources provide the funds for the following

      ISTEA programs:

      -  Interstate Completion, Interstate Maintenance, National

         Highway System, Surface Transportation Program (STP),

         Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ), Federal

         Lands, and Federal Transit Section 3 Discretionary,

         Federal Transit Sections 9, 16(b)2 and 18 Formula funds.

   FTA Operating Assistance

   The Federal Transit Administration Section 9 program provides

   formula funding to transit operators.  These funds may be used for

   either capital or operating assistance (operating assistance,

   however, is subject to an annual cap established through the

   Congressional appropriations process).

   The ability to improve air quality and provide mobility in this

   region demands that federal public transportation operating

   assistance be continued throughout the Plan period (1995-2015). 

   The 1994 RME financial plan assumes continuation of Section 9

   funding for operating assistance.

   State Revenues

   -  State Fuel Tax will continue at rate authorized by statues

      approved as of 1993.

   -  General State Funds provided to transportation will continue at

      current levels.

   -  State Transit Bonds assumes $3 billion as approved by voters in

      1990 (Prop. 108, 116).

   -  Registration/Weight Fees will continue at rate authorized by

      statutes approved as of 1993.

   The foregoing state revenue sources fund the following State

   Transportation programs:

   -  Local subventions, TSM, State-Local Partnership, Enhancements,

      Maintenance and Rehabilitation, Flexible Congestion Relief,

      Soundwalls, Interregional Roads

   Reduced Motor Vehicle Fuel Taxes

   The financial forecasts of the Regional Mobility Element are based

   on existing motor vehicle fuel taxes.  Currently, both the federal

   government and California collect fuel taxes on gasoline and diesel

   fuel.  These revenues are placed in the Federal Highway Trust Fund

   and the State Highway Account, respectively, and are used

   exclusively for transportation purposes.

   Gasoline and diesel fueled vehicles are becoming more efficient

   over time.  In addition, it is expected that more and more vehicles

   will be using alternative fuels exempt from the fuel tax in the

   future.  Thus, it should be expected that revenues from the sale of

   motor vehicle gasoline and diesel fuel will decline over time.  In

   preparing the financial forecasts, this decline in fuel tax

   revenues has been taken into account.  It is anticipated that by

   2015, fuel tax collection will be reduced by approximately 25% from

   current levels.  This 25% reduction has been built into the revenue


   In addition to the decline of motor vehicle fuel taxes due to

   alternative fuels, the purchasing power of the motor vehicle fuel

   tax declines over time.  In 1990, California increased its fuel tax

   by five cents per gallon.  The federal government also recently

   increased the fuel tax (although the increase was earmarked for

   deficit reduction).  While it is anticipated that over the lifetime

   of the RME, both the State and Federal governments will probably

   increase the motor vehicle fuel tax,  at this time, however, no

   projections have been made for such an increase in the financial

   plan for the RME.

   As additional empirical data is available, an improved forecast of

   the impact of lower motor vehicle fuel tax revenues will be

   prepared.  A portion of the innovative revenues, recommended to

   implement advanced transportation technologies, may offer a

   replacement for some of the diminishing motor vehicle fuel taxes.

   Local Revenues

   -  Transportation Development Act (TDA) revenues will continue for

      entire plan period.

   -  County Sales Tax Measures will continue for entire plan period

      (through 2015) for Los Angeles County and will be extended

      through at least 2015 for Imperial, Orange, San Bernardino, and

      Riverside Counties.6


   6  In Imperial, Orange, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, the

voter approved local 1/2 cent sales tax measures are to expire in the

2009-2011 period.  The Financial forecasts of the RME assume that

these measures will be extended recognizing that the implementing

agencies have not taken policy action regarding this issue.

   -  County Bond Measures.  Any county bond measures currently

      authorized by voters are considered reasonably expected even if

      actual bonds not marketed

   -  Private Bond Measures.  Any private bond measure currently

      authorized by the required private organizations are considered

      reasonably expected even if actual bonds have not been marketed.

   -  Benefit Assessment District Revenues.  Any revenues being

      received from currently authorized benefit assessment districts

      are considered reasonable and will continue

   -  Development Fees.  Current agreements for Development Mitigation

      Fees are considered reasonably available

   -  Toll Roads.  Tolls from roads/projects currently open, under

      construction, or planned, which have legally complete and

      enforceable agreements, will be considered reasonably expected.

   Figure 10-1 illustrates the anticipated mix of tradition federal,

   state, and local revenues being available over the time frame of

   the Regional Mobility Element.  This figure does not include

   revenues that may be attributable to innovative funding sources.



   The language of ISTEA states that "innovative" financing techniques

   may be recommended in the RME.

   Discussions with Federal Highway Administration officials suggest

   that while they will accept local decisions with respect to

   reasonably expected innovative funding, they will look for post-

   plan adoption actions to determine the commitment of the region to

   implementing the innovative measures.

   Language of implementing regulations of the Clean Air Act refer to

   the language of ISTEA and include the following:

               "51.399  Fiscal constraints for

               transportation plans and TIPs

         "(a)  Transportation plans.  The ISTEA requires that

         the transportation plan include a financial plan that

         demonstrates how the transportation plan can be

         implemented, indicates resources from public and

         private sources that are reasonably expected to be

         available throughout the plan's time frame, and

         recommends any innovative financing techniques to

         finance needed projects and programs,[emphasis added]

         including such techniques as value capture, tolls, and

         congestion pricing.


   The following innovative funding sources will be further studied as

   part of the ISTEA required financial plan:

   -  Emissions Fees

   -  Congestion Pricing Fees

   -  Tariffs

   -  Accident Reduction Fees

   -  "Pay at the Pump" Funding (e.g. for transportation-related



   The financial summary presented here relies on revenues derived

   from federal, state, local, and private sources.  While the

   involvement of each sector remains strong, it is important to

   emphasize the significant effort made by the several local

   governments involved to finance improvements to, and maintenance of

   the transportation network.

   Federal Share

   The 1991 ISTEA defines federal participation in transportation

   financing. The Act is significant in several ways, including the

   added flexibility in the use of funds.  This attribute is

   considered essential in heightening the efficiency of

   transportation investment.  Also, the ISTEA recognizes the

   relationship between transportation and air quality policies.  To

   this end, the ISTEA contains funds within the Congestion Mitigation

   and Air Quality Program (CMAQ) to overcome the negative effects of

   the transportation network.

   ISTEA provides roughly 110 percent of the funding available from

   the previous six-year period.  The RME revenue forecast assumes the

   same of annual funding for all years of the Plan (1995-2015). 

   These funds are then anticipated to be distributed within the state

   based on the existing north-south split and county minimum

   allocations.  Based on these assumptions, about $11.5 billion

   (expressed in 1995 dollars) will be available to the state from

   FHWA and FTA sources during the plan period.

   Included in Federal Funding sources are the Surface Transportation

   Program (STP) funds and the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality

   Program (CMAQ) funds.  It is estimated that approximately $1.13

   billion in CMAQ funds will be available to the three ozone non-

   attainment areas in the SCAG region through 2015 and approximately

   $1.8 billion will come to the six SCAG counties through the STP


   Additionally, federal funding from the Federal Aviation

   Administration (FAA) and the Federal Railroad Administration may be

   available to finance portions of the Metropolitan Transportation

   System.  These funds are currently not included in the Revenues and

   Costs of Tables 10-1 through 10-6.

   State Share

   State revenues continue to reach the region through existing

   funding programs, including programs for system management,

   congestion relief and transit assistance.  Also available is

   funding from Propositions 108 and 116.  The latter, Proposition

   116, authorizing the state to assume $1.99 billion in long-term

   debt, was not anticipated in the 1989 RMP. Proposition 108, in

   addition to authorizing $1 billion in debt, was the first of three

   such measures authorized by the California Legislature.  The second

   of these measures to come up, Proposition 156, was defeated by the

   voters in 1992. Immediate repairs to the transportation

   infrastructure are being largely covered with federal disaster

   relief funds. However, the State must still address the need to

   accelerate costly seismic retrofit projects. The financial

   projections included here are based on the estimates of various

   funds, developed every two years and adopted by the California

   Transportation Commission.

   Although some state transportation resources are derived in part

   from general taxation, the majority of transportation funds are

   gained from the state gasoline tax and motor vehicle license fees. 

   The assumption that state funding will continue at a constant level

   is made without regard for how the revenues are generated.  It is

   strongly recommended, however, that the state continue to rely on

   the gas tax as a source of revenues, and that steps be taken to

   ensure a constant stream of funds, considering greater fuel

   efficiency standards and transition to alternative fuels.

   With the assumptions stated above, it is expected that

   approximately $5.9 billion (in 1995 dollars) will be available in

   the region from the state.

   California statute (SB 707) requires that Regional Transportation

   Planning Agencies (SCAG is an RTPA), develop a regional airport

   capital improvement program.  The Regional Airport Capital

   Improvement Program was completed for the first time in 1993.  It

   contains $2.2 billion in commercial airport projects and $3.3

   billion in general aviation projects.  Revenue data are not

   available, but a survey is underway to obtain the information.  The

   $5.5 billion is not included in the cost estimates of Table 10-1.

   Local Sources

   In the past few years, revenues generated at the local level has

   shown the greatest increase of all sources.  Since the 1989 plan

   was adopted, four of the six counties in the SCAG region have

   adopted half-cent sales tax measures -- Imperial, Orange, Riverside

   and San Bernardino; Los Angeles County approved a second 1/2 cent

   sales tax.  Ventura County defeated a proposition for a 1/2 cent

   sales tax.  While officials in Ventura County again expect to place

   the measure on the ballot sometime during the Plan period, the

   revenues to be generated are not included at this time.  Local

   transportation programs and projects continue to receive support

   from the Local Transportation Fund, the quarter-cent sales tax

   collected in all SCAG counties.  In addition, the county

   transportation commissions are making strong efforts to realize the

   value of existing holdings and future investments through joint

   development and mixed-use facilities at transit-related sites.

   Although the potential for generating revenues is great, certain

   distinct flaws in use of sales tax has become evident.  Along with

   most general taxation alternatives, the sales tax is inequitable

   and fails to equate use of a service with the related costs.  Also,

   as is evident not only in the SCAG region, but across the state and

   nation, this form of taxation is inseparable from the overall state

   of the economy.  Witness the current recession and its significant

   impact on transportation revenues dependent on the sales tax. 

   While, sales tax can be a powerful fund generation tool and is

   anticipated to remain a significant part of the revenue mixture,

   decision makers are examining user-based financing of

   transportation improvements as a key form for enhancing financial

   stability of the transportation system as well as a replacement for

   the future decline of the gasoline and diesel fuel tax.

   Both the bus and rail networks will contribute to local revenues

   through fare-box returns.  It is anticipated that up to $4.5

   billion (in 1995 dollars) can be generated by the farebox, assuming

   the transit operators are allowed to keep fares in line with

   inflation.  This issue has been continuously addressed by the

   transit community and public policy-makers generally, because of

   the needs of the transit-dependent.  However, given that it is

   difficult to anticipate any general increase in subsidies, the

   transit properties must have the latitude to support operations

   through either fares or other internal revenue sources.

   Despite these limitations, local share has become the dominant form

   of transportation financing.  Through the Plan period, it is

   anticipated that about $31 billion or about one-half of the

   revenues (in 1995 dollars) will be generated from local programs.

   The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority is

   currently facing a $126 million shortfall in its transit operating

   program beginning in FY 1995.  This shortfall also will have some

   impacts on the transit capital program if not resolved.  To respond

   to this issue, the Los Angeles County MTA has adopted a special

   work program to resolve this critical issue.  The LACMTA, by a vote

   of its Board, has committed to resolving the shortfall through a

   series of measures including staff reductions, transit service

   cutbacks, possible increases in fares, and other cost saving


   Innovative Sources

   In developing the 1994 RME, it was recognized that additional

   programs beyond those funded through traditional sources will be

   needed in order for the SCAG region to maintain mobility and meet

   the requirements of the Clean Air Act.  At the present time, SCAG

   has identified five advanced transportation technologies - Electric

   Vehicles, Alternative Fuels, Smart Shuttle Transit, Intelligent

   Vehicle Highway Systems, and Telecommunications.  Each of these

   programs can provide an effective part of the regional

   transportation system.

   Preliminary cost estimates of Advanced Technology and performance-

   based transit projects are approximately $15 to $29 billion.  For

   purposes of modeling, the RME proposes that a VMT/Emissions

   Registration Fee be developed to finance these improvements.  This

   fee would be implemented gradually over several years.

   In developing the specifics of this innovative source, SCAG will

   consider both the funding measure, giving full consideration to

   equity of the fees and how they are applied.  In addition, as part

   of the financial plan, the specific uses of the funds raised

   through this innovative technique will be identified.

   Political and public acceptance are a key component for

   implementation of market incentives.  The financial plan requires a

   extensive public involvement program, exploring attitudes towards

   transportation financing, designed to reach consensus on Market

   Incentives.  In addition, in order to implement this innovative,

   market-incentive fee, state legislation will be required.


   Uses of various transportation facilities are influenced by

   financial considerations.  For example, a commuter who enjoys free

   parking at the job site may tend to shun use of public

   transportation while a neighbor who has to pay for parking his

   vehicle might consider taking the bus.  Another commuter might be

   persuaded to rideshare if there was some financial incentive. 

   Towards this end, SCAG established a Market Incentives Task Force

   to explore the ways that the market place may be used to influence

   the demand on transportation facilities.

   Another example of a market incentive would be congestion-pricing. 

   For example, use of a facility might be free during off-peak hours

   while a fee would be charged during peak demand periods.  Or,

   perhaps, a facility might be free for a three-person carpool, a

   small fee for a two-person carpool, and a larger fee for a single

   occupant vehicle.

   Market incentives have considerable potential for revenue creation

   as well as replacement for existing gasoline-based revenue sources

   which may diminish over time.

   There are a large number of additional ways of using market

   incentives to both achieve adopted policy goals of the region as

   well as to raise adequate revenues to finance the needed

   infrastructure. As part of the financial plan, as the needs for

   additional revenues are identified, market incentive solutions will

   be offered for consideration.

   For additional information regarding market incentives, please see

   the discussion in Chapter 3, Regional Transportation Demand


                             FIGURE 10-18

Click HERE for graphic.


   The RME identifies five traditional cost categories, including

   highways and regional streets and roads capital, transit (both bus

   and rail) capital and operating, Highway/Street and Road

   maintenance and operations, and Advanced Technology.  The costs

   required to provide the levels of service identified in the Plan

   are presented at the end of this chapter.  Figure 10-2 illustrates

   the approximate regional mix of project expenditures for transit

   capital and operations and highway capital and

   operations/maintenance.  The figure does not include expenditures

   for advanced technology or performance-based transit programs.


   7  Does not include revenues which could be attributed to Market



   Capital expenditures identified in the highway network, including

   High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes and all related facilities will

   cost approximately $11.7 billion in 1995 dollars through 2015. 

   This figure also includes the cost of Orange County toll facilities

   which will be funded in part through private sources.

   Regional Streets and Roads

   Integration of local arterials into the regional transportation

   network is supported by specific funding at all levels.  Some of

   the Highway project capital costs are for regional streets and

   roads.   For example, some of the improvements on the Alameda

   Corridor will be on regional streets rather than State Highways.8


   The transit costs for the study period total about $27.4 billion

   for both capital and operating.  The transit program contains

   roughly $21 billion in rail and bus operating costs with bus and

   rail capital programs totally about $6.4 billion.  This total

   combines local and express bus, commuter rail and intra-city rail


   The transit costs assume no change in the aggregate level of bus

   service; the capital costs identified are for bus replacement only. 

   However, some redeployment is likely.  The rail expenses focus on

   the local services in Los Angeles County -- the Red, Blue and Green

   lines -- and Metrolink operations throughout the region.  The SCAG

   baseline also includes six candidate urban rail corridors or

   corridor extensions not currently programmed by the implementing

   agencies in the Regional Transportation Improvement Program (RTIP)

   but expected to be implemented before 2015.


   8  Local and Regional Streets and Roads operating and maintenance

costs are supported by a variety of funding sources.  A portion of the

Federal Surface Transportation Program funds available in each County

are being used in much the same manner as the Federal-Aid Urban (FAU)

funds were used.  In addition, the State provides funding for local

street operations and maintenance through the fuel tax subvention

program.  The Alameda Corridor Project is estimated to cost about $1.3

billion (1993 dollars).

   Local Programs

   Local governments receive a share of federal9  , state10   and

   local11   funds for their own programs.  These programs often have

   the potential for positively affecting regional transportation

   trends; for instance, signalization and intersection improvements

   are done from this mix of funds.  Local governments are also

   responsible for a significant amount of maintenance and operating

   costs for the regions street and roadway network.

   An analysis of data regarding local street and roadway maintenance

   reveals that the level of maintenance and operations funding,

   adjusted for population increases has remained relatively constant

   and currently the projected costs reflect this consistency.

   SCAG is also aware that while the level of operating and

   maintenance projects has remained constant, this level of funding

   may not be adequate to meet any performance indicators that should

   be established.  ISTEA requires that a Pavement Management System

   be implemented no later than October 1, 1995.  It is anticipated

   that the data collected for developing this management system,

   along with Highway System Monitoring System (HPMS) data should be

   very useful in determining the performance indicators that should

   be developed and whether or not adequate resources to reach the

   performance standards is available.  Work on this issue is proposed

   as part of the FY 1995 SCAG Overall Work Program (OWP).

   Advanced Transportation Technology/Performance Based Transit

   Advanced technology defined as electric vehicles (ZEVs),

   alternative fuel vehicles, the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System

   (IVHS), telecommunications, and smart shuttle transit, is estimated

   to cost approximately $15-29 billion between 1995 and 2015. (See

   also Chapter 2, Goals, Objectives, Strategies, Finance for a brief

   description of Advanced Transportation Technology strategies.)


   9  Under the ISTEA Surface Transportation Program, funding is

guaranteed to rural areas to replace funds formerly available under

the Federal Aid Secondary (FAS) program.  Under California statute, a

portion of the STP funds are also guaranteed to the cities and

counties at 110% of Federal Aid Urban (FAU) program levels.

   10  A portion of the California Motor Vehicle Fuel Tax is returned

to the cities and counties for transportation purposes.

   11  In several SCAG counties, a portion of the Local Transportation

Fund collected in each county is used by cities and counties for local

street and road purposes.

                             FIGURE 10-212

Click HERE for graphic.        


   Life-cycle costs are taken into account through assuring that

   Highway operating and maintenance expenses are included.  The State

   of California has enacted legislation which takes maintenance and

   operations costs "off-the-top" of funds available for state highway

   projects through the Highway System Operations and Plan Protection

   (HSOPP) program; these funds are not subject to the North-South

   split and/or county minimums.  Transit bus replacements are

   scheduled every 12 years per federal guidelines.  It is expected

   that approximately 300 buses will be replaced each year and these

   costs have been included in Table 10-1.  An examination of rail

   transit replacement and rehabilitation costs, in addition to other

   bus transit life-cycle costs, is underway to insure that these

   costs are reflected in the financial tables.



   In 1992, SCAG adopted several policies regarding programming of the

   federal Surface Transportation Program (STP) and Congestion

   Mitigation and Air Quality Program (CMAQ) funds:

   -  Programming of the Surface Transportation Program (STP) funds

      and Congestion Mitigation funds shall be the primary

      responsibility of the respective County Transportation

      Commission, consistent with federal and state law, the Regional

      Transportation Plan (RTP), and in conformance with the

      applicable Air Quality Management Plan.

   -  Implementation of transportation control measures (TCMs)

      required by the Air Quality Management Plan, including growth

      and demand management measures, shall be a high priority for

      expenditure of all STP and CMAQ funds.

   -  Cities and Counties are eligible to utilize the STP and CMAQ

      funds for demand management and growth management transportation

      control measures and will be so advised by the appropriate

      County Transportation Commission.

   -  The County Transportation Commissions have the responsibility

      either directly or through an agreement to document expeditious

      implementation of the TCMs.


   12  Does not include expenditures for Advanced Technology or

Performance-Based Programs which might be funded through Market

Incentives or Innovative funding.

   -  A local Surface Transportation Program (LSTP) shall be developed

      and administered established within each County area consistent

      with state implementing legislation.  LSTP projects will be

      prioritized in each County by the County Transportation

      Commission consistent with the new ISTEA federal legislation

      which requires multimodal flexibility.  Maintenance and

      rehabilitation projects which do not increase capacity are

      exempt from conformity.  Following a transition period not to

      exceed three fiscal years, all LSTP programming decisions must

      be based on a discretionary process; formula apportionments will

      no longer be acceptable.  Each county area will be apportioned

      an amount not less than 110% of the FY 1990-91 FAU apportionment

      for the LSTP program.  There will be a 2-3 year period, as

      needed, to transition from the old FAU program to the new LSTP

      to all projects currently in the adopted RTIP to continue

      without interruption.

   -  County Transportation Improvement Programs shall be submitted to

      SCAG before County Transportation Commission adoption for review

      and comment through the AB 1246 process.  The Regional TIP will

      be adopted by SCAG following its presentation and review by the

      1246 Committee.  SCAG adoption will include a conformity

      finding.  If SCAG is unable to resolve identified conflicts,

      SCAG will adopt the components of the program which are possible

      to adopt and refer back to the respective CTC those projects

      which present conformity conflicts for reconciliation.  In the

      event that the respective CTC is unable to reconcile the

      conflict in a timely fashion, recommendations will be made by

      the 1246 Committee.

                              TABLE 10-1


                               BY COUNTY

                      ($millions in 1995 dollars)

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                              TABLE 10-2


                               BY COUNTY

                      ($millions in 1995 dollars)

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                              TABLE 10-3


                               BY COUNTY

                      ($millions in 1995 dollars)

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                              TABLE 10-4



                      ($millions in 1995 dollars)

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                              TABLE 10-5


                               BY COUNTY

                      ($millions in 1995 dollars)

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                              TABLE 10-6


                       BY COUNTY  -  1995 - 2015

                      ($millions in 1995 dollars)

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Click HERE for graphic.

For Additional information on the financial plan, please see Chapter 2

- Goals, Objectives, Strategies, Finance, and Appendix F - "Financial





   Transportation Control Measures (TCMs) are transportation and land-

   use strategies designed to reduce air pollution from motor vehicles

   by altering the way people make trips, decreasing traffic

   congestion, and promoting alternatives to single-occupant

   vehicles.                 These measures include the use of High

   Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) and bus lanes, automobile use restrictions,

   Advanced Traffic Management Systems on freeways and arterials,

   traffic flow improvement strategies, advanced traffic management

   systems on freeways and arterial streets, transportation pricing

   changes, alteration of local land-use patterns, institution of

   demand management strategies, and efforts to reduce aviation, goods

   movement, and locomotive emissions.

   Both federal and state legislation provide a significant role for

   the development, funding and implementation of TCMs in non-

   attainment areas. It is crucial that the mobility strategies

   contained in the RME provide for the implementation of TCMs in the

   respective air quality plans to ensure that air quality

   improvements continue and the flow of transportation funding to the

   region is maintained. Moreover, requirements at the state and

   federal level specify that all reasonably available TCMs be

   implemented as part of an air quality attainment strategy.  The

   federal attainment status for each non-attainment area is

   summarized in Table 11-1.  The air basin and air district

   boundaries are noted in Figures 11-1, and 11-2, respectively.

                              TABLE 11-1


Click HERE for graphic.

Map:  Air Basins

Map: Air Districts

   The RME contains a broad range of potential strategies available

   for development as TCMs.  However, those strategies selected from

   the RME as TCMS will have to be further refined to meet more

   stringent requirements placed on TCMs - enforceability, detailed

   accountability, and quantifiability.

   The degree to which TCMs are to be relied upon in an area's

   attainment strategy is key in determining the mobile source

   emission budget used for conformity purposes. This budget is

   essentially the maximum amount of emissions which may come from

   mobile sources. In the event this budget is exceeded, both vehicle

   controls and TCMs must be used to mitigate the greater emission


   The TCM Chapter focuses on the efforts being undertaken in the

   region to refine TCMs for inclusion in the federal attainment plan

   submittals due to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) by

   November 15, 1994.  Additional information on both the air quality

   plans, TCM implementation efforts to date, and overarching issues

   that have arisen in developing a comprehensive attainment strategy

   which contains TCMs can be found in the Air Quality Element of the


   TCM Development and Implementation Requirements

   By November 15, 1994, non-attainment areas for ozone are required

   to submit an ozone plan as required by the federal Clean Air Act

   (CAA). For severe and extreme non-attainment areas, these plans

   must contain TCMs. The South Coast Air Basin (SCAB), the Ventura

   County portion of the South Central Coast Air Basin (SCCAB) and the

   Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District are in the process of

   refining the TCMs in the existing Air Quality Management/Attainment

   Plans for their respective areas. In addition, Federal

   Implementation Plans (FIP) are also in the process of being

   developed for SCAB and Ventura County.

   Federal and State Requirements

   While the relative necessity of including TCMs in the overall air

   quality attainment strategy differs by air basin, failure to

   attempt to maximize their use in conjunction with all other

   strategies has the potential to create significant financial

   ramifications for the region. In the federal CAA, Section 179 (b)13 

    provides for highway sanctions, which may be imposed by the EPA

   Administrator. Although safety projects are categorically exempted,

   all remaining projects could be sanctioned.

   Both state and federal requirements exist for TCMs. These are

   contained in the federal CAA, the Lewis-Presley Act for the South

   Coast Air Basin, the California Clean Air Act (CCAA) for the

   Ventura and SEDAB, and in the Intermodal Surface Transportation

   Efficiency Act. These requirements noted in Table 11-2 identify

   actions that must be considered and requirements regarding

   transportation conformity and funding. Any mobility-based

   strategies intended to be included as a TCM in an attainment plan

   must meet these criteria. Moreover, the federal CAA requires the

   implementation of all reasonably available TCMs, as summarized in

   Section 108(f)14   of the CAA and Table 11-3.


   13  42 USC 7408

   14  42 USC 7408(f)(1)(A)

                              TABLE 11-2

                           TCM REQUIREMENTS

Click HERE for graphic.


   Conformity is the process by which the Metropolitan Planning

   Organization (SCAG in its six-county region), ensures that the

   projects, programs and plans adopted, funded and implemented in the

   region provide for the implementation of TCMs contained in the

   applicable State Implementation Plan (SIP) for each air basin.

   Section 176(3)(c)15   specifies that no department, agency, or

   instrumentality of the federal government shall engage in, support

   any way, provide financial assistance for, license or permit, or

   approve any activity that does not conform to an attainment plan

   after it has been approved. Thus, it is critical that the RME

   provide for the implementation of TCMs contained in the applicable

   attainment plans.  The Conformity Working Group has existed since

   January, 1990.


   15  42 USC 7506(c)

                              TABLE 11-3


                            Section 108(f)

   1.  Programs for improved transit

   2.  HOV and bus lanes

   3.  Employer-based transportation management plans

   4.  Trip reduction ordinances

   5.  Traffic flow improvements

   6.  Fringe and corridor park and ride facilities

   7.  Auto use restrictions

   8.  Provision of HOV/shared ride services

   9.  Limitations to encourage use of facilities/areas by pedestrians

       and bicycles

  10.  Bicycle facilities

  11.  Programs to control extended vehicle idling

  12.  Programs to reduce extreme cold start emissions

  13.  Employer-sponsored flexible work schedules

  14.  Programs and ordinances to facilitate alternatives to SOV use

       in planning and development, including new shopping centers,

       special events and other centers 

  15.  Construction of non-motorized and pedestrian facilities

  16.  Programs to encourage voluntary removal of pre-1980 vehicles

   TCM Commitments

   Both the federal Clean Air Act and ISTEA legislation reinforce the

   necessity of firm commitments to implementation of TCM actions.

   Such commitments must be legally enforceable, quantifiable,

   accountable and replicable.


   SCAG, local governments, subregional associations, county

   transportation commissions, and Caltrans play important roles in

   coordinating with both each other and with the appropriate

   AQMD/APCD in developing and implementing TCMs. Nevertheless, it is

   anticipated that the breadth of strategies contained in the RME

   will be more comprehensive than the TCMs ultimately agreed upon in

   the 1994 AQMP. To the extent that differences may occur, the RME

   may need to be amended to refine the scope of the transportation

   actions which implement TCMs.

   South Central Coast Air Basin - Ventura County

   The Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (APCD) is

   undertaking the effort to reexamine the six groups of TCMs

   contained in the 1991 AQMP. These include: ridesharing strategies,

   non-motorized strategies, traffic flow improvements, land-use

   strategies, transit, and clean fuels.

   Since June of 1992, the Ventura County APCD has been holding

   meetings of its TCM Working Group to develop TCM options.

   Significant effort has been undertaken to: provide all participants

   in the process with an understanding of both the state and federal

   requirements; prepare TCM issue papers; identify potential

   strategies and implementation actions; identify sources of funding

   for TCM implementation; describe legally enforceable mechanisms;

   obtain commitments to implement TCM actions; and integrate

   Congestion Management Program (CMP) processes and programs to

   receive air quality credit.

      As currently identified, there exists a strong correlation

      between the facility/capital-based measures contained in the

      attainment strategy and the county's short- and long-term

      expectations for improvement of these facilities. Mutually

      reinforcing actions of Rule 210 (Employee Commute Option) and

      the CMP are also identified. Quantification of potential TCM

      actions has also been a key work effort by APCD staff.


      Southeast Desert Air Basin - Desert Portions of San Bernardino


      In the Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District (MDAQMD)

      portion of the Southeast Desert Air Basin, the effort to develop

      and implement TCMS has focused on implementing the ten measures

      amended into the 1991 AQMP. Rule 1701 helps provide a foundation

      for much of the AQMD's current TCM framework.

      In response to California Air Resources Board (CARB) comments on

      its 1991 Air Quality Attainment Plan and information from its

      newly reformed board, staff at the MDAQMD are reexamining the

      area's attainment strategy, including TCMs. Efforts to date have

      focused on attempting to better identify what proportion of the

      emission and traffic problem are within the MDAQMD's sphere of

      regulatory influence and attempting to identify appropriate


   Southeast Desert Air Basin - Coachella Valley


   As noted in Appendix II-A of the 1991 AQMP for the SCAB, the SCAQMD

   shares responsibility with CARB for the Coachella Valley portion of

   SEDAB. The SCAQMD is primarily responsible for stationary source

   controls while CARB's responsibility lies with on-road vehicle

   emissions and some consumer products.

   The primary pollutant being addressed locally in the Coachella

   Valley through the mobile source reduction strategies is PM10.

   While ozone standards are also exceeded, reductions in ozone

   precursors from the implementation of TCMs are seen as secondary

   benefits from the implementation of congestion relief and demand

   management measures. Substantial effort has been devoted by the

   Coachella Valley Association of Governments to developing a

   Transportation Demand Management (TDM) plan, which can serve as a

   framework, in conjunction with the facilities needed within the

   subregion, for the development and preparation of specific TCM

   strategies. Appropriate non-commute and commute trip reduction

   strategies are being examined. Local government efforts in

   Coachella Valley have been coordinated through CVAG.

   While it is unclear to what extent TCMs could be used to mitigate

   air quality versus congestion impacts, this effort continues being

   studied. One key focal area under examination is more closely

   linking CMP monitoring and mitigation programs with air quality


   Southeast Desert Air Basin - Northern Los Angeles County


   Appendix II-A of the 1991 AQMP for the SCAB describes that the

   SCAQMD shares responsibility with CARB for the Antelope Valley

   portion of SEDAB. The SCAQMD is primarily responsible for

   stationary source controls while CARB's responsibility lies with

   on-road vehicle emissions and some consumer products.

   The North Los Angeles County subregion has identified several key

   areas in which the planning and implementation of mobility

   strategies has occurred which could also potentially credited as

   TCMs. These are: implementation of the county CMP; implementation

   of deficiency plan strategies in areas in which deficiencies are

   identified; SCAQMD's Regulation XV program; and local CEQA review,

   mitigation requirements and monitoring.

   South Coast Air Basin

   Section 40460(b) of the State Health and Safety Code states that

   SCAG is responsible for the development of the TCMs to be included

   in the AQMP for the SCAB.

   Subregional Input into the South Coast Air Basin TCMs

   Subregions were asked for recommendations for how TCMs could be

   refined for the 1994 Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP). This

   process was intended to continue the evolution from strict "command

   and control" implementation of TCM actions to a more performance-

   based, market-oriented approach toward TCM development and


   Through provision of subregional performance targets, use of

   quantification methodologies, and reporting of results, local

   governments and subregions have been able to more clearly identify

   what they can more realistically expect from the implementation of

   different types of traditional TCM actions. More readily identified

   as a result of this effort are: actions which subregional members

   are taking; local government actions they would like to take and

   receive credit for mobility, but for which a barrier to

   implementation or taking air quality credit exists; and actions

   that are not supported under existing circumstances.

   Information provided by subregions have offered recommendations on

   various types of transportation strategies which should be

   contained in the RME. These are reflected in the individual

   chapters. On a broader basis, however, subregions have offered

   several suggestions on how to approach the framework for TCM

   development and implementation which are summarized in Table 11-4.

   Regional Task Forces

   In the summer of 1993, a joint SCAG/SCAQMD TCM Policy Committee was

   formed to consider this information, recommend TCM refinements and

   assist in development of implementation strategies in the South

   Coast Air Basin with SCAG and the SCAQMD. The committee is composed

   of elected officials from each of the subregions in the SCAB, the

   four county transportation commissions, the SCAQMD, and SCAG. A

   companion TCM Technical Advisory Group (TAG) also includes

   representatives from business, environmental interests, Caltrans,

   EPA, and Commuter Transportation services to provide staff input to

   the Policy Committee. This committee structure replaced the TCM

   Working Group formerly established by the SCAQMD.

   In addition, SCAG formed two Task Forces composed of local elected

   officials - an Advanced Transportation Technologies Task Force and

   a Market Incentive Task Force. Both task forces included a member

   of Caltrans. Each Task Force was charged with preparing options to

   be considered for the respective issue areas and making

   recommendations for inclusion in the RME.

   To address emissions for railroads, the Regional Railroad Air

   Quality Emission Reduction Board was formed. Consisting of

   representatives of both public and private sector organizations, as

   well as elected officials from both SCAG and the SCAQMD, the Board

   is responsible for overseeing development of a TCM to reduce air

   quality emissions from railroads.

   When the RME is adopted, transportation strategies which implement

   draft TCMs conveyed to the SCAQMD for discussion in the draft 1994

   AQMP will be included. Finalization of the TCMs is scheduled for

   summer 1994 when SCAG adopts the local government measures and TCMs

   to be included in the AQMP. It is anticipated that the breadth of

   strategies contained in the RME will be more comprehensive than the

   TCMs ultimately agreed upon. To the extent that significant changes

   occur as a part of the continued consensus building process, the

   possibility exists for the need to amend the RME to reflect these


   Overall, the committees were intended to provide the maximum degree

   of flexibility in identifying which strategies and actions are

   believed to be the most appropriate for implementation for mobility

   and air quality purposes. This approach is also intended to

   recognize common interests of neighboring communities in preparing

   compatible options for TCM implementation and also being sensitive

   to important differences in available infrastructure,

   transportation services, land uses, and travel patterns in a

   diverse region.


   The Transportation Control Strategy for the 1994 AQMP is part of a

   comprehensive strategy to improve air quality by reducing emissions

   from mobile sources, enhance mobility by decreasing congestion

   levels, and create new jobs by encouraging and advancing the use of

   new technologies.

   The implementation program for the strategy is based upon the

   Implementation Principles summarized below. The principles

   emphasize looking first to advanced transportation technologies and

   market incentives as the most effective means for bringing about

   the emissions reductions required by state and federal legislation.

   Of key importance to the strategy is the concept of phasing-in

   control measures over time as the conditions emerge for their

   implementation and success. Efforts begin immediately at all levels

   to create favorable conditions for measures to be implemented in

   the long term.

                              TABLE 11-4


Click HERE for graphic.


   The Transportation Control Strategy includes the following

   principles for implementing the Near Term and Long Term Measures:

   (1)   Regional Emissions Budget - A regional "on road" mobile

         source emissions budget would be prepared by SCAG/AQMD.

   (2)   New Technologies - The maximum feasible effort will be made

         to insure the application of technologies, such as

         telecommunications, Advanced Shuttles, and IVHS, to the

         reduction of emissions in the AQMP. This would include

         aggressive support of federal and state requirements for

         cleaner vehicles, fuels, etc.

   (3)   Market Incentives - Every effort would be made to identify

         and implement acceptable market pricing mechanisms which

         would result in the reduction of vehicle trips. This could

         include a revised basis for vehicle registrations, etc.

   (4)   FIP Measures - A determination of new, additional mobile

         source emission reductions that will be achievable through

         the Federal Implementation Plan (FIP) shall be included.

   (5)   After the impacts of (2), (3) and (4) are achieved:

      a. Feasibility and Cost Effectiveness - The emission reduction

         budget for TCMs in the 1994 AQMP will be determined based on

         existing knowledge about the feasibility and cost

         effectiveness of TCM implementation at the regional,

         subregional and local level.

      b. Subregional Targets - Subregional targets would be

         disaggregated from the TCM budget to the county level within

         the South Coast Air Basin.

      c. Other Control Options - Due to the above limitation, regional

         measures and rules capable of subregional implementation

         would not necessarily be designed to make up the remaining

         "on road" mobile source emission budget for the 1994 AQMP;

         depending on the size of the remaining budget, other mobile

         source control options would need to be reexamined.

   (6)   Substitution - All regional rules prepared in (5) would allow

         for "substitution" by a subregional or local implementation

         plan or measure capable of achieving the commensurate level

         of emission reduction regardless of the source of the

         proposed reduction.

   (7)   Delegation - If a rule was proposed that was considered

         necessary to achieve attainment, and it was agreed that its

         application must be applied to a specific source to avoid

         inequitable economic impacts, specific requirements to

         achieve the emissions reduction from the specific source

         covered in the rule (called "delegation" in the Regional Rule

         option) could occur.

   (8)   Special Circumstances Waiver/Subregional Peer Review

         Committee - If a source specific reduction were to be

         required by a "delegable" rule, there would be a provision

         for a special circumstance waiver. This waiver could be

         granted to a subregion or local government for a site

         specific facility within the jurisdiction if it could

         demonstrate that achievement of the emissions reduction would

         create an unfair economic impact and that the subregional or

         local implementation program was capable of achieving the

         commensurate emissions reduction from other sources. Such

         waivers would be granted by AQMD after suitable review by a

         subregional peer review committee consisting of a

         representative from each of the subregions.

   (9)   Uniform Regional Rules - Uniform regional rules should be

         developed in advance of, or simultaneously with subregional

         or local implementation plans.

   (10)  Subregional/Local Plans - Subregional or local implementation

         plans must be ready for implementation when the uniform

         regional rules take effect. However, subregional or local

         implementation plans may be submitted after regional rules

         take effect in accordance with schedules specified in the

         1994 AQMP.

   (11)  Multi-Site Businesses - Multi-site regional business doing

         business in more than one subregion and located within areas

         utilizing subregional or local implementation plans will be

         allowed to choose between subregional or local implementation

         plans and uniform regional rules at the time of the

         preparation of the Subregional or Local Implementation Plan.

   (12)  Monitoring and Enforcement - Monitoring and enforcement of

         subregional or local plans must allow for differences between

         subregional or local agencies and the district, provided that

         the emission reductions from subregional or local

         implementation plans can be independently verified.

   (13)  Minimum SCAQMD Administrative Oversight - Subregional or

         local implementation plans must be structured to utilize a

         minimum of AQMD administrative oversight.

   (14)  Responding to Monitoring Results - If monitoring shows that

         optional subregional or local implementation plans are not

         achieving their emission reduction targets consistent with

         specified schedules, there shall be an opportunity to revise

         the implementation plan and in the event that targets are

         still not achieved under the revised plan, uniform regional

         rules will be implemented in those subregions not

         demonstrating achievement of targets.

   The five categories of transportation programs to be implemented

   under the strategy are identified and briefly described below. 

   Transportation programs include advanced transportation

   technologies, market incentives, transportation improvements,

   indirect source controls, and other measures. These transportation

   programs are described in greater detail in Appendix IV-C to the

   AQMP for the South Coast.

   Advanced Transportation Technologies (ATT)

   ATTs are intended to provide consumers with products and services

   that preserve the same quality of life and convenience of mobility

   they experience today. These measures are expected to achieve the

   greatest emission reductions if an aggressive implementation

   program is put in place to achieve moderate to high levels of

   market penetration.

   Proposed ATTs include:

   -  Zero-Emission Vehicles

   -  Alternative Fuel Vehicles

   -  Telecommunications

   -  Intelligent Vehicle Highway System

   -  Advanced Shuttle Transit

   For example, innovative funding such as a VMT/Emission fee could

   help create the necessary infrastructure to develop a marketplace

   for ATTs to become a reality. Available funding for infrastructure

   improvements, system design or other basic needs related to ATTs

   may include special ISTEA funding, AB 2766 funding, funds currently

   spent by employers to implement Regulation XV trip reduction plans,

   various local proposition funds, demonstration grants or other

   funding sources which may be available. New funds also may be made

   available through implementation of market incentive strategies.

   Creative opportunities to mix funds or provide offsetting revenues

   will be explored to the maximum extent possible, including changes

   in existing funding authority.

   Implementation and advancement of these transportation technologies

   will be facilitated by industry and government "clusters" which

   will develop a strategy to deploy their technology as quickly as

   possible. The feasibility of ATTs will be enhanced by identifying

   client groups, organizations and activity hubs for which initial

   implementation of ATTs would be useful and who could provide

   valuable insight on further improvements based on their experience.

   Market Incentives

   Market incentives help to send a reinforcing message regarding the

   travel changes needed for congestion and air quality improvements.

   Market incentive programs can create a revenue stream to support

   the development of ATTs as well as other infrastructure

   improvements. Market incentive programs can be designed to be

   revenue neutral, so that financial burdens are not placed

   inequitably on disadvantaged segments of the population.

   Examples of possible market incentives include:

   -  Annual VMT/Emissions Registration Fee

   -  At-the-Pump Pricing

   -  Congestion Pricing

   -  Parking Cash-Out

   A Market Incentive Transportation Improvement Fund could be created

   through legislation or a ballot measure. Funds generated could be

   invested in basically three ways: 1) reinvestment in the

   transportation system in economically leveraged uses (including,

   but not limited to, ATTs); 2) addressing equity issues which may

   result from the market pricing; and 3) reinvestment of corridor-

   level revenues into transportation improvements along that

   corridor. This approach responds to both improved overall mobility

   as a key factor in economic vitality and equity for those whose

   participation in the social and economic fabric of the region

   depends on some basic level of mobility.

   Transportation Improvements

   Transportation facility improvements will be implemented through

   the region's Regional Mobility Element/Regional Transportation

   Improvement Plan (RME/RTIP) process and therefore would not be

   enforced through a regional rule. Transportation improvements are

   intended to offer expanded transportation alternatives and to

   improve mobility by reducing congestion and improving access.

   Transportation improvements also will help to provide supporting

   fueling and other infrastructure for some ATT applications.

   Components contained in the measure include capital-based actions,

   such as HOV projects and their pricing alternatives, transit

   improvements (i.e., bus, rail and shuttle), park and ride lots and

   intermodal facilities, and bicycle and pedestrian facilities. Non-

   capital based actions such as rideshare matching and information

   services, congestion plan-based demand management strategies,

   telecommunication facilities and satellite work centers, and

   transit passes are also included. Not included in this measure are

   projects and programs which are exclusively locally funded.

   Indirect Source Controls

   State and federal law enable the AQMD to adopt indirect source

   programs which are aimed at sources that generate or attract

   vehicle trips. Rules to reduce emissions from vehicle trips and

   vehicle miles traveled from the following sources will be


   -  Special Event Centers

   -  Shopping Centers

   -  Airport Ground Access

   -  Schools

   -  Enhanced Rule 1501

   -  Parking Cash-Out

   -  New Development (Part I and II)

   -  General Development (Part I and II)

   Under the 1994 AQMP, the AQMD will adopt rules to implement the

   various Indirect Source Rule (ISR) programs, and provide subregions

   and local governments with an opportunity to take over the programs

   through delegation and substitution if they so choose. These

   programs were chosen for regionwide implementation because it was

   believed that there needed to be some level of consistency between

   jurisdictions. However, the opportunity to tailor the program for

   local characteristics and needs has been retained. As part of the

   rulemaking process, source responsibility for emission reductions

   and/or implementation of supporting actions needs to be addressed.

   Other Measures

   Several other measures have been identified for inclusion in the

   strategy which do not fall neatly into any of the categories

   previously described. Nonetheless, significant efforts have been

   underway that recognize their importance in achieving emission

   reductions. These other transportation control measures include:

   -  Railroad Emission Reduction Measure

   -  Fleet Purchase Rule

   -  Stage I Episode Plans

   -  Increase Driving Age to 18


   Monitoring of transportation control measures is important for

   three reasons. First, monitoring is a federal statutory requirement

   to ensure compliance with CAA and ISTEA.  Second, monitoring can be

   used to assist with duplication of successful strategies for other

   jurisdictions by highlighting effective approaches and methods of

   implementation. Third, the implementation of standardized data

   collection methods for monitoring purposes will provide necessary

   information for the evaluation of mobile source emission reduction

   strategies' effectiveness.

   Although the most appropriate types of monitoring programs will

   depend on the TCMs which are ultimately adopted, several methods

   are available to monitor and evaluate TCM strategies:

   Regional Monitoring and Evaluation

   Monitoring on a regional level can occur in two ways. First,

   overall indicators of travel demand, such as average vehicle

   occupancy, transit mode split, and non-motorized mode split can be

   monitored by periodic origin and destination surveys and by

   evaluating travel data gathered through the U.S. Census Bureau.

   Second, conformity reporting for the Regional Transportation

   Improvement Plan and the Regional Mobility Element requires a

   current evaluation of local implementation efforts on a region-wide


   Subregional Reporting

   Subregional organizations can serve as an important conduit for

   monitoring and evaluating demand management programs.  Through this

   structure, local jurisdictions will be able to provide direction on

   the selection and implementation of appropriate monitoring

   mechanisms for their specific subregion. This structure could help

   to ensure consistency among local programs, to permit comparisons

   of evaluation conclusions, and to realize savings through the

   pooling of monitoring resources.

   Coordination with CMP Monitoring

   CMP statute requires that each county Congestion Management Agency

   (CMA) monitor local jurisdictions to determine if they are

   complying with CMP responsibilities. The CMP provides for a

   reporting process which should be closely integrated. On the local

   level, each jurisdiction must ensure the implementation of TDM

   Ordinance requirements.

   Existing methods have the potential to be utilized for monitoring

   compliance with development standards. Common monitoring methods

   available to local jurisdictions include:

   -  Level of service (LOS) monitoring

   -  Site monitoring prior to issuance of certificate of occupancy or

      business license

   -  Other building site reports or surveys which the local

      jurisdiction may deem appropriate

   -  CEQA mitigation monitoring

   The monitoring system utilized by CMAs can provide a useful tool

   which will allow an assessment of how local jurisdictions are

   implementing actions described in the various air quality

   attainment plans. Additionally, the CMP-required trip reduction-TDM

   ordinances and subsequent analysis of land-use transportation

   implications provide an opportunity to refine and focus the scope

   and funding of control measures programs implemented at both the

   county, subregional, and local levels. The implications for

   regional mobility are important, for monitoring can be used to

   assess the effectiveness of TCM programs and serve as a mechanism

   for assessing progress toward performance goals.


   Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs)

   The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is in the process of

   developing FIPs for both the South Coast Air Basin and Ventura

   County in response to separate court cases. While more information

   will become avavailable when formal rule-making is finalized, the

   presence of FIP action serves as a significant backdrop for the

   development of the 1994 AQMPs -- and, thus, the TCMs -- in both

   Ventura and South Coast.

   The FIP also presents an opportunity to address sources which are

   under federal jurisdiction. These include: trains, planes, trucks,

   ships and some off-road vehicles.

   Several policy issues arise from the FIP. First, the proposed

   relationship between locally developed AQMPs and the FIPs for the

   respective areas is unclear. Will the FIP build off (modularly) of

   the local AQMPs or allow locally developed measures to substitute

   for measures in the FIP? Second, have the options available to

   areas subject to the FIPs been clearly identified, particularly on

   the TCM strategy side, within the context of measures willing to be

   undertaken? Finally, how has public acceptance been for local

   action in a modular FIP versus those locally developed actions

   which could be supported for substitution for FIP actions?

   Contingency Measures

   Both the federal and state Clean Air Acts require that contingency

   measures be adopted in the event adopted control measures do not

   achieve interim goals or maintain adequate progress toward the

   attainment of standards. In the past, contingency measures have

   included TCMs and other strategies which were not considered to be

   feasible at the time of adoption of an attainment plan by the

   district boards and California ARB. Examples include increasing gas

   taxes, limits on vehicle registration, no-drive days, and emission

   charges on vehicle use.

   Another approach for consideration in the region is the use of

   pricing. This approach could include charging for emissions through

   various means (e.g., dirty fuels fees, emission-related mileage

   fees, congestion charges, parking fees) which, in turn, would

   reduce the type of travel behavior that produces emissions, or

   cause a shift in demand away from higher-emitting vehicles toward

   the use of lower-emitting vehicles.  Such "market-based" measures

   would likely require legislative action to be made enforceable.

   Transportation Control Measure Funding

   Funding for TCMs is available through a variety of sources. Perhaps

   most important are two categories of ISTEA funding: Surface

   Transportation Program (STP) and Congestion Mitigation and Air

   Quality Improvement Program (CMAQ). Funding through STP is the most

   flexible, allowing funds to be spent on the National Highway System

   as well as other components of the regional transportation network.

   A subset of the STP funds -- Transportation Enhancement Activity

   funds -- are available to facilitate non-motorized forms of travel.

   CMAQ, on the other hand, was established specifically to fund

   projects that will contribute to the attainment of national ambient

   air quality standards. CMAQ funds are to be distributed based on

   formulae that give priority to ozone and carbon monoxide non-

   attainment areas.

   In May, 1992, SCAG and the county transportation commissions agreed

   on a set of principles, which would guide the programming of STP

   and CMAQ funding, as shown in Table 11-5.

                              TABLE 11-5


                      CMAQ FUNDS RELATED TO TCMS

   -  Programming of STP and CMAQ funds shall be the primary

      responsibility of the respective county transportation

      commission, consistent with federal and state law, the RTP, and

      in conformance with the applicable Air Quality

      Management/Attainment Plan.

   -  Implementation of TCMs required by the Air Quality

      Management/Attainment Plans, shall be a high priority for

      expenditure of all STP and CMAQ funds. Cities and counties are

      eligible to utilize the STP and CMAQ funds for demand management

      and growth management TCMs and will be so advised.

   -  The county transportation commissions have the responsibility

      either directly or through an agreement to document the

      implementation of TCMs.

   Funding for the implementation of specific types of TCM (e.g.

   transit, High-Occupancy Vehicle lanes, rail construction, and

   traffic signalization) is available through a variety of state and

   local funding sources, including gas taxes, bonds, and local sales

   taxes. Additional funding sources include increase in motor vehicle

   registration fees to $4. Local jurisdictions have also relied upon

   local development, parking and permit fees to help provide for

   traffic mitigation strategies, many of which qualify as TCMs.




   Southern California has perhaps the most diverse socio-economic

   landscape in the country, helping shape what the news media has

   labelled "America's First Third World State." Groups from diverse

   ethnic, racial and socio-economic backgrounds impact life

   dramatically in the region, including in the area of


   The Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) is

   required  by federal law to evaluate and analyze regional effects

   of transportation  decisions. Specifically, the Intermodal Surface

   Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991 directs SCAG as the

   Metropolitan Planning Organ- ization (MPO) to examine social and

   economic effects of regional transportation decisions.

   Various other federal legislation such as Title VI of the 1964

   Civil Rights Act and the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

   require that no person shall be denied the benefits of, or be

   subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving

   federal financial assistance.

   Quality of life for all people in the SCAG region, and particularly

   for the elderly, the disabled, the low-income, and other

   disadvantaged people, is integrally linked to successful

   implementation of the region's transportation system.

   Consistent with federal legislation, a primary goal of the 1994

   Regional Mobility Element (RME) is to make the region accessible to

   everyone. This chapter will analyze how and to what degree regional

   mobility goals are impacting disadvantaged and low-income



   The SCAG region currently has a population of approximately 15

   million people, the majority of them ethnic minorities. SCAG's

   forecast indicates this number will increase to 22 million by the

   year 2015. These demographic trends will continue beyond the 2015

   planning period.           Members of minority groups, especially

   Hispanics and African-Americans, comprise an unusually large

   percentage of the low-income and disadvantaged population in the

   SCAG region (see Figure 12-1). Hispanics comprise one-third of the

   population in the region but over half of those live in poverty.

   African-Americans comprise 8 percent of the population and make up

   13 percent of the poor in the region.

   Over one-fourth of the residents in the SCAG region are foreign-

   born, and 30 percent of those immigrants -- 1.8 million -- entered

   the United States between 1985 and 1990. Residents of Asian

   heritage were the fastest growing segment of the population.

                              FIGURE 12-1

Click HERE for graphic.


   The 15 million people in the SCAG region own 10 million motor

   vehicles (see Figure 12-2). Paradoxically, but not unexpectedly,

   over the years, growth in automobile ownership has given rise to

   increased peak-hour traffic congestion and significantly degraded

   mobility for the region.

   Between 1970 and 1990, the number of licensed drivers in the region

   increased from 6 million to 9.5 million, a 58 percent increase.

   People aged 65 or older have increased their share of licensed

   drivers by 130 percent. For the future, the number of licensed

   drivers will increase with the 5-to-17 age group as well as with

   the "baby boomers" (35-44 age group).

   People who have purchased cars and/or secured drivers licenses can

   be expected to be a population largely or frequently dependent on

   automobiles for mobility.

   Non-work trips represent 77 percent of the region's daily trip

   total. Even during the peak period, non-work trips account for 68

   percent of all trips (see Figure 12-3).

                              FIGURE 12-2

Click HERE for graphic.

   Non-work trips comprise three categories: family and personal

   business trips, social and recreational trips, and shopping trips.

   The average travel times for work and non-work trips were 22 and 14

   minutes, respectively.

                              FIGURE 12-3

Click HERE for graphic.



   For most people, a transportation problem may be a work trip that

   is too long or too congested. But for disadvantaged populations,

   the problem can be the inability to find employment because timely

   and reliable public transit is not readily available. This section

   will identify the mode of travel most used by the specified



   According to the 1990 Census, approximately 1.4 million elderly

   (those people aged 65 and over) live in the SCAG region. Seniors

   make up 9.5 percent of the region's population and will grow

   another 54 percent by the year 2015.

   A variety of social and demographic changes will accompany the

   aging of the population.  People will live longer so the need for

   specialized care and other services will increase. These

   demographic changes will also raise significant questions about

   accessible transportation to meet the mobility needs of the


   The majority of trips made by the elderly are not into or out of

   the Central Business District (CBD) but rather between two suburban

   locations. Transit systems that serve the suburbs generally carry

   passengers toward the central city and not to other suburban

   locations where medical and social services may be located.

   Consequently, more than 90 percent of trips made by the elderly,

   nationwide, are made by automobile, and reliance on the private

   vehicle is growing. The elderly drive fewer miles than do the rest

   of the population, but their mileage will likely increase in the

   future for the following reasons:

      -  Based on Department of Motor Vehicles data, the number and

         proportion of the elderly holding driver's licenses has been

         increasing for the past 10 years.  During this period elderly

         people with driver's licenses have increased 56 percent.

      -  Most of the elderly live in urban areas, but their numbers in

         the low-density suburbs where reliance on the automobile is

         both a convenience and a necessity, is increasing.

   The elderly face a number of obstacles that discourage mode shift

   from automobile dependency. First is the very serious concern of

   the elderly with personal security. Real or imagined, these fears

   have a great impact on transportation decisions made by elderly


   Additionally, studies have shown that most of the elderly cannot

   easily change their current car trips into walking trips because

   trip destinations are widely scattered throughout a community.

   However, these same studies show that mass transit could

   effectively be substituted for some automobile trips if transit

   services were conveniently available within four blocks of a

   senior's residence.


   In 1990, 802,331 disabled people with a mobility limitation lived

   in the region. Of the total disabled population, 28 percent were

   elderly. As the disabled population parallels increases in the

   elderly population, there will be new demands for special

   transportation services that are easily accessible, reliable, and

   more importantlyÄaffordable.

   The case for specialized service for the disabled rests on three

   points. First, not every community, urban or rural, has local

   public transit service. Second, public transportation is still

   largely designed to accommodate home-to-work trips but trips by the

   disabled tend to be non-work related. Further, a substantial number

   of non-work trips are made in off-peak hours (see Figure 12-3) when

   there are fewer buses on the road and schedules are different.

   Third, in bad weather passengers in wheelchairs have difficulty

   maneuvering from home to inconveniently located bus stops, which

   may not have shelters.

   The mode choice for disabled people depends on the severity of

   their disability. People who are visually impaired and people who

   have minor physical disabilities are oriented toward the regular

   bus and automobile-passenger modes in terms of preference and use.

   This group travels more frequently and for more purposes (i.e.,

   medical trips, shopping, personal pleasure trips).

   People with severe physical disabilities are oriented toward para-

   transit or demand-responsive service, which offer door-to-door

   service, assistance on and off the vehicle, convenience, comfort,

   and more personalized service.


   According to the 1990 Census, there were 7.3 million women in the

   SCAG region, accounting for 50 percent of the region's population. 

   Five percent of the total female population were female-headed

   households with children under the age of 17.

   Nationwide, according to the 1990 National Personal Travel Survey

   (NPTS), from 1983 to 1990, travel by women increased greatly, from

   6,382 annual miles per female driver in 1983 to 9,528 miles in

   1990Äa 49 percentage change. This increase was due, partially, to

   the increase in women joining the work force.

   The number of trips taken by women for family and personal business

   also grew by 37 percent for the same period.

   For the expanding population of working mothers, the location of

   child-care facilities plays a major role in the transportation mode

   women choose. If a child-care facility is beyond walking distance

   of the home, it is very likely that an auto, if available, will be

   used to drive the child to the care facility. It follows that the

   balance of the commute trip will be by car as well.

   In the case of older children, school location relative to home or

   work site can also impact the mode choice of a working parent. This

   is particularly the case where schools are not within walking

   distance or are not serviced by a school bus or public


   As with seniors, safety and concern for personal bodily harm are

   another major factor in the choice of a transportation mode.

   Specific times, places, and even modes of transportation may be

   considered off-limits by women for fear of personal violence.


   Approximately 2.6 million school-age (ages 5-17) children live in

   the SCAG region.

   In the Los Angeles Unified School District alone (which represents

   the Los Angeles City and 16 other cities and communities), there

   are approximately  641,000 children enrolled in school for

   kindergarten through the 12th grade. Approximately 13 percent or

   80,000 students take district-owned or contracted school buses and

   11,000 take public transportation to school. This would mean that

   approximately 85 percent of the youth either walk to school, are

   driven by parents, or are driving themselves.

      Low-Income Households

   The 1990 Census defines poverty as a family of four with an annual

   income of less than $12,674. In 1989, there were 1.9 million people

   below the poverty level in the SCAG region. This was a 40 percent

   increase over 1979.

   Hispanics comprise one-third of the region's population and more

   than half of the Hispanic population have incomes below the poverty

   line. The African-American population, which constitutes 8 percent

   of the region's population, makes up 13 percent of the region's

   low-income families.


   Although it would seem that workers in low-income households would

   tend to rely more heavily on transit or carpooling, nationally,

   this is not the case. Data from the 1990 NPTS shows a substantial

   shift away from transit for work purposes by populations in


   According to the NPTS, approximately 60 percent of the low-income

   wage earners drive to work. This group also spends a great deal of

   time commuting between home and work.

   On a regional level, travel patterns examined for South-Central Los

   Angeles, where approximately 35 percent of the area population are

   African-American and 60 percent are Hispanic, 23 percent use

   transit.  The remaining 65 percent use the automobile for the work


   In another local example consistent with national trends, the Pico-

   Union District in Los Angeles, which is approximately an 8-square-

   mile community predominately populated by Hispanics (65 percent),

   27 percent of the Hispanic population used public transportation to

   commute to work. Forty percent of the total households in this

   community were households without autos.     

   In addition, SCAG's transportation studies have shown that workers

   in the region commute progressively longer distances from their

   homes to their places of employment. Means of transportation to

   work do not necessarily reflect the supply of transportation

   alternatives to the single occupancy vehicle. Fifteen percent of

   renter-occupied units represent households without vehicles, and a

   total of all occupied renter units are inhabited by residents

   without vehicles. Presumably, an overwhelming number of these

   residents are low-income and obviously  disadvantaged.


   The economy has undergone a restructuring over the last two decades

   in which traditional, unionized, high-wage manufacturing employment

   has declined, while employment has increased in the services sector

   and in high technology manufacturing away from traditional

   industrial cores -- which also are often the residential cores of

   low-income, disadvantaged groups, many of which in Southern

   California happen to be minorities.

   The loss of high-wage jobs in South-Central Los Angeles, for

   instance, contributed to the decline of the area's neighborhoods at

   a time when the community was experiencing a radical demographic

   transformation. The effect on transportation of job losses in areas

   such as South-Central has meant that residents of those communities

   have often had to seek employment longer distances away from their

   neighborhoods, increasing the distance of their commutes.

   The need to economically revitalize disadvantaged communities in

   the region takes on additional significance when its impact on

   future transportation goals and objectives is taken into account. A

   renewed job economy in those communities would significantly reduce

   the daily "worker flight" with all its ramifications on traffic

   congestion, automobile exhaust pollution, and stress on the

   region's transportation system.




   Throughout the years, development in the SCAG region has been

   dispersed along the available freeway network. Traditional zoning

   laws that separate residential, commercial, and industrial land

   uses, have led to the spatial disconnection among different types

   of activities. Ultimately, the freeways and disconnected activity

   areas have been among the factors fostering an ever-increasing

   dependence on the automobile as the main mode of transportation.

   The 1991 federal Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act

   (ISTEA) stresses the integration of land-use policies and

   transportation programs. The legislation provides funding for

   transportation programs that are consistent with short- and long-

   range land-use planning and puts new emphasis on transit,

   pedestrian, and bicycle facilities.               Future land-use

   strategies in the region are aimed at relieving the pressures of

   population and job growth on the Southern California transportation

   system by achieving more balanced developments.

   Land use in the 1989 Growth Management and Mobility Plans

   The jobs/housing balance policy proposed in the 1989 Growth

   Management Plan (GMP) was included in the 1989 Regional Mobility

   Plan (RMP) as a strategy to regain 1984 mobility levels. It was

   also included as a Transportation Control Measure (TCM) in the Air

   Quality Plan (AQMP Measure 17).  

   The 1989 GMP subregional trend projections of jobs and housing were

   modified. Nine percent of the regional job growth between 1980 and

   2010 was redirected from job-rich to job-poor subregions, and 5

   percent of the housing growth was redirected from housing-rich to

   housing-poor subregions.  Increasing the opportunities of

   individuals to take care of most of their daily needs within a

   reasonable commute radius reduced the length of home-to-work trips

   and the amount of congestion.  The forecast 2010 increase in VMT

   was reduced by 8 percent and congestion by 37 percent.

   It should be recognized that the phasing and timing of development

   are as important as achieving the proper jobs/housing balance to

   yield the desired transportation and environmental benefits.

   Equally important is the match between the types of jobs and

   housing prices within a community.

   Job/housing balance, as a growth management and mobility strategy

   and as a Transportation Control Measure (TCM), has been riddled

   with implementation difficulties and has also been the subject of

   an ongoing regional debate. Nevertheless, the promotion of land-use

   development patterns, including job/housing balance, that enhances

   the efficiency of the transportation system remains an important

   goal of the  Growth Management and Mobility elements. A few

   subregions, WRCOG and SANBAG for example, have explicit policies

   that encourage job-housing balance, balanced communities, and

   transit-oriented development.


   Effects of Land Use on Mobility Characteristics

   Understanding the relationship between land use and travel behavior

   helps shape the decision-making process regarding the integration

   of urban form as a mobility strategy. For this purpose, three model

   runs of the regional TRANPLAN model were designed to test the

   sensitivity of travel demand to changes in land-use patterns. All

   three runs were based on identical assumptions and methodologies

   except for socio-economic distributions. This procedure enabled the

   isolation and comparison of the effects of different land-use

   assumptions on travel characteristics and travel demand.

   The first sensitivity run, referred to as the Trend Base Case

   scenario, was based on the Draft Growth Management Forecast

   distributions (July 1993). These were derived through the bottom-

   up, interactive process, reflect most probable market-driven future

   patterns of development and only include local land-use policies.

   The second sensitivity run, referred to as the Urban Form scenario,

   was based on a modification to the Trend Base Case forecast to

   direct future growth in a concentrated way around the existing and

   proposed rail network. To this effect, it was assumed that 35% of

   future housing growth and 45% of employment growth between 1990 and

   2010 would take place within one-half mile of rail stations.

   The third sensitivity run, labeled Job-Housing Balance, was based

   on a different alteration of the Trend Base Case forecast. Under

   this scenario, future growth was assumed to take place in a more

   balance way in all areas of the region. The Trend Base Case

   distribution of growth imply job-housing balance ratios which are a

   marked improvement over the job-housing balance ratios in the 1989

   GMP. Nevertheless, the ratios deteriorate in a few areas. The Trend

   Base Case forecast distributions were modified in areas where the

   job housing balance ratio gets worse in 2010 compared to the 2010

   ratios in the 1989 GMP. The modifications to jobs and housing in

   such areas brought the job housing balance ratios in line with the

   1989 GMP ratios.

   Table 13-1 presents a summary comparison of travel characteristics

   during morning rush hours between the three scenarios. Compared to

   the Trend Base Case, both the Urban Form and Job-Housing Balance

   scenarios show a reduction in vehicle miles traveled and in hours

   of delay as well as an increase in travel speed. The beneficial

   effects of  Job-Housing Balance are more pronounced.  Results of

   the Job-Housing Balance sensitivity run indicate a reduction in

   congestion expressed in hours of delay of close to 20 percent, and

   an improvement of 9.21 percent in speed on the regional highway

   system, compared to the Trend Base Case.

   The data shows modest improvements when the Urban Form scenario is

   compared to the Base Case. These results should be interpreted in

   light of the fact that the regional model was not initially

   designed as a tool to test the relationship between land-use and

   travel behavior. Furthermore, factors such as changes in vehicle

   ownership, increases in pedestrian trips, and reductions in access

   time to transit, which are likely to come about with concentrated

   growth, are not accounted for in the cause-effect chain of

   variables influencing travel behavior.

                              TABLE 13-1


                       DISTRIBUTIONS ON MOBILITY

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Effects of Land Use on Transit Patronage

SCAG commissioned a team of consultants, led by the Urban Innovations

Group, to investigate different theoretical urban form alternatives

relative to regional mobility and air quality objectives, and to

research the interconnection between land use and patronage of the

extensive interregional proposed rail system. The team identified

three cases of transit-oriented Urban Form and created a model for

each case to estimate the modal split for transit.

The analytical method consisted of the following steps: 1) Estimating

how many workers live in transit-oriented zone in 2010; 2) Estimating

how many of these workers also have a job in a transit-oriented zone;

3) Estimating how many of these workers who both live and work in a

transit-oriented zone choose to use transit; 4) Adding baseline

transit use for those outside transit-oriented zones; 5) Comparing to

modal split goal necessary to achieve mobility and air quality


The first case (Case AÄRail Station Concentrated Growth and Rail

Emphasis) directed growth to occur in concentrated development within

walking distance of existing and planned rail stations. The second

case (Case BÄActivity Center Concentrated Growth, and Rail and Express

Bus Emphasis) directed growth to occur in concentrated development

within walking distance of rail stations and in existing activity

centers serviced by intra-center shuttles with express bus routes to

other centers. The third case (Case CÄTrendline Growth and Rail,

Express Bus and Paratransit) implied trendline distributions of

population and employment, and relied on a demand-responsive three-

tiered transit system capable of servicing a large market.


   16  For more detailed information on methodology and results of the

Urban Form study, see the UIG August 9, 1994 report in the Growth

Management Component appendix .

   Analytical results showed that for each of the three cases, modal

   split for transit in the home-to-work travel market increases

   compared to trendline projections. However, concentrated growth by

   itself does not produce the modal split goal of 19 percent, by

   2010, for all home-to-work trips established by the 1989 RMP.

   The estimated modal split for Case A falls in the 5-to-7 percent

   range and for Case B in the 7-to-10 percent range. Case C yields an

   estimated modal split in the 15-to-25 percent range. This suggests

   that a multi-tiered transit system including intra-regional rail

   (e.g., Metrolink), inter-urban bus service, and an intra-urban

   Smart Shuttle Transit, has significant beneficial effects on

   mobility and air quality. This demand-responsive multi-occupant

   vehicle transportation system and fine tuning multiple-use

   neighborhood development will retard private vehicle usage. The

   Smart Shuttle Transit is also beneficial in the non-home-to-work

   market in which it can reduce public expenditures and can create

   sustainable employment and economic development opportunities. In

   addition, a preliminary cost estimate revealed that the combined

   capital and operating costs were competitive in comparison to

   intra-urban rail transit.

   Study conclusions emphasize the importance of land-use decisions

   that complement proposed investments in the Metropolitan

   Transportation System (MTS). Concentrated development and mixing

   transportation-friendly land uses throughout the region will

   increase pedestrian and bicycle access and potentially result in

   VMT reduction due to local trip containment and consolidation. Many

   motorized work- and non-work-related trips may be eliminated and

   replaced by walking or cycling.17

   The effect of such measures on vehicle trips and VMT reductions are

   hard to model. Nevertheless, empirical evidence of the positive

   effects of land-use on transportation abound.18   According to a

   survey of existing studies results conducted by the California Air

   Resources Board (ARB), mixed-use development and increased

   densities can reduce 4-to-11 percent of a region's vehicle trips

   and 20- to- 50 percent of site-specific trips. Ranges encompass

   results obtained from application of different land-use measures in

   diverse environments.


   17  The Urban Form study was revised to address comments received

at meetings of policy and technical advisory committees, and comments

of SANBAG, MTA, NRDC, ARB, City of Brea, and City of Simi Valley.

   18  Calthorpe Associates, "Transit Oriented Development Design

Guidelines", 1992 for the City of San Diego. Holtzclaw/NRDC,

"Explaining Urban Density and Transit Impacts on Auto Use", 1990.

Local Government Commission, "Land Use Strategies for Livable Places",

1992. Transit/Residential Access Center, "Incentives for Trip

reduction Through Location of Housing Near Rail Transit Stations",

1991. Air Resources Board, "CCAA Guidance for the Development of

Indirect Source Control Programs", 1990.



In addition to enhancing regional mobility, achieving clean air

standards, and reducing energy consumption, a land-use component of

the mobility strategy is expected to maximize access to the

transportation system and options to choose among travel modes. Land-

use decisions should also enhance economic development and help avoid

social polarization.

Local jurisdictions are instrumental in the decision-making process

regarding urban form and have the primary authority regarding land use

decisions. The proposed approach reflects the subregional and local

input to the 1994 Plan and Growth Management Element.

The general consensus that emerged from subregional plans19  ,

comments, and recommendations received is that land-use policies

should be part of a strategy to improve regional mobility. The

preferred approach to meet mobility, air quality, and sustainable

economic development is the small scale localized implementation of

land-use measures. This does not necessitate redirecting future

development regionwide, or massive concentration of new development

along transit stations and transit corridors.

Nevertheless, there remains a concern shared by some subregions

(SANBAG, WRCOG, Arroyo Verdugo, City of Los Angeles) that relying on

the small scale localized approach, on  forecast distributions which

reflect most likely market trends and implementation of local policies

is not enough to achieve regional goals. It is also argued that this

approach would promote the status quo by allowing continued growth in

outlying areas which do not adequately provide employment, therefore

putting excessive strains on the transportation system. The inclusion

of policies in the Growth Management Element and 1994 Plan which

encourage promotion of more balanced growth, both at the local and

regional level, could help mitigate transportation and air quality

impacts of growth, reduce infrastructure costs, and contribute to

improvement of the region's quality of life and economic vitality.

This concern was discussed at meetings of SCAG's policy committees who

recognized the importance of regional guidance for the achievement of

balanced communities and suggested that an aggressive educational

strategy as well as a process and program to achieve regional goals

through land use actions be put in place. The public needs to be

informed about the mobility, air quality and quality of life benefits

of urban form policies. The committees also recommended the formation

of a subcommittee to explore the issue of promoting and implementing

balanced development.  Recommendations of this subcommittee will be

incorporated in the Regional Mobility Strategy.


   19  This position reflects the growth management goals and policies

in the Arroyo Verdugo, San Gabriel Valley, VCOG and WRCOG subregional

plans, and comments and recommendations from Los Angeles City, CVAG,

SANBAG, ARB, NRDC, LA County/MTA, SCAQMD, California Environmental

Associates, and City of Simi Valley.

Local Implementation Tools

Changes to existing zoning, general plan amendments, and specific

plans that encourage concentrated, mixed-use, transit- and pedestrian-

oriented development are tools that can be used by local jurisdictions

to foster land-use policies, which, along with adequate Transportation

Demand Management (TDM) and Congestion Management Programs (CMP) and

non-motorized infrastructure, can reduce environmental and economic

costs of motorized trips.

   Local actions to affect site-specific patterns of development

   include allowing the combination of usually separated land uses

   within a single development; increasing development density along

   transit corridors and stations; clustering development to preserve

   open space; achieving better jobs-housing balance at the micro-

   scale; and a better match between the types of jobs and the price

   of housing. Such actions can be carried out through local

   jurisdictions' regulatory powers. The City of Los Angeles' "Land

   Use/Transportation Policy" approved by the City Council in November

   of 1993 provides examples of local actions.

   Design standards improvement actions are another category that

   could affect urban form at the local level. These include the

   provision of physical features that encourage transit use, cut the

   need for cold starts, and encourage pedestrian and bicycle travel.

   Amenities such as bus shelters and bus pullouts to improve transit,

   physical improvements that support pedestrian traffic, the

   construction of bike lanes and provision of secure bike racks, and

   parking arrangements that facilitate ride sharing can help achieve

   the vehicle trip reduction goals.

   Local land-use policies that foster mixed- and higher-density uses

   should target both work and non-work trips. It should also be

   recognized that localized changes in urban form are incremental,

   and their resulting impacts on mode split and congestion are long-

   range, not likely to be felt until after 2010 and 2015.

   Supporting Regional Policies

   The following policies in the Growth Management Component support

   goals and objectives of this proposed land-use component of the


   -  The timing, financing, and location of public facilities,

      utility systems, and transportation systems shall be used by

      SCAG to implement the region's growth policies.

   -  SCAG shall encourage patterns of urban development and land uses

      that reduce costs on infrastructure construction and make better

      use of existing facilities.

   -  SCAG shall support and encourage settlement patterns that

      contain a range of urban densities.

   -  SCAG shall support provisions and incentives created by local

      jurisdictions to attract housing growth in job-rich subregions

      and job growth in housing-rich subregions.

   -  SCAG shall encourage local jurisdictions' efforts to achieve a

      balance between the types of jobs they seek to attract and

      housing prices.

   -  SCAG shall encourage existing or proposed local jurisdictions

      programs aimed at designing land uses that encourage the use of

      transit and, thus, reduce the need for roadway expansion, reduce

      the number of auto trips and VMT, and create opportunities for

      residents to walk and bike.

   -  SCAG shall encourage local jurisdictions' plans that maximize

      the use of existing urbanized areas accessible to transit

      through infill and redevelopment.

   -  SCAG shall support local plans to increase density of future

      development located at strategic points along the regional

      commuter rail, transit systems, and activity centers.

   -  SCAG shall support local jurisdictions strategies to establish

      mixed-use clusters and other transit-oriented developments

      around transit stations and along transit corridors.

   -  SCAG shall encourage developments in and around activity

      centers, transportation corridors, under-utilized infrastructure

      systems, and areas needing recycling and redevelopment.

   The highest priority should be assigned to projects and programs

   designed to maximize the effectiveness of alternatives to solo

   driving. SCAG, having the responsibility to determine

   transportation system conformity, could use this technique to

   ensure implementation of coordinated land-use and transportation

   policies. Communities that demonstrate a commitment to adopt zoning

   and approve development consistent with proposed transportation

   projects would be given priority in funding.




   This chapter summarizes, in table form, the recommendations

   contained in the previous chapters of the Regional Mobility

   Element. These recommendations are based on discussions with county

   transportation commissions and local governments, dialogue at SCAG

   working group meetings, and subregional input.

   A more detailed discussion of the recommendations  listed in the

   following tables can be found in the referenced chapters.         

   The action program includes actions from the following chapters:

   Chapter Three, Regional TDM Program; Chapter Four, Regional Transit

   Program; Chapter Five, Regional Streets & Highways Program; Chapter

   Six, Regional Non-Motorized Transportation Program; Chapter Seven,

   Regional Goods Movement Program; Chapter Eight, Regional Aviation

   System Program; and Chapter Nine, Long Range Corridors.  It is

   important to note that the CIPs of the SCAG Region Congestion

   Management Programs (CMPs) were found to be consistent with the

   1989 Plan.  As such, the CIPs were incorporated into the Regional

   Action Program, as provided for under CMP statute.



                              TABLE 14-3

                         TDM: SHORT/LONG-RANGE

                      PROGRAM (7/20 YEAR PROGRAM)

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                             TABLE 14-4(A)

                          SHORT RANGE PROGRAM

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                             TABLE 14-4(B)


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                              TABLE 14-5A

                      TOTAL MIXED-FLOW & HOV LANE

                MILES TO BE ADDED BY COUNTY 1990 - 2015

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   Source:  1994 Plan

   Note: Includes new facilities, widening of existing facilities and

         toll roads.

   Proposed is defined as open and operational within the given time


                              TABLE 14-5B



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    Source: 1994 Plan

   Long-range Freeway-Based HOV Expansion -- HOV expansion is

   recommended on portions of the Interstates 5, 10, 15, 215, and

   Route 101 beyond 2010.

   Transportation System Management

   System management improvements such as freeway ramp metering,

   installation of changeable message signs, and construction of park-

   and-ride lots along transit corridors are recommended.

   Local Streets and Roads Improvements

   The projects that specifically pertain to the local streets and

   roadways in the CMP CIPs are recommended as the local streets and

   roads improvements.  Table 14-5(C) is a summary of the seven-year

   CIP projects of the 1992 CMPs by the type of improvements as

   related to both regional highways and streets, and to local streets


                             TABLE 14-5(C)

                      SUMMARY OF CMP CIP PROJECTS

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   Sources: 1. San Bernardino Associated Governments, Congestion

            Management Program for San Bernardino County,   November,


      2. Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority,

      Congestion Management Program for Los  Angeles County, December,


      3. Riverside County Transportation Commission, Congestion

      Management Program for Riverside County,  December, 1992

      4. Orange County Transportation Authority, Congestion Management

      Program for Orange County,       December, 1992

      5. Ventura County Transportation Commission, Congestion

      Management Program for Ventura County,    December, 1992

                             TABLE 14-5(D)


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   Note: Corridors have been identified for modeling purposes and to

         determine their potnetial in improving mobility


   Los Angeles and Orange County potential Smart Streets Corridors are

   identified for the purpose of providing cost effective methods in

   reducing congestion.

                             TABLE 14-5(E)

                          LOS ANGELES COUNTY

                       POTENTIAL SMART CORRIDORS

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   Source:  Statewide Smart Corridor Study

                             TABLE 14-5(F)

                             ORANGE COUNTY

                       POTENTIAL SMART CORRIDORS

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       Source:  Statewide Smart Corridor Study

   Safety and Accident/Incident Management

   Caltrans, the county transportation commissions, and the California

   Highway Patrol (CHP) currently employ various incident management

   programs. Mechanisms that allow for recovering the costs of

   incident/accident clean-up through incentive fees should also be

   examined. A study should be done to quantify and evaluate the

   impacts of accidents and incidents on the region's roadways.

   Mechanisms that address the accident/incident cost recovery should

   be investigated for possible implementation.



                              TABLE 14-6


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                             TABLE 14-7(A)


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   20  Passage of the ISTEA resulted in funding for projects

benefitting goods movement activities in the SCAG region.  These

projects are funded out of Urban Access and Mobility, Innovative, and

Intermodal categories, and have been incorporated by reference into

the 1993 RME.

                             TABLE 14-7(B)


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                             TABLE 14-8(A)


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                             TABLE 14-8(B)

                      LONG RANGE AVIATION PROGRAM

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                             TABLE 14-9(A)

                             SHORT RANGE:

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                             TABLE 14-9(B)

                              LONG RANGE:

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The RME is a long-range, 20-year planning document. It is clearly

recognized that the RME is prepared in a dynamic environment involving

population, housing, employment, land-use forecasts, and technological

change.  Revenue streams may become available or may be discontinued. 

Cost assumptions may need to be adjusted.  Therefore, it is necessary

to understand that even though decision-makers fully anticipate and

are committed to the implementation of the RME, amendments to an RME

may be necessary from time to time.

The RME is prepared in accordance with state and federal requirements. 

Both the federal and state requirements recognize that the plan must

be reviewed for efficacy every two or three years and require that a

"new" plan be prepared or that the existing plan be revised. 

Historically, SCAG has prepared a "new" RME approximately every four

years (with an environmental impact statement) and annual or biannual

recertifications which include minor ammendemnts with a"negative

declaration" to meet environmental requirements.

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and the ISTEA of 1991 have added

a new requirement to the metropolitan transportation planning process. 

The RME must be prepared in conformity with the State Implementation

Plan (SIP) for air quality with regard to the appropriate air basins. 

A new conformity statement must also be prepared whenever the RME or

the TIP is amended.21

Recognizing the need for amendments, SCAG will commit to at least one

major amendment, if needed, every two years between plan adoption

dates.  This includes preparation for the conformity statement.  Plan

amendments that do not require preparation of a conformity statement

may be prepared more frequently.


   21  If amendments to the Plan or Program do not affect air quality,

a new conformity statement may not be required.  However, this is not

clearly stated in federal statutes, and it may be necessary to prepare

a conformity report no matter how minor the amendment to the Plan or

Program may be.




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                      RECOMMENDED IN THE 1989 RMP

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   22Total person trips include trips to be eliminated through

telecommuting, working at home, and non-motorized transportation.

   23  Adjusted person trips exclude trips for telecommuting, working

at home, and non-motorized transportation.

   24  Home-based-work trips included home-based-work trips eliminated

through telecommuting, working at home, and non-motorized


   25  Home-based-work trips exclude trips for telecommuting, working

at home, and non-motorized transportation.

   26  Home-base-work (HBW) Average Vehicle Occupancy (AVO) is the

ratio of HBW person trips taken by passenger vehicles to HBW vehicle

trips. Person trips included are those trips that are taken by

passenger vehicles (solo and carpool). Therefore, trips that are

reduced through transit, non-motorized (walking and bicycle)

transportation, working at home, and telecommuting do not impact AVO.

The AVO calculation is consistent with federal, state and SCAQMD


   27  Home-based-work Average Vehicle Ridership (AVR) is the ratio of

HBW total person trips taken by all modes or eliminated through

working at home and telecommuting to HBW vehicle trips. Trip

reductions through transit, non-motorized transportation, and trip

elimination through telecommuting and working at home contribute to an

increase in the AVR. AVR calculation is consistent with California Air

Resources Board and South Coast Air Quality Management District

(SCAQMD) methodologies (see AVR/AVO calculation chart).

   28  AVR for all trips is calculated the same way the HBW.AVR is

calculated except in this case all trips purposes are included.

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   29  Trip tables for the model runs were adjusted to reflect 2.5% of

total person trips reduction through non-motorized transportation

(walking, bicycle).

   30  Total commute trips exclude trips for telecommuting, working at

home, and non-motorized transportation.

   31  Adjusted total commute trips include trips to be eliminated for

telecommuting, working at home, and non-motorized transportation.

   11  The percentage is based on total HBW trips without trips

reduced for telecommuting, working at home, and non-motorized


   12  The percentage is based on total HBW trips with trips

eliminated through telecommuting, working at home, and non-motorized


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   13  Based on modeled areas population which include Los Angeles

County, Orange County, non-desert portion of San Bernardino County and

Riverside County, Ventura County, Coachella Valley, and Victor Valley.

   14  Based on modeled areas population which include Los Angeles

County, Orange County, non-desert portion of San Bernardino and

Riverside County, Ventura County, Coachella Valley, and Victory




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AVO = [(X1+X2+X3+X4)] / [(X1+X2+X3/2+X4/3.3)]

AVR = [SUM(X1..X10] / [(X1+X2+X3/2+X4/3.3)]


This appendix describes, by indicator, the policy and technical

assumptions/directions for the travel demand forecast model runs

reflecting the 94 Regional Mobility Element's (RME) plan alternative

for the years 2000, 2010 and 2015.  The same information for the RME ,

the Regional Transportation Plan, Baseline runs, which were prepared

for Conformity finding purposes, are shown in italics.

1. Purpose

   The 94 RME Plan is to achieve better results than the Draft

   Regional Mobility Element (December 1993) Alternatives, Constrained

   (Plan 2A) or Innovative (Plan 2B), and uses market incentive funds

   to pay for Advanced Transportation Technology, based on principles

   of performance, benefit, and equities.

2. Facilities Networks

   A. Highway Network

      2000 Plan - The RTIP '93-99 Amendment 2000 Build Highway and HOV

                  Networks were utilized.

      2000 Baseline = RTIP '93-99 Amendment 2000 No Build (Includes

      projects under construction and with complete environmental

      impact. Does not include mixed flow projects.)

      2010 Plan - The revised Current Local Plan Network, reflecting

                  recent Caltrans and County Transportation Commission

                  corrections was used for this model run.

   Arterial HOV/bus preemption in Los Angeles City was also included,

   as in the HOV arterial/bus preemption in the Innovative network.

      2010 Baseline = RTIP '93-99 Amendment 2010 No Build (Includes

      projects under construction and with complete environmental

      impact. Does not include mixed flow projects.)

      2015 Plan - The revised Current Local Plan Network,

                  reflecting recent Caltrans and County

                  corrections, was used as the starting

                  point for this model run, with the

                  additional HOV facilities identified for

                  the 2010-2015 time frame by SCAG staff


   Arterial HOV/bus preemption in Los Angeles City was also included,

   as in the HOV arterial/bus preemption in the Innovative network.

      2015 Baseline = RTIP '93-99 Amendment 2010 No Build (Includes

      projects under consideration and with complete environmental

      impact. Does not include mixed flow projects.)

   B. Transit Network

      2000 Plan - The RTIP '93-99 Amendment 2000 Transit Build Network

                  was used.

      2000 Base Line = RTIP '93-99 Amendment 2000 Transit No Build

      (Includes projects under consideration and with complete

      environmental impact. Does not include mixed flow projects.)

      2010 Plan - The Transit network included the currently planned

                  rail and bus systems, with enhanced bus service. 

                  This change was expected to result in a home-to-work

                  regional transit mode split approaching 15%, more

                  than the 10-14% transit mode split in the December

                  RME runs, to reflect the predicted effectiveness of

                  the Smart Shuttles; see also Number 4 below, "3rd

                  Tier Transit (Smart Shuttle)".  In the model

                  network, this improved level of transit service was

                  reflected by combining components of three previous

                  transit networks: (1) the Current Local Plans Rail

                  Transit network [corrections as of 2/7/94], with (2)

                  the Package 5 Sensitivity Run Bus Transit Network,

                  which included additional express bus lines and 10

                  minute headways for the region, without being

                  specific to corridors, and (3) the Innovative Plan

                  (Plan 2B) level of jitney service to transit

                  stations and other activity centers.  This

                  methodology for the Smart Shuttles allowed that

                  service to be applied to both work and non-work

                  trips.  The other route-specific changes that were

                  made to this hybrid transit network were the


            1. Add to Metrolink the following stations for 2010:

               Camarillo and Santa Clarita, Palmdale-Lancaster (post-

               earthquake improvements).

      2010 Base Line = RTIP '93-99 Amendment Transit 2010 No Build

      (Includes projects under consideration and with complete

      environmental impact. Does not include mixed flow projects.)

      2015 Plan - The 2015 Transit network also included the currently

                  planned rail and bus systems, with enhanced bus

                  service to reflect the Smart Shuttle service, in the

                  same manner as for 2010 by combining components of

                  three previous transit networks: (1) the Current

                  Local Plans Rail Transit network [corrections as of

                  2/7/94], with (2) the Package 5 Sensitivity Run Bus

                  Transit Network, which included additional express

                  bus lines and 10 minute headways for the region,

                  without being specific to corridors, and (3) the

                  Innovative Plan (Plan 2B) level of jitney service to

                  transit stations and other activity centers.  The

                  additional other route-specific changes that were

                  made to this hybrid transit network were the


            1. Green Line extension from El Segundo to Torrance

            2. Red Line extension from I-405 to Canoga Park (Warner


            3. Green Line extension from Westchester to Marina Del Rey

            4. Urban Rail line in the 10/60 Corridor, extending east

               from LAUPT to Rosemead

      2015 Baseline = RTIP '93-99 Amendment Transit 2010 No Build.

      (Includes projects under consideration and with complete

      environmental impact. Does not include mixed flow projects.)

3. Land Use/Socio-economic Data (SED)

   The 4/01/94 SED was utilized for the 2000, 2010 and 2015 Plan and



4. 3rd Tier Transit (Smart Shuttles)

   2000 Plan -    No Third Tier transit

   2010 & 2015 Plan  Third Tier transit was modeled through the

                     special transit links to transit stations and

                     activity centers and the region-wide 10-minute

                     bus headways, as discussed above under transit


      Baseline 2000, 2010 and 2015 = No Third Tier transit in any


5  Transportation Demand Management (TDM)

   2000, 2010 & 2015 Plan and Baseline (same assumptions)

   The model runs reflect the impact of the Katz Parking Cash Out

   program and the Federal Energy Bill Transit subsidy was utilized. 

   This was modeled as a $30/person/month transit fare and carpool


6. Reg XV (South Coast Air Basin)/Rule 210 (Ventura County)

   The approach utilized to Model Reg XV and Rule 210 was to simulate

   the impact of employer transportation demand management programs

   through pricing in the SCAG mode split model.  This was done by

   varying the parking cost variable in each Traffic Analysis Zone

   (TAZ) to obtain an auto operating cost that would produce a

   resultant Average Vehicle Ridership (AVR) reflective of the

   anticipated effectiveness of Reg XV and Rule 210 as follows:

   2000 Plan - 60% effectiveness

      2000 Baseline = same (60%)

   2010 Plan - 80% effectiveness

      2010 Baseline = same (80%)

   2015 Plan - 80% effectiveness

      2015 Baseline = same (80%)

7. Non-Motorized Transportation

   2000, 2010 & 2015 Plan and Baseline (same assumptions)

   1% of all trips were eliminated from the total person trip table to

   reflect that 3.5% of these trips will be made by non-motorized

   transportation (walk or bicycle).  The existing model assumes 2.5%

   non-motorized transportation for 1990.

8. Work at Home

   2000, 2010, & 2015 Plan and Baseline (same assumptions)

   4.1% of all trips were eliminated from the home-to-work person trip

   table to reflect that these people will work at home on a daily

   basis.  This is the same assumption included in all the previous

   RME model runs for 2010 for all alternatives.

9. Telecommute

   2000 Plan - 2.7% of all trips were eliminated from the home-to-work

               person trip table to reflect that more people will

               occasionally work at home by telecommuting in the

               future.  This is the same assumption as previously used

               in RTIP model runs.

      2000 Baseline = 2.7%

   2010 & 2015 Plan

   6.3% of all trips were eliminated from the home-to-work person trip

   table to reflect that more people will occasionally work at home by

   telecommuting in the future.

      2010 and 2015 Baseline = 2.7% for 2010 and 2015

10.   Pricing - Market Incentives

   2000 Plan - No market incentives were assumed to be in place by


      2000 Baseline = No market incentives.

   2010 & 2015 Plan

         Vehicle operating costs were adjusted in the mode split model

         to reflect the VMT emissions fee included in the Plan.

      2010 & 2015 Baseline = No market incentives in 2010 and 2015.

11.   Funding

   The funding levels reflected in the RME Proposed Plan reflect

   Reasonably Available Funds plus Innovative Funds, in particular,

   the Market Incentive Transportation Investment Fund.

Advanced Transportation Technology

12.   ATT - Mobility

   2000 Plan and Baseline -

      The impacts of ATT/IVHS on the operations of the highway network

      were modeled in the same way they were in the RTIP '93-99

      Amendment 2000 model run:

      -  2.5% increase in freeway per-lane capacity

   2010 Plan and Baseline -

      The impacts of ATT/IVHS on the operations of the highway network

      were modeled as:

      -  5% increase in freeway per-lane capacity

   2015 Plan -

      The impacts of ATT/IVHS on the operations of the highway network

      were modeled as:

      -  10% increase in freeway per-lane capacity

      -  5% increase in arterial per-lane capacity

      2015 Baseline = 5% increase in freeway capacity only

13.   ATT - Air Quality

   2000 Plan - A set of EMFAC curves reflecting the following mix of

               vehicles was used to calculate emissions:

         -  10% ZEV in 2000

         -  0% Alternate Fuels because EMFAC 7F1.1 can only represent

            ZEV and not alternative fuels.  The SCAQMD is representing

            alternative fuels in the air shed model.

      2000 Baseline = 2% ZEV

   2010 Plan - A set of EMFAC 7F1.1 curves reflecting the following

               mix of vehicles was used to calculate emissions:

         -  50% ZEV in 2010

         -  0% Alternate Fuels because EMFAC 7F1.1 can only represent

            ZEV and not alternative fuels.  The SCAQMD is representing

            alternative fuels in the air shed model.

      2010 Baseline = 10% ZEV

   2015 Plan - A set of EMFAC 7F1.1 curves reflecting the following

               mix of vehicles was used to calculate emissions:

         -  60% ZEV in 2015

         -  0% Alternate Fuels because EMFAC 7F1.1 can only represent

            ZEV and not alternative fuels.  The SCAQMD is representing

            alternative fuels in the air shed model.

      2015 Baseline = 10% ZEV

14.   Peak Period

   2000, 2010 & 2015 Plan and Baseline (same assumptions)

   The peak period was the same as utilized in all of the previous RME

   model runs: 3 hour AM peak and 4 hour PM peak.


Long-range regional transportation financial planning can be useful in

providing decision-makers and the public with estimates of

expectations.  Unfortunately, while the projections can be fairly

accurate over the short term, as the life time of the forecasts are

extended, the projections are subject to more and more assumptions.

In developing the Financial Program for the 1994 Regional Mobility

Element, the following assumptions were made (those associated with

traditional costs and revenues were discussed with the TCC Task Force

on RME Finance):

   -  Revenue projections were developed by existing Federal, State,

      and Local Programs (e.g. ISTEA-Surface Transportation Program,

      ISTEA-FTA Section 9, Local-Transportation Development Act, etc.)

   -  Federal programs funded under the Intermodal Surface

      Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 were assumed to be renewed

      at the same level following expiration of ISTEA (September 30,

      1997).  There was no adjustment made for increasing any of the

      federal programs reflecting inflation nor decreasing any of the

      programs due to federal deficit reduction programs.

   -  Revenues provided by the Federal Government were aggregated and

      divided to each SCAG county using the North/South split-County

      Minimum formulas unless there were specific provisions in either

      Federal or State law requiring different allocation formulas.

   -  State Programs were assumed at the levels provided by the 1992

      Fund Estimate.  It is assumed that during the life of the Plan,

      the state programs will be made whole by further action of the

      Legislature.  State revenues were divided to each County per the

      North/South split-County Minimum formulas unless there were

      different statutory provisions.

   -  Discretionary funding programs were assumed to continue.  It was

      further assumed that discretionary funding would be at

      approximately the same levels for the lifetime of the plan as

      during the FY 1991-1994 period.

   -  Growth in local revenues generated by sales tax measures (Local

      Transportation Funds, Local 1/2 cent sales tax measures) was

      assumed to reflect both population and income level changes.

   -  Local 1/2 cent sales tax measures were assumed to be extended

      through 2015 (Imperial, Orange, Riverside, and San Bernardino

      Counties).  Los Angeles County measures do not expire.  Ventura

      County does not have a sales tax measure.

   -  It is anticipated that motor vehicle fuel taxes collected under

      current law will decline over time as both use of alternative

      fuels and greater fuel efficiencies take place.  To account for

      this decline, state revenues were reduced by 25%.

   -  Costs for projects were provided, as available, by County

      Transportation Commissions.  If CTC figures were not available,

      SCAG staff extended known figures forward.

   -  All costs and revenues are expressed in 1995 dollars.

   -  In calculating estimates for advanced technology, only public

      sector (subsidy) costs were considered.

   -  It was assumed that in 2010, ZEVs (Electric Vehicles) would

      command a 30% market share of new vehicles.  Subsidy costs would

      range from $2,500 to $4,000 per vehicle in the early years of

      the program when fewer vehicles were sold with the subsidy

      phased out in 2010, when approximately 360,000 units per year

      would be sold.  For the plan period, the subsidy costs range

      from approximately $1.9 to $4.9 billion.

   -  It was assumed that in 2010, Alternative Fuel Vehicles would

      command a 34% market share in 2010.  Subsidy costs would begin

      between $750 to $1,500 per vehicle in the early years of the

      program when fewer vehicles were sold with the subsidy phased

      out in either 2005 or 2010.  For the plan period, the subsidy

      costs range from approximately $622 million to $2.1 billion.

   -  Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) public costs total

      between $2.5 and $4.5 billion for the Plan period.

   -  There are no public sector subsidy costs for telecommunications.

   -  In developing the Smart Shuttle or Performance-Based Transit

      Costs, it was assumed that ridership would reach approximately

      one million per work day in 2015 with service beginning in 1996. 

      Each trip would be subsidized at between $2.50 to $5.00 per

      trip.  Costs range from approximately $9.0 billion to $17.3

      billion over the life of the plan with the costs increasing over

      time as ridership increases.

   -  Estimated Market Incentive Revenues based on the VMT/Emissions

      Registration fee assumed 12,000 annual miles per vehicle.  5,000

      miles per vehicle was assumed to be free of any assessment. 

      (The 5,000 mile figure was used for mathematical purposes to

      achieve equity.  Other factors such as geography, income, or

      commercial needs can be considered in constructing the specific




   A measure of the ability or ease of all people to travel among

   various origins and destinations.


   A specific activity to be undertaken as a step toward achieving a

   particular policy/goal.

airport ground access

   Facilities and services for air passengers and air freight handlers

   to reach airport terminals, e.g., highways, public transit, taxi,

   or other means of ground transportation.


   Air Quality Management Plan


   Air Resources Board


   average vehicle occupancy


   average vehicle ridership


   Any road, street, path, or right-of-way that is specifically

   designated in some manner as being open to bicycle travel,

   regardless of whether such facilities are designated for the

   exclusive use of bicycles or are to be shared with other vehicles

   or pedestrians.


   A special roadway designed for exclusive use by buses. It may be

   constructed at, above, or below grade and may be located in

   separate rights-of-way or within highway corridors.

bypass lane

   A reserved traffic lane on a metered freeway entry ramp which

   permits buses or high-occupancy-vehicles to have preferential

   treatment when entering the freeway.


   central business district


   Closed Circuit Television


   California Environmental Quality Act


   Current Local Plan


   Congestion Management System


   council of governments


   consumer price index


   California Transportation Commission


   Coachella Valley Association of Governments


   California Department of Transportation

capital costs

   Nonrecurring or infrequently recurring costs of long-term assets,

   such as land, guideways, stations, buildings, and vehicles.  These

   costs often include related expenses, for example, depreciation and

   property taxes.  See also operating costs.


   An arrangement in which two or more people share the use, cost, or

   both of traveling in privately owned automobiles between fixed

   points on a regular basis; see also vanpool.

carpool lane

   A highway or street lane intended primarily for carpools, vanpools,

   and other high-occupancy-vehicles, either all day or during

   specified periods.  It may be used by other traffic under certain

   circumstances, such as while making a right turn.

Centers-Based Transit Network

   A multimodal transit system that connects regional activity centers

   with their surrounding communities, sub-regional areas, and

   Southern California as a whole.

commercial aviation

   Aircraft activity licenses by state or federal authority to

   transport passengers and/or cargo for hire on a scheduled or

   nonscheduled basis.

commuter rail service

   Short-haul rail passenger service operated within  metropolitan and

   suburban areas.

commuter service

   Transportation provided on a regularly scheduled basis during peak

   travel periods for users commuting to work, school, and similar


Commuter Transportation

   Nonprofit corporation which provides information

Service (Commuter Computer)      and marketing services to aid the

formation of ridesharing.


   Traffic conditions on roads, highways, or freeways which do not

   permit movement on the facility at optimal legal speeds. 

   Characterized by unstable traffic flows.  Recurrent congestion is

   caused by excess volume capacity. Nonrecurrent congestion is caused

   by actions such as special events and/or traffic accidents.

Congestion Management Program(s)

   A state mandated program for counties containing

(CMP)       urbanized areas to provide for statutorily specified     

programs to reduce traffic congestion.


   Regular travel between home and a fixed location (e.g., work,



   In planning, a broad geographical band that follows a general

   directional flow or connects major sources of trips.  It may

   contain a number of streets and highways and transit lines and



   1. The quantity (of transportation) desired. 2. In an economic

   sense, a schedule of the quantities (of travel) consumed at various

   levels of price or levels of service offered (by the transportation


discretionary funds

   Any funds whose distribution is not automatic. Decisions on the

   distribution of discretionary funds are usually made by an agency

   or person on the basis of that agency's or person's choice or

   judgment and in accordance with criteria set out in laws or



   Environmental Impact Report


   Environmental Protection Agency

employment centers

   Locations having a concentration of jobs or employment. Centers may

   vary in size and density, serving subregional or local markets,

   generally meeting the needs of the immediate population.


   In transportation, a normative measure of fairness among

   transportation users.

express bus service

   Bus service with a limited number of stops, either from a collector

   area directly to a specific destination or in a particular corridor

   with stops en-route at major transfer points or activity centers. 

   Express bus service usually uses freeways or busways where they are



   A divided arterial highway for through traffic.  An expressway has

   full or partial control of access and generally has grade

   separations at major intersections.


   Federal Transportation Authority (formally Urban Mass

   Transportation Administration - UMTA)


   A physical structure allowing a transportation mode to operate

   (including travel, as well as the discharge and loading of

   passengers).  This includes highways, guideways, terminals and

   administrative support locations.

feeder service

   1. Local transportation service that provides passengers with

   connections with a major transportation service. 2. Local transit

   service that provides passengers with connections to main-line

   arterial service; an express transit service station; a rail rapid

   transit, commuter rail, or intercity rail station; or an express

   bus stop or terminal.

fixed cost

   A cost that remains relatively constant irrespective of the level

   of operational activity; expenditures that do not vary with output. 

   Examples include land, guideways, rent.

fixed route transit

   Regularly scheduled service operating repeatedly over the same

   street or highway pattern on a determined schedule.

flexible work hours or        A work schedule in which employees can

schedule the flextime

   required number of work hours as they wish.  It differs from

   staggered work hours in that it is the employee, not the employer,

   who sets the starting and ending times.

general aviation

   All aircraft which are not commercial or military aircraft.

grade crossing

   A crossing or intersection of highways, railroad tracks, other

   guideways, or pedestrian walks, or combinations of these at the

   same level or grade.


   In transit systems, a track or other riding surface (including

   supporting structure) that supports and physically guides transit

   vehicles especially designed to travel exclusively on it.

high capacity transit

   Transit systems operating, in whole or part, on a fixed guideway,

   dedicated right-of-way or freeway/express facility using a service

   configuration with the capability to provide a unit capacity of

   15,000 or more trips per hour.

High-Occupancy-Vehicle (HOV)

   Motor vehicle occupied by two or more persons. Vehicles include

   automobiles, vans, buses, and taxis.

High-Occupancy-Vehicle Lane

   Lanes on a highway or freeway which are restricted for use by

   vehicles carrying two or more passengers with the exception of


high-speed rail

   Passenger rail service with operating speeds in excess of 125 miles

   per hour and limited stops (e.g., Japanese Bullet Trains, French

   TGV and experimental maglev systems).

hub-and-spoke (radial)

   Transit routes that radiate outward from and return to a designated

   area/transit facility on a time singly or multi-pulse.  Service may

   be bi-directional or operate uni-directional using a street couplet

   configuration. Radial routes may be inter-connected to form a

   through configuration and reduce transfers required on high demand

   routes. Inter-route transfers are accommodated at a transit

   facility or designated transfer area. Multi-pulses are often off

   set to assure inter-route transfers or to mitigate physical space



   Measures designed to encourage certain actions or behavior. These

   include inducements for the use of carpools, buses and other high-

   occupancy vehicles in place of single-occupant automobile travel.

   Examples include HOV lanes, preferential parking and financial



   The basic facilities, equipment, services, and installations needed

   for the growth and functioning of a community.


   Between or including more than one means of mode of transportation.

Intermodal Surface   Signed into federal law on December 18, 1991, it

provides Transportation Efficiency        authorizations for highways,

highway safety, and mass Act (ISTEA)

   transportation for the next 6 years and serves as the basis of

   federal surface transportation programs.

intersecting grid

   Transit routes, usually bi-directional, provided on parallel

   streets and arterials in east/west and north south/configurations. 

   Boards/alights only at designated stops with transfers accommodated

   at route intersection points.

intra-regional service

   A multi-modal transit service, regional in orientation, connecting

   major transportation facilities in two or more subregional areas

   through the use of high and medium capacity transit, operating in

   whole or part, on fixed guideways, dedicated right-of-ways or

   freeway/express applications.


   Light rail transit

Level of Service (LOS)

   A measure of the congested level on a highway facility based

   primarily on the comparison between the facility's capacity and the

   traffic volume it carries.  Increasing levels of congestion are

   designated along a scale from A to F where A is for best operation

   (low volume, high speed), and F is for worst conditions.

line-haul transit

   Transit operations (generally express) along a single corridor or

   variety of corridors.

local service

   Transit service oriented toward the access, egress and distribution

   within a specific regional activity center, its component transit

   attractor/generators, with a service focused on local Transit Hubs,

   Park-N-Ride and/or Multi-modal Station Facilities.  Services

   operated may include fixed route, para-transit and private-for-hire

   in both traditional and non-traditional applications.

low-capacity transit

   Local fixed-route or para-transit using traditional route

   configurations, delayed/real-time dispatch service operating on

   major/minor arterial and local streets. Levels of service may vary

   substantially by time of day/season of the year with a unit

   capacity which does not usually exceed 3000 trips per hour.


   Metropolitan Planning Organization.

medium-capacity transit

   Transit system operating on a fixed guideway, dedicated right-of-

   way or freeway/express facility using a service configuration with

   the capability to provide a unit capacity of 3000-15000 trips per


mixed flow

   Traffic movement having autos, trucks, buses, and motorcycles

   sharing traffic lanes.


   A transportation system user characteristic referring to the

   ability of the user to take advantage of the available

   transportation service.


   A particular form of travel (e.g., walking, traveling by

   automobile, traveling by bus, or traveling by train).


   A mathematical description of a real-life situation that uses data

   on past and present conditions to make a projection about the


mode split

   The proportion of total person-trips using various specified modes

   of transportation.


   Concerning or involving more than one transportation mode.

multi-modal station

   A developed station facility on a designated rail line designed to

   accommodate user access, egress and distribution between

   transportation modes (primarily local bus/rail/auto) and the intra-

   regional/subregional services components.  Substantial passenger

   amenities, user information services and access to other

   transportation facilities may be provided on site, through shuttles

   or by walk links to adjacent areas.


   Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey

needs assessment

   In transportation planning, a technique of estimating the services

   and facilities needed to satisfy the potential demand for

   transportation service.


   1. In planning, a system of links and nodes that describes a

   transportation system. 2. In highway engineering, the configuration

   of highways that constitutes the total system. 3. In transit

   operations, a system of transit lines or routes, usually designed

   for coordinated operation.

operating costs

   The sum of all recurring costs (e.g., labor, fuel) that can be

   associated with the operation and maintenance of the system during

   the period under consideration.


   Agency responsible for providing a service or operating a facility.

   (e.g., MTA is a transit operator, Caltrans is the operator of the

   State Highway System).

origin-destination study

   A study of the origins and destinations of the trips of vehicles or

   travelers. It may also include trip purposes and frequencies.

para-transit (demand response)

   Public or privately operated, regularly or dispatched on demand

   (delayed or real-time) providing "curb to destination" transit

   service.  Normally used in specialized applications with user

   eligibility limitations (e.g., elderly and/or handicapped) or where

   demand is not sufficient to support fixed route service.

park and ride

   An access mode to transit in which patrons drive private

   automobiles or ride bicycles to a transit station, stop, or

   carpool/vanpool waiting area and park the vehicle in the area

   provided for that purpose (park-and-ride lots, park-and-pool lots,

   commuter parking lots, bicycle rack or locker). They then ride the

   transit system or take a car-or vanpool to their destinations.

peak period

   1. The period during which the maximum amount of travel occurs. It

   may be specified as the morning (a.m.) or afternoon or evening

   (p.m.) peak. 2. The period when demand for transportation service

   is heaviest.

performance indicator

   (Measure of effectiveness) -- A quantitative measure of how well an

   activity, task, or function is being performed. In transportation

   systems, it is usually computed by relating a measure of service

   output or use to a measure of service input or cost.

person trip

   A trip made by a person by any mode or combination of modes for any



   A strategy for charging users. It may be used to ration demand

   (change behavior), cover costs, or achieve other policy objectives.


   Privately operated common carrier or contract service (e.g., taxi-

   cabs, jitneys, private shuttles, subscription bus or van services).


   The contracting of public services or selling of public assets to

   private industry.

public transportation

   Transportation service by bus, rail, para-transit, van, airplane,

   and ship offered by an operator on a regular basis to the general


ramp metering

   Traffic signal control on an entry ramp to a freeway for regulating

   vehicle access.


   The SCAG region comprises Imperial, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside,

   San Bernardino and Ventura Counties.

Regional Transportation

   A 3-7 year multi-modal program of regional

Improvement Program (RTIP)

   transportation improvements for highways, transit and aviation. The

   RTIP consists of projects drawn from the Regional Transportation

   Plan.  The projects are directed at improving the overall

   efficiency and people-moving capabilities of the existing

   transportation system while incrementally being developed into the

   long-range plan.

Regulation XV

   A regulation developed by the South Coast Air Quality Management

   District affecting public and private employers in the South Coast

   Air Basin. It is designed to reduce air pollution by reducing the

   number and type of commuter vehicle trips between home and working

   during the 6:00 a.m. to 10:00 a.m. period.

Rideshare Recognition

   Giving credit and acknowledging ridesharing programs.


   The cooperative effort of two or more people traveling together.

Rule 210

   A trip reduction measure created by the Ventura County Air

   Pollution Control District to reduce air pollution by requiring

   employers to devise and implement methods to reduce single occupant

   vehicle trips by their employees. It targets worksites of 50 or

   more people.

staggered work hours

   A work schedule in which employees' starting and ending times are

   staggered by the employer.

subregional service

   A multi-modal transit service oriented toward access, egress and

   distribution between the regional activity centers within specific

   subregional areas, and providing connectivity to the intra-regional

   services.  Service may be high and/or medium capacity transit

   operated in whole or part on fixed guideway, dedicated right-of-

   ways, major arterial streets and/or freeway/express facility


system management

   Increasing flow of travel on existing facilities through such

   improvements as ramp metering, signal synchronization, and removal

   of on-street parking, among others.  Improvements typically have a

   low capital cost, do not call for major construction and can be

   implemented in a relatively short time frame.


   The conveyance of information by electronic means. Examples include

   the telephone, interactive cable facilities, computer networks and

   video conference centers.

telecommuting programs

   Employers with 100 or more employees developing, coordinating and

   monitoring telecommuting programs.

traffic signal synchronization

   A process by which a number of traffic signals are synchronized to

   affect efficient progression.

transit dependent

   Individual(s) dependent on public transit to meet private mobility

   needs ( e.g., unable to drive, not a car owner, not licensed to

   drive, etc.).

transit facility


   A physical structure developed for the specific use and support of


transit hub facility

   A developed facility or designated area (e.g. transit mall, El

   Monte bus station), on or off street, designed to accommodate

   inter-route transfers and distribution, route and system use

   information, fare medium sales and/or may be adjacent to other

   transportation facilities such as Park-n-Ride.   A transit hub

   facility design can be as basic as an on street "pulse point" with

   minimal passenger amenities or as complex as a regional bus

   facility such as the El Monte Bus Station.

transportation center

   Transportation terminal facilities or other locations where people

   can change their travel from ground transportation to other

   transportation modes (e.g., airports, seaports, spaceports).


   An organized ridesharing arrangement in which a number of people

   travel together on a regular basis in a van. The van may be company

   owned, individually owned, leased, or owned by a third party. 

   Expenses are shared, and there is usually a regular volunteer

   driver.  See also carpool.

Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT)

   1. On highways, a measurement of the total miles traveled by all

   vehicles in the area for a specified time period.  It is calculated

   by the number of vehicles times the miles traveled in a given area

   or on a given highway during the time period. 2. In transit, the

   number of vehicle miles operated on a given route or line or

   network during a specified time period.

vehicle trip

   The one-way movement of a vehicle between two points.



   Mark Brucker, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

   Susan Cornelison, Riverside County Transportation Commission

   Zahi Faranesh, California Department of Transportation

   Dr. Genevieve Giuliano, USC Planning Institute

   David Gunderman, Western Regional Council of Governments

   Cindy Krebs, Orange County Transportation Authority

   Laurie Hunter, Commuter Transportation Services

   Brad McAllester, Metropolitan Transportation Authority

   Wesley McDaniel, San Bernardino Associated Governments

   Katherine Mazarka, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

   Shirley Medina, Riverside County Transportation Commission

   Michael Meyer, Meyer - Mohaddes Associates

   Lisa Mills, Orange County Transportation Authority

   Ray Remy, Los Angeles Area Chamber of Commerce

   Ty Schuiling, San Bernardino Associated Governments

   Sarah Siwek, Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Authority

   Richard Spicer, Southern California Association of Governments,


   Richard Stanger, Southern California Regional Rail Authority

   Chris Stephens, Ventura County Transportation Commission

   Douglas Thompson, California Air Resources Board

   Robert Watson, Natural Resources Defense Council

   Judy Wilson, Metropolitan Transportation Authority


   IVAG        Mayor Pro Tem Linda Britschgi

   CVAG        Mayor Pro Tem William Arenstein

   WRCOG    Councilmember Denise Lanning

   SANBAG      Supervisor Barbara Cram Riordan

   VCOG     Councilmember Frank Schillo

   City of LA     R. Ann Siracusa

   Westside Cities   Councilmember Abbe Land

   Arroyo-Verdugo Vice Mayor George Battery, Jr.

            Vice Mayor Kathryn Nack

   North County      Councilmember David Myers

            Councilmember Jo Anne Darcy

   Orange County  Supervisor Gaddi Vasquez, Chair, OCTA

   San Gabriel Valley   Mayor Terry Dipple

   SELAC    Councilmember Evelyn Woods

            Councilmember Bob Stone

   South Bay Cities  Councilmember Garland Hardeman


   Judy Wright, Claremont, Chair

   Jacki Bacharach, Jacki Bacharach & Associates

   Walter K. Bowman, City of Cypress

   Richard Dixon, Lake Forest

   John Flynn, Ventura County

   Zahi Faranesh, California Department of Transportation

   Candace Haggard, San Clemente

   Mike Hernandez, City of Los Angeles

   Judy Mikels, City of Simi Valley

   Ronald Parks, Temecula

   Bev Perry, Brea

   Larry Rhinehart, Montclair

   Thomas H. Sykes, Walnut


   John Cox, Newport Beach, Chair

   George Battey, Jr., Burbank

   Cynthia Crothers, Moreno Valley

   Jerry Eaves, San Bernardino

   Candace Haggard, San Clemente

   Zahi Faranesh, California Department of Transportation

   Robert Jamison, Artesia

   Richard Kelly, Palm Desert

   David Myers, Palmdale

   Gwenn Norton-Perry, Chino Hills

   Ronald Parks, Temecula



   John Cox, SCAG, Co-chair

   Jon Mikels, SCAQMD, Co-chair

   Tony Carstens, OCTA

   Hal Croyts, Lomita

   Terry Dipple, SGVAC

   Lillian Eaton, Yucaipa

   Zahi Faranesh, California Department of Transportation

   Joan Feehan, La Canada-Flintridge

   Hugh Fitzpatrick, Business Sector

   Lillian Kawasaki, Los Angeles

   Veronica Kun, Natural Resources Defense Council

   Denise Lanning, Moreno Valley

   Richard MacGregor, RCTC

   William Mahoney, La Habra

   Bob Nolan, SANBAG (CTC)

   Phyllis Papen, Diamond Bar

   David Sosa, Caltrans, District 7

   Robert Stone, Bellflower

   Laki Tisopulos, SCAQMD

   Paula Warner, Irvine



   Gene Calafato, SCAQMD

   Susan Cornelison, RCTC

   Zahi Faranesh, California Department of Transportation

   Hugh Fitzpatrick, Business Representative

   Anne Geraghty, California Air Resources Board

   Laurie Hunter, Commuter Transportation Services

   Veronica Kun, Environmental Representative

   Jim Ortner, OCTA

   Ty Schuiling, SANBAG

   Sarah Siwek, LACMTA

   Erika Vandenbrande, SCAG

   Barry Wallerstein, SCAQMD

   Catherine Wasikowski, SCAQMD


   Dee Allen, City of Los Angeles

   Jim Birckhead, Western Riverside COG

   Chuck Ebner, Southeast LA Cities

   Julie Hemphill, SANBAG

   Bill Hodge, Orange County

   Shoghig Kalaydjian, Arroyo Verdugo

   Lawrence Stevens, San Gabriel Valley Cities


SCAG's Transportation and Communications Policy Committee, with the

advice from the RME Strategic Committee, has approved several "working

criteria" to be used in guiding decision-makers on project inclusion. 

Criteria are not designed established priorities.  Projects need not

meet all criteria.

Click HERE for graphic.



   Mandates required ISTEA This chapter summarizes, in table form, the

   recommendations contained in the previous chapters of the Regional

   Mobility Element. These recommendations are based on discussions

   with county transportation commissions and local governments,

   dialogue at SCAG working group meetings, and subregional input.

   A more detailed discussion of the recommendations  listed in the

   following tables can be found in the referenced chapters.

   The action program includes actions from the following chapters:

   Chapter Three, Regional TDM Program; Chapter Four, Regional Transit

   Program; Chapter Five, Regional Streets & Highways Program; Chapter

   Six, Regional Non-Motorized Transportation Program; Chapter Seven,

   Regional Goods Movement Program; Chapter Eight, Regional Aviation

   System Program; and Chapter Nine, Long Range Corridors.  It is

   important to note that the CIPs of the SCAG Region Congestion

   Management Programs (CMPs) were found to be consistent with the

   1989 Plan.  As such, the CIPs were incorporated into the Regional

   Action Program, as provided for under CMP statute.



Click HERE for graphic.

Other Contributors and Staff: Dan Akins, Mike Ainsworth, Shahryar

Amiri, Grieg Asher, Todd Beeler, Terry Bills and GIS Staff, Bill Boyd,

Anne Bresnock, David Butman, Pat Cadena, Erika Canari, Ed Castro,

Nancy Cobb, Paul Hatanaka, Alan Havens, Bob Huddy, Hasan Ikhrata,

Linda Jones, Hong Kim and Modeling Staff, Sriram Krishnamurthy, Eddie

Leroy, Ronsheng Luo, Bill Martinez, Mike Martinez, Michael Meyer,

Dudley Onderdonk, Syliva Patsaouras, David Perez, Cathy Rachal, Edward

Rodriquez, Eric Roth, Victor Ryden, Mahmoud Shams-Ahmadi, David Stein

and RCP Staff, John Strickland, Charlie Wagner, Kurt Walker, Debbie

Whitmore, and Lori Williams.

Address RME comments to:   SCAG, 818 W. Seventh St., Los Angeles, CA

                           90017, (213) 236-1800

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